Hallie Delia Hayley Lisa China


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Ancient China

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  • Hallie Delia Hayley Lisa China

    1. 1. History 1H Period #1 By: Lisa, Hallie, Hayley, Delia
    2. 2. The strong Chinese Dynasties were a large part of China’s success. Some of the most important ones were the Qin, Han, Tang, and Song. Hallie Grossman
    3. 3. Qin The Qin left a legacy of a successful, centralized bureaucracy and set the stage for more great dynasties to follow. It was a unified dynasty under Shi Huangdi’s rule. Shi Huangdi was a great ruler who relied on legalism and created a strong, stable government after the feudalistic Zhou. After his death, the Qin dynasty fell apart and was replaced by the Han dynasty. Han Liu Bang, the first Han ruler reestablished a centralized government in China. He departed from the strict legalism of the Qin, lowered taxes, softened punishments, and brought peace and stability to China. After his death, his son was the emperor but the mother Lü, was the real ruler. After her, Wudi continued Liu Bang’s centralized politics. He was also the longest Han emperor. The Qin and Han
    4. 4. Tang The Tang dynasty was part of a golden age in China. During this age, China was the richest, most powerful and advanced country in the world. The first emperor of the Tang was Tang Taizong, who expanded the empire. After this, the Tang strengthened the central government, and expanded roads and canals begun by the Sue dynasty. This helped pull the country together, making it more unified. The Tang rulers lowered taxes, shared land among wealthy and peasants and made a great bureaucracy and civil service system. This system created a creative and intelligent government. The Tang fell in 907 B.C.E. Song The Song dynasty was also part of China’s golden age. It was smaller than the Tang, but still stable, powerful, and prosperous. During this dynasty, the Song tried to build peace with northern enemies but never regained the lands lost. They also paid annual tributes of silk, tea, and silver, but this did not stop northern threats. The Song fled south in 1126 and created the Southern Song.
    5. 5. Chinese Social Classes <ul><li>Chinese society was divided between nobles and peasants. During the Shang Dynasty, noble families owned the land and sent tributaries to the Shang ruler to have more local control. During Shi Huangdi’s rule in the Qin Dynasty, the class of merchants became prominent. Added by the Tang was the class of the Gentry, wealthy landowners who had positions in the civil service and were educated. </li></ul>China had a stable, but not rigid social structure. There were rulers who took made the system too rigid, but it mostly made China a more stable, successful, unified nation. Hallie Grossman
    6. 6. Chinese Family Life <ul><li>The most important aspect of China was family. It was a patriarchal society, meaning the eldest male was the decision maker and controlled the family’s property. </li></ul>Women were inferior and were forced by society to obey any male, even their own sons! Girls had arranged marriages and their status could only be improved by bearing sons for her family. Loyalty in Chinese society was first to the family and then to the ruler of the Middle Kingdom. Hallie Grossman
    7. 7. Confucius <ul><li>The reason Chinese society put so much emphasis on family life was mainly because of Confucius. </li></ul>Confucius believed that social order, harmony, and an organized government could be found if each Chinese family had the five basic relationships: 1) ruler and subject, 2) father and son, 3) husband and wife, 4) older brother and younger brother, and 5) friend and friend. These relationships entailed a certain kind of behavior from all members of society. Hallie Grossman
    8. 8. <ul><li>Ancient China holds a major place of importance in World </li></ul><ul><li>History and contributed to various aspects of world </li></ul><ul><li>development such as technology and engineering. Ancient </li></ul><ul><li>China had all the characteristics that distinguished it as an </li></ul><ul><li>advanced and complex civilization, including such things as a </li></ul><ul><li>system of record keeping through their written language of </li></ul><ul><li>signs and symbols and its geography which affected much of </li></ul><ul><li>its expansion of ideas and beliefs. Ancient China is an </li></ul><ul><li>example of an early civilization whose Dynastic Circles </li></ul><ul><li>through the ages show us a contrast of how the Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>government functioned in a simpler time. It was a time when </li></ul><ul><li>family and honor meant more than just one individual. In many </li></ul><ul><li>ways, the Chinese were correct when they called their land </li></ul><ul><li>“ the Middle Kingdom”. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    9. 9. Geography <ul><li>• China is located in eastern Asia and borders India, Mongolia, North Korea, </li></ul><ul><li>• The Gobi desert to the north, the Plateau of Tibet in the west, the Yellow Sea to the east, and the Himalayas Mountains to the south provided the Chinese with a secure barrier against invaders. </li></ul><ul><li>• The two Major Rivers in China were the Huang He and the Yangtze. </li></ul><ul><li>• These rivers provided the people with water, transportation, and adverculture . </li></ul>• When the water in the rivers flooded, they mixed with the soil and created a fertile planting dirt called leoss. However, if a river flooded too much, it could sometimes cause lots of property damedges , and even loss of life. For instance, in the 1800’s, one flood alone killed almost 1 million people. Hayley Rothman
    10. 10. Economy <ul><li>• Early settlements grew into cities as early 2000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>• People developed skills and knowledge due to surplus food, </li></ul><ul><li>which allowed for specialized work. </li></ul><ul><li>• Items such as embroidery, silk, cloth, bronzes, religious items, </li></ul><ul><li>weapons, jewelry were produced inside of China. </li></ul><ul><li>• China’s economy centered around trade. </li></ul><ul><li>• Some resources that China contained were iron, coal,and </li></ul><ul><li>wood. </li></ul><ul><li>• The Chinese used their own people as a resource for labor </li></ul><ul><li>and taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>• Trade in China increased after many regions were unified </li></ul><ul><li>together at the start of the Qin dynasty. </li></ul>
    11. 11. The Silk Road <ul><li>The Silk Road is Ancient China’s most well known trade route </li></ul><ul><li>The route started by trading only inside of China, but later extended to as far as what is now Turkey. </li></ul><ul><li>A Chinese traveler named Chan Ch’ien caused the creation of the Silk Road when he supplied the idea to form alliances with central Asian Tribes by expanding the silk trading business to include them. </li></ul>
    12. 12. The Silk Road (continued) <ul><li>At it’s height, the Silk Road spanned up to 7000 miles and covered The Roman and Parthian Empires, Northern India, Central Asia, and of course, China. </li></ul><ul><li>Through the Silk Road other Chinese goods besides silk were spread, and other resources from the Roman Empire, North Western Indian Civilization were obtained. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Chinese Inventions Aiding In Architecture <ul><li>Cast Iron </li></ul><ul><li>The Chinese found out a way to make cast iron and with that they also found out how to make steel from cast iron. They made buildings called cast iron pagodas. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rudder </li></ul><ul><li>A rudder helps to turn planes and boats. Before the rudder was invented, boats had to be turned manually by oar which was a lot of hard work! No one really knows when the rudder was invented. </li></ul>Lisa Marie Carabello
    14. 14. Chinese Inventions Aiding Architecture (continued) <ul><li>Segmental Arch </li></ul><ul><li>A Chinese engineer was the first to realize that an arch wasn’t just limited to being a semi-circle. A bridge could be built which was based on what is known as a segmental arch. It is pictured as having a circle embedded into the ground and the tip only shows. This tip is a segment of a circle, and the arch it forms is a segmental arch. Bridges built like this took less material and were stronger than the ones built as semi-circle. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Technology <ul><li>• The Chinese were masters of technology. Their period of technological flourishing occurred during the Han, the Song and Tang Dynasties. Some inventions were: </li></ul><ul><li>Paper (105 A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>The compass (1100s A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder (800s A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>Printing (868 A.D.-first book) </li></ul><ul><li>Porcelain (late 700s A.D.) </li></ul><ul><li>The mechanical clock (700s A.D.) </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    16. 16. Technology (continued) Delia Taylor
    17. 17. Writing System <ul><li>The Chinese Writing system is very old and dates as back as 2000 B.C.. </li></ul><ul><li>The first evidence of writing in China were found on oracle bones that were used by Kings in the Shang dynasty to make predictions. </li></ul><ul><li>The writing system is made of characters, or picto-graphs, each of which represents one idea rather then one sound </li></ul>
    18. 18. Writing System (continued) <ul><ul><ul><li>To be able to read and have a fairly good vocabulary, you need to know at least 7000 characters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To be a scholar, you need to know at least 10,000 characters. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the early periods of the writing system, only scholars or wealthy people could read because they were the only ones wealthy enough to receive the necessary education. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China was unified by its written language because everyone from different dialects could understand the same written language. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Chinese Character system is one of the oldest known written languages in the world. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The characters have changed very little over time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Writing System (continued) <ul><li>There are four distinct periods of Chinese writing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oracle bones – up to 1000 B.C. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>greater seal – up to 700 B.C. and found on bronze vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lesser seal – found on bamboo scrolls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clerkly script – modern Chinese writing system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Chinese writing systems were foundation for many other writing systems in Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: The Japanese writing systems of Hiragana, Katakana, and Kanji </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Because of so many characters, many in China were illiterate. </li></ul><ul><li>The People’s Republic of China created a simplified version of the Characters in order to make them easier to learn. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Chinese Houses <ul><li>The Population </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the people in ancient China were poor and could not afford elaborate houses. They lived in tiny one room houses made of mud brick and had a dirt floor. Many people today still live like this. </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>The doors would usually faced south as a way to keep out the cold northern wind. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Chinese Houses (continued) <ul><li>Wealthy People </li></ul><ul><li>Rich people had more glamorous houses. People built fancy temples and palaces. All ancient Chinese architecture was built with strict rues of design that made Chinese buildings seem to follow the ideas of Taoism or other Chinese philosophies. </li></ul><ul><li>The first design idea was symmetry: both sides of the building should be the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The second design idea was that the roof would be held up not by the walls, but by columns. </li></ul><ul><li>The curved tile roofs on most fancy Chinese buildings first came into fashion around the times of the Shang Dynasty or the Chou Dynasty. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Government of Ancient China <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Most of Chinese government was based on Confucian ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Legalists </li></ul><ul><li>Legalists thought that a ruler should reward people who carried out their duties and harsh punishments for people who did not. </li></ul><ul><li>Daoists </li></ul><ul><li>Doaists believed that the natural order was the most important of all things and one should become one with nature and follow the Dao. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Religion and Beliefs <ul><li>• Religion and belief systems played a major role In the lives of the Ancient Chinese by impacting the family, especially women, as well as emphasizing china as the source of many technologies used in modern society. </li></ul><ul><li>• There were two basic philosophies followed by </li></ul><ul><li>the Chinese. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    24. 24. Confucianism <ul><li>Confucianism, created by the scholar and Second Sage Confucius (551-479 B.C.) about 2,500 years ago, was a philosophy based mainly upon relationships as well as social standing or power. The basic relationships were: </li></ul><ul><li>Husband to Wife </li></ul><ul><li>Friend to friend </li></ul><ul><li>Elder brother and younger brother </li></ul><ul><li>Father to son </li></ul><ul><li>Ruler to subject   </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    25. 25. Confucianism (continued) <ul><li>The ruler Wudi of the Han Dynasty particularly favored Confucianism so much to the point that he based his whole government around it. Wudi’s bureaucracy led to the civil service system. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius believed that children should follow a law of filial piety that said that one should have respect for their parents and elders. </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that education was a major deciding role for an individual </li></ul><ul><li>Social order and harmony are important. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    26. 26. Daoism/Taoism <ul><li>• Laozi, the founder of Daoism, had a completely different stand on his philosophy. Unlike Confucius, he believed in a form of fate; a universal outside force. Laozi thought that there was not much a person could do to affect their future because it was already mapped out for them. Daoists were taught to go along with the natural flow of things, and to be in tune with nature around them. According to Laozi though, humans were the only creatures who could not achieve said ultimate goal and follow the “Dao”, or the “Way”. Natural order and harmony were more important than social order and which contrasted with Confucianism which was a bit stricter. </li></ul><ul><li>Daoists often contributed to the arts and advances in science </li></ul>The Daoist Principle of Yin and Yang: representing balance Delia Taylor
    27. 27. Buddhism <ul><li>The main religion followed by the Chinese was Buddhism. </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism: was a religion that did not originate in China, but was culturally diffused there from India. Its founder was Siddhartha Gautama who later came to be known as “the Buddha”, meaning “the Enlightened One”. Buddhism taught that the greatest achievement was selflessness. One had to free themselves of all earthly desires. With desires and possession came pain and suffering. It was introduced to China during the Han period (or 100 A.D. and widespread in 600 A.D.), and was adapted to fit the needs and uses of the Chinese people. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    28. 28. Buddhism (continued) <ul><li>The Chinese worshipped the Buddha as a god though he did not want it that way. Through the diffusion, Buddha was depicted differently than his true form (the skinny man who only feasted on five grains of rice and ultimately starved to death). The Chinese saw the Buddha as a man with a large stomach because they believed that one’s wealth could be shown by the size of their stomach. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    29. 29. Chinese Women <ul><li>In the days of Ancient China, social standing meant everything. One could show how wealthy one was on the basis of what one had and what said individual was able to get for themselves. If one was rich enough, one could pay for an education or for the latest in fashion items. Women were the exception to the rule. Regardless of where they were placed in rankings, they would always be subservient to men. </li></ul><ul><li>Confucius said that women were not equal to men. Women were in a position of servitude from birth until death. They were actually considered a man’s private property. After they got married, conditions remained much the same, only instead of being subject to a father they were subject to their husbands. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    30. 30. Foot Binding <ul><li>Beginning in the Sung Dynasty in about 1100 AD, an Emperor felt that his concubines’ small feet were beautiful. It is said that is how the tradition of foot binding began. They would bind a girl’s feet between the age of three and eleven years old. The toes were turned under and pressed against the bottom of her </li></ul>foot. The arches were broken as the foot was pulled straight with the leg. A long, narrow cotton bandage would then be tightly wound around the foot from the toes to the ankles to hold the toes in place. After two or three years, their feet would shrink to about three inches long. Women would later fit their small feet into colorfully decorated shoes. The size of the shoe can be compared to the size of a modern cigarette carton. Delia Taylor
    31. 31. Foot Binding (continued) <ul><li>The shoes caused long term damage to the woman's feet, making the toes break and bend around the foot and cause a large gash cut through the middle of the heel. Women were forced to walk around in such a manner. It was especially a hardship for them when they worked in the fields. Their broken toes prevented them from walking quickly or even walking at all for some. In the fields, women would often crawl . This also prevented them from running away. </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    32. 32. <ul><li>China is still known today as one of the world’s most famous powerhouses. The culture that was born in Ancient China still has a significant affect on modern society. China’s influence has spread throughout, impacting corners of the world as far as the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    33. 33. Delia’s Bibiliography <ul><li>Buckley Ebrey, Patricia. &quot;Buddhism.&quot; A Visual Sourcebook of Chinese Civilization . 23 Nov 2008 <http:/depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/bud/5budhism.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hsu, Ken. &quot;Ancient Chinese Technology.&quot; ThinkQuest . August 1998. 19 Nov 2008 <http://library.thinkquest.org/23062/frameset.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3. &quot;Ancient Chinese Clothing.&quot; History for Kids! 19 Nov 2008 < http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/clothing/ >. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Academy, Himalayan. &quot;The Major Religions of the World.&quot; Dancing with Shiva . 11 Nov 2008 <http:/www.himalayanacademy.com/resources/books/dws/dws_r5_truth-major-religions.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Figure 1. Chinese traditional flower pattern, < http://www.istockphoto.com/file_closeup/object/3760720_chinese_traditional_flower_pattern.php?id=3760720 > </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 2. Symbol of Confucianism,< http://www.himalayanacademy.com/resources/books/dws/dws_r5_truth-major-religions.html > </li></ul><ul><li>7. Figure 3 [daoism]. Image from The Book of Changes ,< http://www.imperialtours.net/occult_universe.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>8. Figure 4 []. The Science and Technology of Ancient China in 18 Art Paintings on Stamps , http://www.kinkadefdc.com/cgi-bin/search.cgi?type=search&search=minor&minor=Art:+Paintings&shop=stamp-search&amount=10&num=60 > </li></ul><ul><li>9. Figure 5. Chinese Foot Binding, Ewan Morgan’s Coffee Table, < http://ewanmorgan.co.uk/2007/05/chinese-foot-binding.html > </li></ul><ul><li>10. Figure 6: Deformed Chinese Foot, < http://forums.sulekha.com/forums/wo-men/Deformed-Chinese-Foot-Chinese-Foot-Binding-198696.htm > </li></ul><ul><li>11. Figure 7: X-ray pictures of someone with bound feet and a diagram, Ancient Chinese clothing, < http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/clothing/ > </li></ul>Delia Taylor
    34. 34. Lisa’s Bibliography 1 st slide: Information : http://www. socyberty .com/History/10-best-inventions-of-the-Ancient-Chinese.112271 http://library. thinkquest .org/23062/frameset.html Picture: http://library.thinkquest.org/23062/frameset.htmlhttp://www1.chinaculture.org/created/2005-05/25/content_69099.htm 2nd slide: Information: http://library. thinkquest .org/23062/arch.html Picture: http://www. historyforkids .org/learn/china/architecture/index.htm 3 rd slide: Information: http://www. historyforkids .org/learn/china/architecture/index.htm Picture http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/northamerica/before1500/architecture/pictures/anasazipithouse.jpghttp://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/architecture/index.htm 4 th slide: Information: http://www. historyforkids .org/learn/china/architecture/index.htm Picture: http://www.molon.de/galleries/China/Shanghai/YuYuan/img.php?pic=115 5th slide: Information: Picture: http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200704/17/archive. http://www.hotelsbible.com/travelblog/23 http://home. cfl . rr . com/crossland/AncientCivilizations/Ancient_China/ancient_china .html
    35. 35. Hayley’s Bibliography <ul><li>Allen, Thomas, Mike Edwards, William Graves , Donald Katz , and Jay Mathews. Journey Into China . 1st ed. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1982. </li></ul><ul><li>CHINA-W1 . New York: Culture Quest, 2006. <http://t3.pacific.edu/teams/M042306/index.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Logos . Australia: OzIDEAS, 2008. <http://home.vicnet.net.au/~ozideas/writchin.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel, J. &quot;The Silk Road: Linking Europe and Asia Through Trade.&quot; Think Quest Library . 15 August 2008. Oracle Education Foundation . 19 Nov 2008 <http://library.thinkquest.org/13406/sr/>. </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Silk Road Map . Tashkent, Uzbeckistan: OrexCA.com Creative Group, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li><http://www.orexca.com/silkroad.php>. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Hallie’s Bibliography http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/ http://www.ancientchina.co.uk/menu.html http://www.42explore2.com/china.htm http://www.historylink101.com/china_history.htm http://wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/ANCCHINA.HTM http://www.idiotica.com/cranium/encyclopedia/content/ancientchina.htm http://members.tripod.com/~civilizations/ancient_china.htm http://www.discoverychannel.co.uk/ancient_china/index.shtml http://library.thinkquest.org/23062/frameset.html http://blue.butler.edu/~jfmcgrat/china/timeline.htm http://www.socyberty.com/History/10-best-inventions-of-the-Ancient-Chinese.112271
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