History of Quebec and Canada Module 4


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History of Quebec and Canada Module 4

  1. 1. Module 4 Early Stages of Parliamentary Government
  2. 2. tags
  3. 3. Module Outline <ul><ul><li>Unit 1: Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 1: The Constitutional Act (1791)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 2: Economic Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 3: Social Changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit 2: Rebellions of 1837-1838 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 1: The Parti Canadien vs The British Party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 2: Stages in the Confrontation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unit 3: Union of the Two Canadas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 1: Lord Durham's Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 2: Political Changes After 1840 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic 3: Economic Changes After 1840 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Constitutional Act – 1791 Why? To make the Loyalists happy <ul><li>Replaces Quebec Act </li></ul><ul><li>Province of Quebec divided – 2 new provinces! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each province had their own structure of Government </li></ul><ul><li>First time EVER in Canada – Legislative Assembly! </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Gov’t NOT Responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Governor had power of veto for laws passed by the Legislative Assembly </li></ul>
  5. 5. Upper is low, Lower is up…
  6. 6. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Constitutional Act 1791 <ul><li>Political Structure created by the Constitutional Act </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>French Civil Laws in Lower Canada </li></ul><ul><li>English Criminal Code in Lower AND Upper Canada </li></ul>
  7. 7. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes <ul><li>Economy turned to TIMBER (wood)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? Big demand for timber because of NAPOLEANIC WARS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needed to build warships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>War of 1812  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Canada has </li></ul><ul><li>LOTS of wood </li></ul>
  8. 8. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes <ul><li>What about our friend the FUR TRADE ? </li></ul><ul><li>Went way waaaaaaaaaaaaaaay down really quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture (wheat) also waaaay down </li></ul><ul><li>Why timber so high? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferential British Tarifs </li></ul></ul>70% + 9% 1810 % of Economic Activity 0% 75% 1770 Timber Fur Year
  9. 9. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Economic Changes (1800-1840)‏ <ul><li>Canals  easier to trade/transport between Upper and Lower Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steamships could travel St Lawrence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1st Railway – 1836 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>La Prairie to St Jean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bank of Montreal (1817)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada’s 1 st big bank </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840)‏ <ul><li>Immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British Isles (Scotland, Ireland, England)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>worked on canals and railways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1815-1850  1 million immigrants came to British North America </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly Upper Canada , some Lower Canada </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French in Lower Canada saw immigrants as a THREAT </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840)‏ <ul><li>Why a threat? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for work/jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More English speakers in Lower Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most from Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many many people together on boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>got sick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholera Epidemic in Lower Canada killed thousands ( 1832 + 1834 )‏ </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Society in Lower Canada (1791-1840) Social Changes (1800-1840) Conflict <ul><li>Patriotes </li></ul><ul><li>French Canadian Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>( lawyers, doctors, notaries )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke for the needs of French Community </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Clique </li></ul><ul><li>English Commercial Class </li></ul><ul><li>( bankers, businessmen, merchants )‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke for commercial interests ($$ and trade)‏ </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rebellions (1837-1838) Parti Canadien vs. British Party <ul><li>Parti Canadien = Patriotes </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly (elected)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to keep the seigneurial system and French civil law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to protect the French language and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business taxes to pay for roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to avoid spending money on projects which only benefitted the English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>government budgets to be controlled by the assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an elected legislative council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>British Party=Chateau Clique </li></ul><ul><li>Executive and legislative councils (not elected, appointed)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>laws that promoted business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>construction of canals and railways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French assimilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>union with Upper Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>property taxes </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation <ul><li>1830s Lower Canada – social and economic conditions got worse and worse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food shortages --> poor harvests and drastic drops in wheat production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thousands of newly arrived British immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cholera epidemics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;None of us go into town anymore. </li></ul><ul><li>Many are moving into the country. Yesterday 34 corpses passed our house. Today, 23... not counting those in the old burial Ground and in the Catholic ground. 12 carts are employed by the Board of Health to carry away the dead who are interred without prayers.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Hart, Montreal Merchant, 1832 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation <ul><li>1834 Papineau's 92 Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Papineau --> leader of Patriotes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main demands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* responsible government </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* control of public spending by the assembly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* an elected legislative council </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1837 Russell's 10 Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected Papineau's main demands </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Rebellions (1837-1838) Stages in the Confrontation <ul><li>1837 (Fall)‏ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patriotes angry about the rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small demonstrations lead to open rebellion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>&quot;Well I believe that the moment has come to melt down our tin plates and tin spoons and forge them into bullets.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>(Dr. Wolfred Nelson, an English Canadian who supported the Patriote cause)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Major battles --> British Army vs. Patriotes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>St Denis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>St Charles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>St Eustache </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Results of the Rebellions <ul><li>1838 (Fall) – Patriotes defeated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men exiled to Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 men hanged </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lord Durham </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent to Canada by British to... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Investigate reason for Rebellions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest ways to solve political tensions in Upper and Lower Canada </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Union of the Two Canadas Lord Durham's Report ( Feb. 1839 )‏ <ul><li>Angered the French </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Said French were inferior to English </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Said Canada is a land of two hostile groups </li></ul>So...what happened?
  19. 19. Union of the Two Canadas Act of Union (1840)‏ <ul><li>Upper and Lower Canada unite to become the Province of Canada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Canada --> Canada West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Canada --> Canada East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One legislative assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>42 elected officials from Canada West </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>42 elected officials from Canada East </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debts are combined to one debt </li></ul><ul><li>English becomes the official language of the Province of Canada </li></ul><ul><li>@ first rejected Responsible Gov't , later leaders in East and West formed an alliance and adopted it in 1848 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Union of the Two Canadas Economic Changes after 1840 <ul><li>Great Britain adopts free trade in 1846 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No more preferential tariffs for colonies! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada has to compete on the world market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Export trade (wheat, timber) reduced BIG TIME </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequence --> 1854 Reciprocity Treaty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between British North American Colonies (Canada) and USA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty to last 10 years </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Union of the Two Canadas Reciprocity Treaty (1854)‏ <ul><li>free entry ( no tariffs ) for natural products ( wheat, fish, timber,coal ) of each country into the markets of the other. </li></ul><ul><li>free access to each other's fisheries . </li></ul><ul><li>Canada allowed free navigation on Lake Michigan </li></ul><ul><li>United States allowed free navigation on the St. Lawrence River. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Union of the Two Canadas Economic Changes after 1840 <ul><li>Transporation System 1850-1860 </li></ul><ul><li>more canals built and deepened </li></ul><ul><li>more railways built </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People and places were being connected </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Quotes from: Canada: A People's History http://history.cbc.ca/?MIval=HistSearch.html </li></ul><ul><li>All images are from http:// www.lbpsb.qc.ca /~history// , except for the following </li></ul><ul><li>British North America, 1791 http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/obj/h2/f1/nlc006838-v6.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Canada, Lower Canada http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/11/79711-004-7CA7283C.gif </li></ul>