1.2 Objective of the Study Many studies of traffic congestions have shownvarious factors that influence the flow of traffic. Roadshave become more congested, commuting time anddistance lengthened, congestion, and comfort level ofpublic transport decreased and accidents increased.
The research principally aims at investigating the effectivity ofthe newly implemented projects and policies as well as thecapabilities of MMDA officials. Hence the following questions were formulated:1. Is the present management capable in administering its function as a government authority?2. Upon the implementation of u-turns, Is there any improvement of traffic flow?3. What are the major causes of traffic build-up?4. Does the newly-installed infrastructures intended for the pedestrians impair the possibility of accident?5. Is “yellow lanes for buses” beneficial to public utility vehicles?6. What remedial solutions can be done to ease traffic congestions?
1.3 Significance of the StudyThe study will provide better understanding about theprojects and policies of the MMDA. It is important to thesense that it explores the major problem encountered bythe traffic officials, motorists and the public.
1.4 Scope and LimitationsStudy Area: The span of Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) from Monumento Circle going to Baclaran and Quezon Avenue which starts from Mabuhay Rotouda to Quezon City circle.Focus of the Research: Newly implemented projects policies, and management capabilities of officials. It also incorporate the need to use mass transit to reduce traffic congestion.Respondents: Traffic officials, drivers, passengers and internet-users
2.1 Review of Related Studies and Literature Traffic Engineering in Metro Manila The Team Project: To date, traffic engineering in Metro Manila-such as they are-have been concentrated in DPWH Traffic Engineering Centre. This was set up under the Traffic Engineering and Management Team (TEAM) Project in the late 1970s and has undergone several phases since that time.
Traffic Control and Management Policy and Measures in Metropolitan Manila The MMDA through its Traffic Operation Center adopts and implements various policies, programs and projects relating to traffic and transportation management in the Metropolis.‟ New Traffic Control Measures and Their ImpactsPUV Lane Scheme:• First introduced in 1989 along EDSA, RMB and Espana by virtue of MMC ordinance 03-89• There are about 7, 241 franchised PUV units plying in Metro Manila as per LTFRB records (February 2001). Most of which are operating along EDSA.• Average travel time of buses (MMUTIS) is 79 minutes.• EDSA carries most of „the vehicle volume as compared to the other major thoroughfares.
General Objectives:• To reduce the travel time of PUVs by reserving lanes for their exclusive preferential use;• To restrain vehicle traffic by encouraging the use of PUVs especially buses and discouraging the use of private cars;• To reduce severity of accidents usually caused by the impact of heavier vehicles against smaller vehicles by separating vehicle traffic.Traffic Impact:• Reduction of travel time, thus increasing travel speed for PUVs;• Decrease in the severity of vehicular accidents due to weaving maneuvers;• Limited time for PUV loading and unloading, thus, passengers will not experience inconvenience due to long delays;
EDSA Organized Bus Route• Controlling the number of buses plying EDSA is crucial in maintaining order and smooth traffic flow.• Information:• 3, 151 franchised buses run along EDSA• City Buses carry about 275,000 commuters a day compared to MRT3s 303,000 per day• PUBs, mostly serving EDSA corridor, accounts for 14.9% of the total person trip (MMUTIS).• Average bus occupancy is recorded at 46.5 (MMUTIS) „Objective: To improve the operation of bus services at EDSA by controlling the headways between buses dispatch at terminals and by strictly enforcing the rules on the use of PUV lanes and loading and unloading areas.
Methodology:• Buses are given color-coded dispatch numbers at terminals/dispatch areas.• Buses are dispatched sequentially on a “first in, ‟first out” Timers are installed for loading and unloading purposes• Provincial buses are not allowed to load/unload along EDSA Traffic Impact: Travel time of buses has been improved as manifested in a survey conducted before and after the implementation of the scheme, which is from 15 kph. To 18 kph.
Modified Traffic Scheme “Rotunda-type Intersection”Information:• TOC has implemented this scheme mostly on major thoroughfares i.e. EDSA, C-5, Quezon Ave., SSH – Pres. Quirino and Marcos Hi-way.• To date, a total of 14 U-turn slots were constructed along QC Ave. to complement the implementation of the “Quezon Avenue Clearway Project”‟Objective:• To increase travel speed especially at intersections, thus, mitigating travel delays;• To mitigate occurrence of angle collisions at intersections.
Traffic Impact:• Increase in travel speed especially at intersections, and travel delays are mitigated; Angle collisions accidents at intersections are reduced;• Queuing of vehicles at intersections is controlled.Future Plans and Schemes:1. Expansion of “Big Rotunda Scheme”‟ and Clearway Program2. Construction of Pedestrian Footbridges3. Formulation of a Policy and Regulation on road Construction4. To Push for a minimal toll fee charged by „PNCC at Expressways5. Opening of Kabihasnan Road for Vehicular Traffic
2.2 Synthesis This study is closely related to the study conducted by the Traffic Operation Centre of MMDA. It involves traffic investigations and analysis regarding the newly implemented projects and policies.
2.3 HypothesisThis Study is based on the following hypothesis:• The management is capable in managing the traffic and addressing the needs of the motorists.• There is an improvement upon the implementation of U-turns but there is a great risks of accident.• Indiscriminate loading /unloading and swerving of vehicles are the major causes of traffic build-up.• Newly-installed vehicles like see-through fences and footbridges does not consequently abate accident.• Yellow Lanes for Buses are not beneficial to public utility vehicles.• The government should encourage the public to shift to mass transportation and restrict the growth of car ownership.
Exposition of the Problem2.4 CONCEPTUAL Objectives FRAMEWORK: Studies Interviews Distribution Surveys of Questionnaires Law Public Enforcers Statistical Data Interpretation of Results Summary Solutions and Recommendations
2.5 Definition of Terms• Bottleneck – a narrow passage where movement is slowed down• Clearway avenue – also known as Modified Rotunda• Corridors – a long, narrow, densely populated area having two or more major cities• Queuing – a line of vehicles• Traverse – to travel across• Swerving – Transferring from one lane to the other• Weave length – perpendicular distance from U-turn slot to an intersection
2.6 Acronyms• BOT – Board of Transportation• DPWH – Department of Public Works and Hi-ways• EDSA – Epifanio de los Santos Avenue• JICA – Japan International Cooperation Agency• MIS – Management Operation System• JOC – Japan Overseas Corporation• MMDA – Metro Manila Development Authority• MMETROPLAN – Metro Manila Transport Land Use and Development Project• MMTC Metro Manila Transit Corporation
• MMTMA – Metro Manila Traffic Management Authority• MMUSTRAP – Metro Manila Urban Transportation Strategy Planning Project• MRT – Mass Rail Transit• PUJ – Public Utility Jeep• PUV – Public Utility Vehicle• MIS – Management Information System• TEC – Traffic Engineering Centre• TOC – Traffic Operation Centre• TIC – Transport Training Centre
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN Descriptive method was used in this general procedure, the method describes the nature of a situation as it exists at the time of the study and explore the course of a particular phenomenon (Travers, 1978). It has for its main purpose the description of phenomena.
3.2 SAMPLES AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES: The subject of this study are the vehicles passing through the EDSA and Quezon Avenue. The respondents were selected based on any of the following: • A regular tripmaker • A Car user • A passenger • An MMDA official
3.3 INSTRUMENTATION: A series of interviews, observations and hand-out questionnaires were given in this study. The questionnaires were in two forms, the English and Tagalog version. The former was translated into vernacular so as to conform with the common people. Interview Guide was also made to come up with an organized interview
3.4 PROCEDURES ROAD SURVEYS Road surveys were done to have a deeper understanding about the problem. The researchers crossed overpasses and examined the effects of Yellow Lanes, U-turns and speed of the flow of vehicles. Likewise investigations of the most frequently encountered problems were observed.
DISTRIBUTION OF QUESTIONNAIRES Places visited: Bus Terminals in: Baclaran and Araneta Jeepney Terminal in: Patranco People who frequent the avenue were also given questionnaires.
The researchers accomplished a total of 55 questionnaires,30 came from drivers and conductors; and 25 from the public The pie graph below shows the distribution, togetherwith the corresponding percentage. Respondents Drivers & Public Conductors 45% 55%
Chapter 4 Results and DiscussionsThe succeeding discussions were based on the questionnaires
Question: 1.1 Is the present management of managing the traffic along the avenue? Fig.1 Response to the capability of the MMDA management NO aa 40.38 % 59.63% YESThe difference between choices is 19.24% in favor of the MMDA.
Question: 1.2 Is graft and corruption (bribery) rampant among traffic officials? Fig.2 Response to graft and corruption among traffic officials NO 14.81% 85.19% YESGraft and corruption is rampant with a difference of 70.38%
Question: 2.1 If you are going to choose are you in favor of the implementation of U- turns or the traditional method which uses traffic lights?Fig.3 Response of drivers and conductors to the Fig.4 Response of the general public to the implementation of U-turns implementation of U-turns Traditional U-turns Method Traditional U-turns 25% 75% Method 32% 68% “Traditional method which uses stoplights” was favored by the drivers and conductors rather than the U-turn slots.
Question: 2.2 Are concrete barriers intended for this scheme (u-turn) prone to accident? Fig.4 Response of drivers and conductors to the Fig.5 Response of general public to the safety of safety of concrete barriers used in U-turns concrete barriers used in U-turns NO YES 42.86% 65.52% 57.14% 34.48% NO YESNote that the two responses of the two groups are almost identical
Question: 2.3 Are the spaces provided for u-turn slots enough in accommodating turning vehicles? Fig.7 Response of drivers and conductors to Fig.7 Response of general public to the the availability of spaces availability of spaces NO 24.14% YES 40% 60% 75.86% NO YES Note that the affirmative choice predominates
Question: 2.4 After reading the sign “WALANG TAWIRAN, NAKAKAMATAY” will you: Fig.8 Response on "cross the road the road" vs. "take the strenous pedestrian footbridge" taking the pedestrian crossing footbridge the road the road 9.09% 90.91%With the above response there is a possibility that accident can be prevented. The outcome was dominated by the second choice with a result of +81.82%.
Question: 2.5 Are the fences (located along EDSA)capable of discouraging pedestrians from occupying the avenue? Fig.9 Response on capability of fences in discouraging pedestrians from occupying the avenue YES 75% 25% NO The fences are effective in discouraging the pedestrian from occupying the avenue.
Question: 3. Along the avenue, What are the things that dismay you? Things that dismay the respondents Others Improper driving etiquette Too many signages Illegally parked vehicles Swerving of vehicles Indiscriminate loading & unloading Too many construction along the road 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of Responses Drivers & Conductors Public
Question: 4.What are the things that satisfy youregarding the improvement along the avenue? Things that satisfy the respondents regarding the improvement along the avenue Others Implementation of reforms and policies Newly-installed infrastructures Organized re- routing scheme An increase flow of vehicles 0 5 10 15 20 Number of Responses Drivers & Conductors Public
Question: 5.What do you think needs to be improved? Things to be improved Others Nothing Road-widening project No. of MMDA officials More traffic signs Discipline among drivers 0 5 10 15 20 25 Number of responses Public Drivers & Conductors
6. On the scale of 1-5, with “5” being the highest and“1” being the lowest; Please rate the following: Grade/ Approval Categories Percentage( %) Total Rating( %) MMDA capability in 93/195 47.69 -2.31 managing the trafficEffectiveness of u-turns 120/195 61.54 11.54 Implementation of Yellow Lanes for Buses 112/170 65.88 15.88 The flow of traffic 98/175 56.00 6.00Organized route among public and private 120/175 68.57 18.57 vehicles Pedestrian safety 126/180 70.00 20.00MMDA response about illegally operating 92/180 51.11 1.11 jeeps, buses, and FX-taxiesEfficiency of traffic signs 123/180 68.33 18.33 The chairmanship of Chairman 119/155 76.77 26.77 Bayani Fernando
Chapter 5Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary• This study was conducted to determine the capability of MMDA in managing the traffic along EDSA and Quezon Avenue
The following findings were arrived in this study:• Most of the drivers are against the implementation of U-turns.• Graft and corruption is still rampant among traffic officials.• Indiscriminate loading and unloading is the major cause of traffic build-up.• Most of the respondents were satisfied with the projects that guarantees pedestrians safety.
5.2 Conclusion and Recommendations1. That the MMDA is capable in administering its function thus it is proper to give commendation to the authority as a government institution.2. U-turn slots are only applicable to light and moderate traffic, the implementation of this plan should not be practiced on major highways considering the frequent heavy –traffic situation of the Metropolis, similarly closing the intersections to facilitate the said plan is inappropriate when there is enormous number of vehicles traversing the highways.
3. That the most serious cause of traffic build-up is indiscriminate loading and unloading of public transport which in return puts to waste the huge investment made for traffic management measures. Thus, it is recommended that road user view point should be further enhanced during the planning stage.4. Newly-installed infrastructures intended for the pedestrians impair the possibility of accident.‟5. That Yellow Lane Scheme shows a favorable impact to the vehicles. It is recommended to implement this scheme strictly for smooth flow of traffic.
6. To cope with problem in traffic congestions, there is a need to concentrate on the development and improvement of the public transport system. This is with hope that selected improvements might promote the mode shift of a considerable private vehicle users to Mass Transit to reduce traffic congestion significantly. Thereby recommending the following: • Strict regulation of car ownership • No garage, no car policy • Higher fees on parking areas
A Thesis on TrafficManagement Along EDSA and Quezon Avenue Presented By: Santos, Madison G. Penados, Gary Mondejar, Michael Angelo Notada, Arnel Villeza, Bregnoli