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Stress Management

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  • 1. Al-Qassim University College of engineering General Engineering Department GE 402 Project ManagementStress Management Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 1
  • 2. Definitions of StressStress as a Stimulus (stressors)Stress as a Response (feeling stressed)Stress as a Person-Situation Transaction 1 Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 2
  • 3. A Transactional Definition ofStress Stress is a particular relationship or transaction between a person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his/her resources and/or endangering his/her well being, (Lazarus and Folkman) Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 3
  • 4. Three Types of Appraisals Primary  What is the nature of the stressor? Secondary  What kinds of resources do I posses to cope with this stressor? Reappraisal  Reassessment of situational given additional information and/or secondary appraisal Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 4
  • 5. Situational Factors AffectingStress Predictability  Event Uncertainty Ambiguity Novelty Imminence Controllability Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 5
  • 6. Personal Factors AffectingStress Motives, Goals, & Values Beliefs  Personal Control Beliefs  Existential Beliefs Personality Factors: Hardiness Coping Skills Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 6
  • 7. The Three Cs of Hardiness Challenge Commitment Control Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 7
  • 8. Stages of Coping Anticipatory Impact Post Impact Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 8
  • 9. Types of Coping Problem-Focused Coping Emotion-Focused Coping Seeking Social Support Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 9
  • 10. Possible Coping Resources Physical Resources Beliefs Problem -Solving Skills Social Support Social Skills Material Resources Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 10
  • 11. Characteristics of Effective Coping People with effective coping skills have  complex repertoires (good variety) that are  flexibly applied and  readily generalizable to different situations. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 11
  • 12. Benson’s Relaxation Response Repetition of a word, phrase, mantra, prayer, or muscular activity Passive disregard towards thoughts that will arise Helpful to do in a quiet place and in a comfortable position Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 12
  • 13. Other Useful RelaxationTechniques Smile when you feel tense Have fun and enjoy pressure-filled and adverse situations Intentionally set up stressful situations Slow down and take your time Stay focused on the present Create and stick to a plan Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 13
  • 14. Cognitive Distortions All-or-Nothing Thinking Overgeneralization Mental Filter Disqualifying the Positive Jumping to Conclusions  Mind Reading  Fortune Teller Error Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 14
  • 15. Cognitive Distortions (Continued) Magnification & Minimization Emotional Reasoning Should Statements Labeling & Mislabeling Personalization Depressogenic Attribution Pattern Negative Cognitive Triad Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 15
  • 16. The A-B-Cs (or A-C-Bs) ofEmotion  A – Activating Event  C – Emotional Consequences  Emotional reaction, presumably caused by irrational thinking  B – Beliefs  Usually irrational if dealing with negative emotions Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 16
  • 17. Ellis’ Core Irrational Belief It is awful, terrible, and catastrophic when things are not the way that I demand that they be. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 17
  • 18. Other Common IrrationalThoughts It’s a dire necessity for an adult to be loved by everyone for everything he or she does. One should be thoroughly competent, successful, and achieving in all possible respects. Certain people are wicked and villainous when they do not behave as I demand they should, and for this, they should be punished. If something is threatening, I should be terribly upset about it. Musts and Shoulds Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 18
  • 19. Possible Stress ReducingThoughts I may not like this situation, but I can certainly stand it. Unfortunately, people don’t always behave the way I want them to. That’s the way it goes - no use getting upset. I don’t have to be perfect. I can make mistakes too. I don’t have to please everybody. Life is too short to let things like this make me miserable. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 19
  • 20. Analyzing Thoughts andFeelings(see Smith pages 68-69)  Activating Event  What happened? Describe the event. Emotional Consequences  How did you feel when the event occurred?  What was your emotional response? Beliefs  What were you thinking? What were you telling yourself? Was any of this irrational? Dispute  Counter what you told yourself. What is a more productive thing to think? Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 20
  • 21. Self-Instructional Training:Anticipatory Stage This will be frustrating. Just plan on how you can keep your cool and deal with it without blowing up. No negative self-statements. Just think and plan rationally Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 21
  • 22. Self-Instructional Training:Impact Stage One step at a time. You can handle this. Just relax and think clearly. Keep your cool. No need to loose your tempter. Relax. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 22
  • 23. Self-Instructional Training:Post-Impact Stage Those damn ideas. They’re the problem. When you control them, you control your anger. Go back over what you did. What worked and what can be done better next time? Way to go! It’s getting better every time. You’re controlling the anger instead of it controlling you. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 23
  • 24. Burnout Defined The psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical withdrawal from an activity in response to excessive stress or dissatisfaction. Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 24
  • 25. Symptoms of Burnout Low motivation or  Lowered self-esteem energy  Negative affect Concentration  Mood changes/swings problems  Substance abuse Lack of caring  Changes in values Disturbed sleep  Emotional isolation Physical and/or mental  Increased Anxiety exhaustion  Impaired performance Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 25
  • 26. Personal Factors Contributingto Burnout Extreme dedication to work or profession High trait anxiety Perfectionistic or unrealistic goals Type A personality Too flexible or rigid in coping skills Non-discriminating locus of control Feeling isolated and lonely Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 26
  • 27. Coping with Burnout: TheProcess  Awareness of the Problem  Taking Responsibility for Changing the situation and/or Yourself  Discriminating the Changeable from the Unchangeable  Developing New Strategies and Coping Skills Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 27
  • 28. Coping With Burnout:Specific Recommendations Examining Coping Patterns Goal-Setting and Clarifying Priorities Acknowledging Vulnerabilities Compartmentalizing Work and Non-work Decompression Time/Time Off Maintaining Physical Fitness Building Social Support Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 28
  • 29. Coping With Burnout:Specific Recommendations Challenging/Changing Maladaptive Attitudes and Beliefs Using Burnout to Promote Personal Growth Learn Mental Coping Skills Choose to Have Fun Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 29
  • 30.  THE END Author: Dr. Tomas U. Ganiron Jr 12/20/2010 30