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Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
Assignment 3 Group Presentation
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Assignment 3 Group Presentation

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Regent University - Group Presentation for Advanced Motivation and Developmental Theory

Regent University - Group Presentation for Advanced Motivation and Developmental Theory

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  • 1. Vygotsky vs. Gibson Pro/Contra PresentationAssignment 3 Advanced Motivation and Developmental TheoryDr. M. Gail Derrick
    Group 4
    Geertina Ellis, Jacqueline Higgins, Margaret Gibson-Gutierrez, Harriet Watkins
  • 2. A Contrast in Theories …
    Welcome to our presentation. In the following slides, we present two starkly different theories of development.
    Eleanor Gibson’s theory of perceptual development and Lev Vygotsky’ssocio cultural approach.
    We hope to demonstrate the pros and cons of each theory and synthesize the works applying them to the K-12 school environment
    Short example of Gibson’s theory
  • 3. CONTRASTOF THEORIES
    Pro
  • 4. Lev SemyonovichVygotsky(1896-1934)
    A socio-cultural approach:
    The child-in-cultural context
  • 5. Vygotsky’s Views
    Children ‘s quantitative and qualitative developmental patterns of behavior vary across cultures, subcultures and/or historical time.
    This is the worldview to which Vygotsky’s socio-cultural approach ascribes (Miller, 2002).
  • 6. Socio-cultural ApproachAssumptions
    • Child – in Activity – in Cultural-Context: the unit of study
    • 7. The Zone of Proximal Development
    • 8. The Socio-cultural Origins of Mental Functioning
    • 9. Cultural Tools Mediate Intellectual Functioning
    • 10. Socio-cultural Methodology
  • Child-in-Activity-in Cultural Context
    Zone of Proximal Development
    • The “zone”: child’s actual
    development level based on
    independent problem solving vs.
    their potential development level
    with help
    • Immature functions that are in the
    process of maturation state are
    defined
    • Learning and internal development
    “awaken” with implicit and explicit
    interaction with peers and others
    through inter-subjectivity or
    common goals
    • Interaction affects behavior
    between children and adults
    through collaboration
    • Focus is on the child-in-context or the child and his/her activities in the larger and sub-culture
    • 11. The child, other people and the cultural setting collectively impact each other and shape experiences
    • 12. The communication of feelings and desires are the essence of cognition and part of everyday life
    • 13. Emphasis is on how children manipulate organized cultural opportunities and activities such as family structures, rituals and narratives
  • The Sociological Origins of Individual Mental Functioning:
    Intermental (between minds)
    Intramental (within minds)
    Internalized in child’s mind
    Interaction between a child, adult or older child
    is
    becomes
    EXTERNAL
    INTERACTION
    INTERNAL
    INTERACTION
    Movement from intermental
    to intramental explains
    • Why child-in-activity—in context is smallest unit to study;
    intermental/intramental activity between child and adult can’t be separated
    • Children internalize problem solving mode that was supported socially
    • 14. Learning to converse with others leads to ability to problem solve within one’s self
  • Cultural Tools that Mediate Intellectual Functioning
    INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING
    PSYCHOLOGICAL TOOLS
    • Counting systems
    • 15. Writing
    • 16. Diagrams, maps, conventional
    signs
    • Works of art
    • 17. Strategies for learning, attending
    or memorizing
    • Language systems: most important
    (Miller, 2002, p. 383)
    • Improve spatial skills
    • 18. Control thought or behavior
    • 19. Transforms elementary mental function into higher mental functions (e.g. attention & logical and abstract thinking)
    • 20. Utilization of cultural system of meaning
    • 21. Connects children
    • 22. Directs thinking
    (Miller, 2002, p. 384)
    Impact on
    • Different cultures emphasize different tools
    • 23. Tools mediate between the child and environment
    Points to Consider
  • 24. Socio-cultural MethodologyMethods to capture the uniqueness of Development and Social Interaction
  • 25. Applications of Vygotsky’s theoryin the K-12 setting
    Problems in the current educational system:
    • too much focus on cognitive development
    • 26. too much focus on imparting knowledge without the possibility of discovery and exploration
    • 27. too much focus on cognitive skill acquisition without meaning
    Solutions based on Vygotsky’ s theory:
    • Assess what a child can learn and understand with help vs. standardized assessment
    • 28. Base schooling on child readiness rather than actual level – teach them where they are
    • 29. Shift from teacher regulated activity to child self-regulation
    • 30. Utilize unconventional tools vs. conventional tools
    (Miller, 2002 p. 406)
  • 31. Eleanor J. Gibson“perceptual learning”
    An ecological approach:
    The function of perception in real life
  • 32. Perception
    • The senses are used to extract information from the environment (Gibson, 1991)
    • 33. Adaptive
    • 34. Active
    • 35. Differentiation, not enrichment is the basis of perceptual learning (Pick, 1992)
    • 36. Focus on distinctive features
    • 37. Discovery of invariant relations
    • 38. Extraction of (higher-order) structure
  • Developmental growth
    • Perception becomes more precise and efficient (Miller, 2002)
    • 39. Attention becomes more active and selective (Miller, 2002)
    Development depends both on a quantitative increase in differentiation
    as well as on discovery of meaning in the environment
    • Utility of objects/
    aspects in the environment for the developing child (Pick, 1991).
    • Reciprocal relationship between child and environment
    • 40. Objective
    • 41. Subjective
    “affordances”
  • 42. Gibson’s ecological theory as a model for K-12 schools
    Reasons why Gibson’s theory should be the basis for curriculum and instruction:
    • Children actively explore their environment in accordance with their motor development
    • 43. Children will seek uses and meaning for objects in the environment
    • 44. Thinking and perceiving are adaptive and functional: our goal is to live our life
  • Applications of Gibson’s theoryin the K-12 setting
    Problems in the current educational system:
    • too much focus on cognitive development
    • 45. too much focus on imparting knowledge without the possibility of discovery and exploration
    • 46. too much focus on cognitive skill acquisition without meaning
    Solutions based on Gibson’ s theory:
    • Learning occurs through the senses (“multimodal stimulation” Miller, 2002)
    • 47. Learning occurs when objects can be utilized in different ways (“discovering contingencies” Miller, 2002)
    • 48. Learning occurs through perception of new things in the same learning environment (“Differentiation”)
  • Contrast of theories
    Con
  • 49. Vygotsky vs. Gibson
    • Dynamic Assessment vs. Static Assessment.
    • 50. Gibson provides a contrasting view of formal assessment with the “visual-cliff” example, proving that children develop depth perception at 6 or 7 months of age.
    • 51. The Zone of Proximal Development is vague.
    • 52. Gibson counters this belief by showing how information for perception is specified in stimulation and the active nature of human perceivers.
    • 53. Culture and Interaction Drives Development.
    • 54. Gibson posits that development happens through the child's perception of the environment and as perception becomes increasingly differentiated.
  • Ecological theory of perceptual development and the socio cultural approach
    Synthesis
  • 55. Comparison & Contrast
    Vygotsky
    Gibson
    • Contextual Worldview
    • 56. Behaviors are explained in social-historical contexts
    • 57. Learning occurs for children with interaction and collaboration with peers, people and the environment
    • 58. Organismic Worldview
    • 59. Children formulate knowledge through affordances & repetitive experiences
    • 60. Learning is individual, based upon successful extraction of affordances
  • Summary
    Vygotsky
    • Development is social in nature and both qualitative and quantitative
    • 61. Development comes form the internalizing of intermental interactions
    • 62. Cultural tools mediate intellectual functioning
     
    Gibson
    • The senses are used to extract information from the environment
    • 63. Development is the process of differentiation in perception
    • 64. Growth is both the increase of differentiation and discovery of meaning in the environment
  • Synthesis of the ecological and socio-cultural approach
    The child is an active explorer and participant in the learning process:
    Learning occurs in social interactions when new meaning is found
    Developmental growth is a dialectical process of differentiation of efficient perception and selective attention
    Assess perceptual level and type of affordances : combination provides zone of proximal development
    Emphasis on culture
    Emphasis on kinesthetic learning and gathering of meaningful information
    Both theories emphasis important aspect of development and offer solid solutions to current problems in the K-12 setting
  • 65. References
    Gibson, E.J. (1991). An odyssey in learning and perception. Learning, development, and conceptual change. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
    Miller, P.H. (2002). Theories of developmental psychology (4thed). New York: Worth Publishers.
    Pick, H.L. (1992). Eleanor J. Gibson: Learning to perceive and perceiving to learn. Developmental Psychology (28)5, 787-794.

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