APA Style SheetThe American Psychological Association (APA) style is a general and widely used style in thesocial sciences, education, family and consumer sciences courses and other fields. The citationsbelow are a few specific examples using this style manual; however, its best to consult the fulland most recent edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association,which can be found at Parks Library Help & Information Desk, BF76.7 .P83 2009. See also theAPA website for examples on Electronic References.Print book: Author, A. (Date). Book title in italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. Benbow-Pfalzgraf, T., (Ed.) (2002). Contemporary Fashion. (2nd ed.). Detroit: St. JamesPress.Print encyclopedia or encyclopedic set of volumes such as Something about the Author. Author, A. (Date). Title of article. In Name of Encyclopedia (Vol.#, pp.). Place of Publication:Publisher. Drisscol, S. (1998). Lowry, Lois, 1937-. In Something About the Author (Vol 87, pp. 54-59).Detroit: Gale.Print journal article: Author, A. (Date). Article title. Journal title, vol#, pp#s. Monaghan, P.L. (2002, October 11). A House of their Own. Chronicle of Higher Education,44(7),A56.Newspaper Article: Author, A. (Date). Article title. Newspaper title in italics. PP.#s. Rankin, A. (2002, September 24). Barns are Rapidly Vanishing from Iowas Rural Landscape.Des Moines Register, Iowa Life Section, pp. 1E-2E. If no author, give the title of the article 1st followed by the date, etc.
Internet article based on a print source: Author, A. (Date). Article title [Electronic Version]. Journal Title, vol#, pp#s. Wasburn, N. (2001). Singing in the fall [Electronic version]. Journal of Music Composition17, 23-27.Article in an internet only journal: Author, A. and Author, B. (Date). Article Title. Journal Title, vol# article#. Retrieved Date,from http://www........ Jamison, P. and Sutherland, M. (2000, March). Cultivating positive emotions. Prevention andTreatment, 3 Article 001b. Retrieved October 5, 2002, from:http://www.journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.htmlElectronic copy of an article from a database: Author, A. (Date). Title of the article. Title of the Journal in italics, vol#, pp#s. Retrieveddate??, from Database Name. Borman, W. (1993) Role of early supervision in child behavior. Journal of AppliedPsychology, 78, 443-451. Retrieved October 17, 2001, from Expanded Academic ASAPdatabase.Biography print: Author, A. (Date). Book Title in Italics. Place of Publication: Publisher. Gross, E. & Rottman, F. (1999). Halston: an American original. New York: HarperCollins.Biography in an encyclopedic set: Author, A. (Date). Topic/title of the article in italics. In Name of the Set (vol#, pp#s). Place ofPublication: Publisher. Jones, J.S. (2002). Ehrlich, Amy, 1942-. In Something About the Author (132, 54-59), Detroit:Gale Group.
Unpublished thesis or dissertation: Author, A.B. (Year). Title of Thesis or dissertation in italics. Unpublished master thesis orPhD dissertation, Name of University, Place. Smith, D.D. (1975). How to Find a Book in the Library. Unpublished masters thesis, IowaState University, Ames.Citing Images on the Web: Author, A.B. (Year). Title of the Web page and then title of the subsection. Available [date]from [url] Ivanova, Irina V. (2008) Fine Art Collections: wwwartdesignivanova.com “Art of Kimono” Available September 14, 2008 fromhttp://www.artdesignivanova.com/?Art_of_Kimono.htmlEvaluating Scholarly Books & Articles: InformationLiteracy GuideYou may know that its important to evaluate the information you find on web pages, but itsimportant to remember that you also need to evaluate information found in scholarly books andarticles too. (If youre not sure what is meant by "scholarly article," see our "Scholarly &Popular" Instruction LibGuide.) Critical evaluation of your sources of information has alwaysbeen a fundamental component of research, regardless of the format in which the information ispresented or published. Some of the fundamental questions to consider during evaluation are:AUTHORNote that "author" can be an individual or an organization. Who is the author? Besides knowing author name, look for author credentials (degrees, positions, honors) on the book cover or introduction, or in sidebars or footnotes for articles. Use library catalogs and periodical indexes to try to find out what else the author has written. This can help further determine whether the person is an authority on the topic. If the author is an organization, what can you find out about this organization? For example, what is its purpose?
Reference librarians can help teach you how to find this kind of information using the library. Dont expect everything to be on the web.PUBLISHERKnowing the reputation of a publisher is as important as knowing something about theauthor. Who is the publisher? What else have they published? Do they have specific types of topics or fields in which they specialize? Know the differences between scholarly publishers (such as university presses and scholarly associations) and commercial publishers, government agencies, and other types of publishers. Self-publishing ones own works is often called "vanity" publishing. The work usually lacks any kind of outside editing or review. Consider whether it makes a difference which type of publisher has presented the work in question.PEER REVIEWSubject experts judge the quality and accuracy of submitted writings before theyre published. Scholarly works - both books and research articles - undergo extensive editing and review, often by a panel of experts and editors, before theyre published. Any editorial questions must be resolved by the author before the work can be accepted for publication. Edited works and research journals generally will list the names of the editors or editorial board who are responsible for reviewing materials before theyre published. If there are editors listed for the work youre consulting, who are they, and what are their credentials? Peer-review and editing is an attempt to control the quality and the accuracy of publications. Works that do not meet the standards of a given publisher, a peer-reviewed journal, or an editor are not accepted for publication.PURPOSEAn authors purpose should be clear. Sometimes authors try to present opinion as fact inorder to sell or persuade. Does the book / journal article present fact or opinion? What is its purpose? To inform? To sell? To persuade? Is the material objective, showing multiple sides of an issue? Bias is not necessarily reason to reject a source - but be sure that you can identify it. Who is the intended audience? Advanced researchers in a field? Elementary school students? Members of a particular organization or viewpoint?CONTENTConsider the information presented in the work, and how it is organized. Is the coverage of the topic complete? Does it leave out important information? Is the approach basic or advanced? Does it offer more than one perspective? Research articles and scholarly books should include bibliographies, or lists of works consulted. Consider the length, detail, and accuracy of the bibliography in relation to the
work in question. Does the bibliography seem comprehensive, or are just a few sources mentioned?USEFULNESSConsider whether the information is what you need for your purposes. Any particular book or journal article can be a wonderful source for some purposes, but not relevant for others. Consider what you need the information for, and be critical - dont choose your sources based on how easily you found them. Make sure the content is useful and relevant to your topic. Does the book / journal article cover the topic you need? Is that coverage sufficient, or is it too superficial (or too detailed) for your purposes?ACCURACYVerify information before you use it in your own research or class assignments. Is the book or article well written and well-edited? Are there noticeable mistakes in spelling or grammar? Is it written in a style that you would expect for the topic and audience? In research books and articles, is there a bibliography, or footnotes, or other means of listing sources the author consulted?CURRENCYKnow when your information was published, and decide whether this makes a difference. When was the book or article written? When was it published? Is the information still current or valid? If the information is no longer current, does it still have value for your needs? Know the difference between current, dated, and outdated information, as well as those sources considered "classics" in your field. Different disciplines will have different needs as to the importance of currency versus older, established publications and materials.