Special Diets


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Year 13 Edexcel - religion, CHD, diabetes type II, lactose intolerance

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Special Diets

  1. 1. Special Diets <ul><li>- Religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Coeliac </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose Intolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced calorie </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes type 2 </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dietary requirements for all religions </li></ul>
  3. 3. Buddhism <ul><li>Buddhism has around 376 million adherents throughout the world, with approximately 150,000 active Buddhists in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetarian reflecting their non-harm to self and others. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Islam <ul><li>Islam is the 2nd largest religion in the world with over 1 billion followers. There are around 2 millions Muslims in Britain, around 2.7% of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims will not eat pork, or meat which has not been slaughtered according to the prescribed method i.e. Halal, as laid out in the Qur'an. </li></ul><ul><li>The flesh of pig (pork) or food containing lard or other animal fats e.g. Rennet in cheeses or gelatine are forbidden. </li></ul><ul><li>All other meat may be consumed provided it is slaughtered in the Halal manner. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hinduism <ul><li>Hinduism is the third largest world religion with about 900 million Hindus worldwide. In 2001 there were about 559,000 Hindus in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict vegetarians. </li></ul><ul><li>Some may be vegans </li></ul><ul><li>The cow is regarded as the most sacred animal to the Hindus. </li></ul><ul><li>The pig is considered unclean so no pork or pork related products are eaten. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Judaism <ul><li>Judaism has about 13 million followers throughout the world, mostly in USA and Israel. 267,000 people in the UK said that their religious identity was Jewish (2001 census). </li></ul><ul><li>It is forbidden for Jews to eat any meat or poultry that has not been slaughtered in accordance with Jewish religious custom so only meat/poultry certified kosher is eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish must have fins, gills and scales so all shell fish and some other fish are forbidden. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sikhism <ul><li>There are approximately 20 million followers worldwide, most of whom live in the Punjab province of India. The 2001 census recorded 336,000 Sikhs living in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhs are traditionally vegetarian. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Role of retailer <ul><li>Meet customer needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor consumer concerns and address these issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Aid with symbols and as much information as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Halal meat is served in Nando’s and KFC’s in various parts of the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Halal Haribo sweets are sold. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Coeliac <ul><li>Coeliac disease is an autoimmune disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Gluten, which is found in wheat, barley and rye triggers an immune reaction in people with coeliac disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This means that eating gluten damages the lining of the small intestine. </li></ul>Hand out leaflet
  10. 10. Symptoms: <ul><li>diarrhoea </li></ul><ul><li>bloating </li></ul><ul><li>abdominal pain </li></ul><ul><li>The symptoms of coeliac disease are caused by the immune system mistaking gluten for a hostile organism, such as a virus. The immune system attacks the gluten, which can lead to the small intestine becoming damaged. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The disease can affect growth or cause weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Rice, maize and potatoes do not contain gluten so are good sources of starchy carbohydrate , and gluten-free versions of foods such as bread and pasta are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Coeliac disease may affect as many as 1 in 100 people in the UK; some of whom do not know they have the disease. </li></ul>
  12. 12. How have manufacturers responded to this? <ul><li>A wide range of products… </li></ul><ul><li>Biscuits, pasta, cakes, gingerbread, flour, bread, bagels, etc </li></ul>
  13. 13. Lactose intolerance <ul><li>The most common example is lactose intolerance where sufferers have low levels of the enzyme needed to digest lactose (the sugar found in milk.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lactase breaks down the lactose so that it can be absorbed. </li></ul><ul><li>YouTube - Healthy Food Choices for Lactose-Intolerance </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lactose intolerance <ul><li>Children are usually born with sufficient lactase but in some parts of the world, levels fall rapidly after childhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose intolerance is typically seen in adults and is more common in Africa, India and South America. Lactose intolerance is genetic </li></ul><ul><li>In the UK, Ireland and northern Europe, only 5% of the population is affected, to varying degrees. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lactose intolerance <ul><li>If lactase levels are low, undigested lactose passes into the large intestine where it causes pain and diarrhoea. </li></ul><ul><li>People with lactose intolerance can usually drink small amounts of milk, yoghurt and eat cheese without problems. </li></ul><ul><li>If symptoms are severe, alternative sources of calcium must be eaten, mainly Soya. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What are calories? <ul><li>A calorie is a measure of how much energy the nutrients protein, carbohydrate, and fat can supply your body. </li></ul><ul><li>When you eat food, your body uses the food as fuel, burning it to produce energy, or calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Our bodies need calories to function properly - i.e. to stay alive, grow, keep warm and be active. Children also need calories from a variety of foods to grow and develop. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Calories <ul><li>The number of calories you need in a day varies, depending on several factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Activity level </li></ul>14mins 10secs – 18mins 5secs 10 thing you need to know about losing weight
  18. 18. BMR <ul><li>Your body requires a certain number of calories per day to simply stay alive, this is called Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). </li></ul><ul><li>BMR is an estimate for the amount of calories that your body expends by dong continual work, this includes breathing and maintaining body temperature. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Calorie Reduced Diet <ul><li>Men = 2500kcal </li></ul><ul><li>Women = 2000kcal </li></ul><ul><li>So why do people follow a reduced calorie diet? </li></ul><ul><li>To lose weight. If people use more energy than calories they consume they will lose weight. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Why do people Slim? </li></ul><ul><li>How do people Slim? What </li></ul><ul><li>methods? </li></ul>
  21. 21. How have manufacturers responded to this? <ul><li>Information on packaging – traffic light symbols – GDA’s </li></ul><ul><li>Increased range of low calorie ready meals, products </li></ul><ul><li>Offer online weight loss help </li></ul>
  22. 22. Task <ul><li>A friend of yours has been worried about their weight for some time and has tried to cut back on food but has failed to make any headway. They have decided to look at existing products and programmes as they feel this will be the best way forward for them. </li></ul><ul><li>As a food expert, they have asked you to evaluate ‘what’s out there’ and make recommendations as to the best way forward. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Slimming Diet <ul><li>Alli = for adults who are overweight with a BMI of 28 or over, want to lose weight and who understand the importance of sensible eating when they’re trying to lose weight. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Rosemary Conley <ul><li>Combines diet and fitness, low calorie diet and exercise </li></ul>
  25. 25. Weight Watchers <ul><li>Promote healthy eating </li></ul><ul><li>Operates on a points system </li></ul><ul><li>Global brand </li></ul>
  26. 26. Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes Type 2. </li></ul><ul><li>2.8 million people in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Further 1 million but unaware </li></ul><ul><li>What is diabetes? - Diabetes UK </li></ul>
  27. 28. How things should work <ul><li>When you eat, your body breaks food down into glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is a type of sugar that is your body’s main source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>As blood glucose rises, the body sends a signal to the pancreas, which releases insulin. </li></ul>
  28. 29. How does it occur? <ul><li>The pancreas does not produce enough insulin. </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas gland behind stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin = a hormone which makes our body's cells absorb glucose from the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Glucose is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen and stops the body from using fat as a source of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 diabetes is a insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia (too much sugar in the blood) </li></ul>
  29. 30. How serious is it? <ul><li>Type 2 diabetes varies in severity. It can develop at an early stage. </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 is usually treated through diet and exercise, but if it becomes more serious and resistance to insulin increases, some type 2 diabetics also have to take oral medication or use insulin to keep their blood sugar levels stable. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Facts <ul><li>If either parent has type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance of type 2 diabetes is 15% </li></ul><ul><li>If both parents have type 2 diabetes, the risk of inheritance is 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 1 in 3 people with type 2 diabetes develops kidney disease </li></ul>
  31. 32. Find out what the following stand for and mean? <ul><li>DRVs </li></ul><ul><li>EAR </li></ul><ul><li>RNI </li></ul><ul><li>LRNI </li></ul><ul><li>GDA </li></ul>
  32. 33. Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) comprise a series of estimates of the amount of energy and nutrients needed by different groups of healthy people in the UK population. <ul><li>Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Reference Nutrient Intakes (LRNIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Distribution on nutritional requirements in a population Level of requirement Percentage of individuals Low High ERA LRNI RNI 97.5%
  34. 35. RNI’s <ul><li>RNI’s are used for protein, vitamins and minerals, and are an estimate of the amount that should meet the needs of most of the group to which they apply. </li></ul><ul><li>If individuals are consuming the RNI of a nutrient, they are most unlikely to be deficient in that nutrient. </li></ul>
  35. 36. EAR’s <ul><li>The EAR is used in particular for energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy intake has been treated differently. </li></ul><ul><li>If all the members of the group consumed that much energy, many of them would become obese, which would not be desirable. </li></ul>
  36. 37. EAR for energy 9.93 60-64 years 9.71 65-74 years 10.60 51-59 years 8.77 10.60 11.51 9.27 MJ/day 75+ years 19-50 years 15-18 years 11-14 years Males 8.00 51-59 years 7.99 60-64 years 7.96 65-74 years 7.61 75+ years 8.10 19-50 years 8.83 15-18 years 7.72 11-14 years MJ/day Females 8.24 7.16 5.15 3.85 3.44 2.89 2.28 Boys MJ/day 7.28 7-10 years 6.46 4-6 years 4.86 1-3 years 3.61 10-12 months 3.20 7-9 months 2.69 4-6 months 2.16 0-3 months Girls MJ/day Children
  37. 38. LRNI’s <ul><li>An amount of nutrient that is enough for only a small number of people with low needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people will need more than the LRNI if they are to eat enough. </li></ul><ul><li>If individuals are habitually eating less than the LRNI they will almost certainly be deficient. </li></ul>
  38. 39. GDA’s <ul><li>Guideline Daily Amounts (GDAs) can be used to take the guesswork out of what we should be eating, making planning a healthy balanced diet much easier. </li></ul>
  39. 40. What are nutrient requirements? <ul><li>People need many different nutrients if they are to maintain health and reduce the risk of diet-related diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of each nutrient needed is called the nutritional requirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Different for each nutrient and also vary between individuals and life stages. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Why do requirements vary? <ul><li>Person’s age, gender, level of physical activity and state of health. </li></ul><ul><li>Also, some people absorb or utilise nutrients less efficiently than others and so will have higher than average nutritional requirements </li></ul>
  41. 42. How are requirements estimated? <ul><li>In the UK, estimated requirements for particular groups of the population are based on advice that was given by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA) back in the early 1990s. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Does the UK diet provide too much energy? <ul><li>Many people in the UK manage to match their energy intake to their energy expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>People who take in more energy than they require become overweight and if this continues will become obese. </li></ul>
  43. 44. Malnutrition <ul><li>Malnutrition happens when the food a person eats does not give them the nutrients they need to maintain good health. </li></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition commonly occurs when someone does not eat enough food. It can also occur if a person has a poor diet that gives them the wrong balance of the basic food groups. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible for an obese person whose diet consists mainly of fast food to be malnourished because the type of food they eat lacks the nutrients that their body requires. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Who is affected in the UK? <ul><li>In the UK, it is estimated that at least two million people are affected by malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>The groups who are most at risk of malnutrition are: </li></ul><ul><li>the elderly, particularly those who are in hospital or institutionalised, </li></ul><ul><li>people with low incomes or who are socially isolated, </li></ul><ul><li>people with chronic (long-term) disorders, for example eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia, and </li></ul><ul><li>people who are recovering from a serious illness or condition, particularly a condition that affects their ability to eat, such as a stroke. </li></ul>