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  • 1. Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 1
  • 2. When the wind blows across the water, it changes the waters surface, first into ripples and then into waves. Storms can make enormous waves, particularly if the wind, blows in the same direction for any length of time. In this chapter, you can learn what waves are and how they behave.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 2
  • 3. • waves and environment Waves have a major influence on the marine environment and ultimately on the planets climate.• wave motion Waves travel effortlessly along the waters surface. This is made possible by small movements of the water molecules. This chapter looks at how the motion is brought about and how waves can change speed, frequency and depth.• wave groupsIn the real world, waves are not of an idealised, harmonious shape but irregular. They are composed of several interfering waves of different frequency and speed.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 3
  • 4. • waves and wind The wind blows over the water, changing its surface into ripples and waves. As waves grow in height, the wind pushes them along faster and higher. Waves can become unexpectedly strong and destructive.• waves in shallow water As waves enter shallow water, they become taller and slow down, eventually breaking on the shore.• wave groups In the real world, waves are not of an idealised, harmonious shape but irregular. They are composed of several interfering waves of different frequency and speed.• wave reflectionWater waves bounce off denser objects such as sandy or rocky shores. Very long waves such as tsunamis bounce off the continental slope. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 4
  • 5. • Waves in the environment• Wave motion• Waves and wind• Waves entering shallow water• Wave groups• Wave reflection1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 5
  • 6. Waves in the environment• Waves in the environment Without waves, the world would be a different place. Waves cannot exist by themselves for they are caused by winds. Winds in turn are caused by differences in temperature on the planet, mainly between the hot tropics and the cold poles but also due to temperature fluctuations of continents relative to the sea. Without waves, the winds would have only a very small grip on the water and would not be able to move it as much. The waves allow the wind to transfer its energy to the waters surface and to make it move. At the surface, waves promote the exchange of gases: carbon dioxide into the oceans and oxygen out. Currents and eddies mix the layers of water which would otherwise become stagnant and less conducive to life. Nutrients are thus circulated and re-used.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 6
  • 7. Waves motion•1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 7
  • 8. Waves and wind1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 8
  • 9. Waves entering shallow enter1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 9
  • 10. Wave groups1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 10
  • 11. Waves reflection1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 11
  • 12. Surf breaker are classified in 3 types• Spilling breaker• Plunging breaker• Surging breaker1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12
  • 13. Spilling breakersSpilling breakers are a familiar sight onmost beaches. They arise from longwaves breaking on gently slopingbeaches. There are several rows ofbreakers. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 13
  • 14. Plunging breakersPlunging breakers can occur on steeply sloping beaches.There is only one row of breakers. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 14
  • 15. Plunging breakersSurging breakers surge over steeply sloping (butnot vertical) beaches or rocks. Waves break one ata time.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 15
  • 16. Parts of a Wave• Picture of a Wave• Crest and Trough• Amplitude• Wavelength• Frequency1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 16
  • 17. Pictures of a wave• In the above diagram the white line represents the position of the medium when no wave is present. This medium could be imagined as a rope fixed at one end a few feet above the ground and held by you at the other end.• The yellow line represents the position of the medium as a wave travels through it. We simply say that the yellow line is the wave. If we consider the rope mentioned before, this wave could be created by vertically shaking the end of the rope.• Often, when several waves are traveling along a medium as shown above, the continuous group of waves is called a wave train.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 17
  • 18. Crest and Trough• The section of the wave that rises above the undisturbed position is called the crest. That section which lies below the undisturbed position is called the trough. These sections are labeled in the following diagram:1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 18
  • 19. Amplitude• The term amplitude can have slightly different meanings depending upon the context of the situation.• Its most general definition is that the amplitude is the maximum positive displacement from the undisturbed position of the medium to the top of a crest.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 19
  • 20. Wavelength• The wavelength of a wave is the distance between any two adjacent corresponding locations on the wave train. This distance is usually measured in one of three ways: crest to next crest, trough to next trough, or from the start of a wave cycle to the next starting point. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 20
  • 21. • Actually, the a wavelength exists between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next wave in the wave train. A few of such distances are shown.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 21
  • 22. Frequency• Frequency is often not termed as a part of a wave, but it makes sense to introduce its meaning in this section.• Frequency refers to how many waves are made per time interval. This is usually described as how many waves are made per second, or as cycles per second.1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 22
  • 23. Longitudinal and Transverse Wave Motion • Longitudinal Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 23
  • 24. Transverse Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 24
  • 25. Water Waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 25
  • 26. Rayleigh surface waves1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 26
  • 27. 1/12/1999 Author: Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 27