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Lecture 1

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  • 1. Windows NT 4.0 Windows NT 4.0 is a preemptive, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uni-processor or symmetric multi-processor computers. It was the next release of Microsoft's Windows NT line of operating systems and was released to manufacturing on 31 July 1996. It is a 32-bit Windows system available in both workstation and server editions with a graphical environment similar to that of Windows 95. The "NT" designation in the product's title initially stood for "New Technology" according to Microsoft's then-CEO Bill Gates, but now no longer has any specific meaning. Windows NT 4.0 was succeeded by Windows 2000 in February 2000. Introduction to Windows 2000 Windows 2000 is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, business desktops, laptops, and servers. Released on 17 February 2000, it was the successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the final release of Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. Windows 2000 is the latest update in the Microsoft Windows family of products. It is a combination of features designed in the Windows 98 and NT 4.0. Like previous versions of Windows, it uses a Graphical User Interface (GUI) format, Plug-and-Play compatibility, and USB support. What make Windows 2000 significantly different are the formats it is available in. There are 4 products that compose the Windows 2000 family.
  • 2. Basic Fundamental of Windows 2000 Family Four editions of Windows 2000 was released: • Windows 2000 Professional • Windows 2000 Server • Windows 2000 Advance Server • Windows 2000 Data Center All versions of the operating system support the Windows NT file system, NTFS 3.0, the Encrypting File System, as well as basic and dynamic disk storage. The Windows 2000 Server family has additional features, including the ability to provide Active Directory services (a hierarchical framework of resources), Distributed File System (a file system that supports sharing of files) and fault-redundant storage volumes. Windows2000Professional Windows 2000 Professional was designed as the desktop operating system for businesses and power users. Used as a workstation or client computer and it is the replacement for Windows NT Workstation. It is the client version of Windows 2000. It offers greater security and stability than many of the previous Windows desktop operating systems. It supports up to two processors, and can address up to 4 GB of RAM. The system requirements are a Pentium processor of 133 MHz or greater, at least 32 MB of RAM, 650 MB of hard drive space, and a CD-ROM drive (recommended: Pentium II, 128 MB of RAM, 2 GB of hard drive space, and CD-ROM drive). Windows 2000 Server Windows 2000 Server is a network-enhanced version of Windows 2000 Professional. It contains all the same aspects as Windows 2000 Pro, but adds network serving ability, enhanced file and print sharing services, application server technology, and Web-Server utilities. It is designed to allow small-to-medium-sized businesses network their systems efficiently at a lower cost then traditional NT 4.0 methods by stripping out un-used tools. . It is used for web, application, print and file servers. Windows 2000 integrates Active Directory Services into several existing services such as Domain Name System (DNS), Dynamic Host Control Service (DHCP), and WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) allowing central control over management of users, groups, security, and network resources. It supports single-processor systems as well as four-way symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems. Furthermore, Windows 2000 introduced a Domain Name Server which allows dynamic registration of IP addresses. Windows 2000 Server supports up to 4 processors, requires 128 MB of RAM and 1 GB hard disk space, however requirements may be higher depending on installed components. Windows 2000 Advanced Server Advanced server is essentially the same as Windows 2000 Server with enhanced scalability and advanced high availability required for larger enterprise servers and departmental solutions. It focuses more on application and departmental networking, with support for eight-way symmetric
  • 3. multiprocessing and two-way clustering. It also integrates Intel's Physical Address Extensions (PAEs) technology to allow for support for larger physical memory quantities. It is meant for larger businesses with database-intensive requirements. It is used in an enterprise network and very useful as an SQL server. It supports TCP/IP load balancing and enhanced two-node server clusters based on the Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) in Windows NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition.[82] Limited number of copies of an IA-64 version, called Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Limited Edition was made available via OEMs. System requirements are similar to those of Windows 2000 Server; however they may need to be higher to scale to larger infrastructure. Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Datacenter is a highly specialized version of Windows 2000 designed for large-scale enterprise solutions. It integrates technologies optimized for large data warehouses, econometric analysis, large-scale simulations in science and engineering, online transaction processing (OLTP) and server consolidation projects. It is used in an enterprise network to support extremely large databases and real time processing. It adds elements to enhance Internet Service Provider (ISP) support and Web Hosting services. It supports 4-way clustering, and sixteen-way Symmetric multiprocessing (Upgradeable to 32-way SMP) Max Max System Microprocessor Supports RAM Supports HD Requirements Processor RAM Windows 2000 2 4GB 650 MB free (2 G Pentium 133 64Mb Professional recommended) Windows 2000 4 128Mb (256Mb 4GB 1 GB free (2 G Pentium 133 Server Recommended) recommended) Windows 2000 8 8GB 1 GB free (2 G Pentium 133 256Mb Advanced Server recommended) Windows 2000 32 64GB 1 GB free (2 G Pentium 133 256Mb Datacenter Server recommended)
  • 4. Comparison of Windows Server with Others OS 1. Windows 2000 Professional v/s Windows3.1 Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95.It came under three editions: Base Version: Windows 3.1 (originally codenamed Janus, of which two betas were published), released in April 1992, includes a TrueType font system (and a set of highly legible fonts already installed), which effectively made Windows a serious desktop publishing platform for the first time. Similar functionality was available for Windows 3.0 through the Adobe Type Manager (ATM) font system from Adobe. Versions with special font support: Microsoft also released Windows 3.1J with support for the Japanese language. Windows 3.11: On 31 December 1993, Microsoft released an update for Windows 3.1 that (aside from installing new files) changes the Windows version displayed in "About" dialog boxes to 3.11. Thus, Windows 3.11 is not a standalone version of Windows, but rather a software update from Windows 3.1, much like modern Windows service packs. For those who did not own Windows 3.1, full disk sets of Windows 3.11 were available at the time. 2. Windows 2000 Professional v/s Windows NT workstation 4 Windows NT (Windows New Technology) is a 32-bit operating system pioneered by Microsoft for Intel x86 CPUs. NT has become the base of technology for Windows 2000 and Windows XP. The Windows NT server version as well as the client version did not support Plug and Play, a feature which was fulfilled in Windows 2000 and also in XP. The Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition aids in clustering and can recover itself well in case of system failure. Launched in early 2000, Win2k or Windows 2000 was a major upgrade to Windows NT. It is available in 3 server versions and one client version. Of course, it supports Plug and Play. With an interface resembling Win95/98, the Win 2000 had added features, options and dialogs. Windows 2000 has Active Directory which replaces NT's domain system and simplifies network administration. Windows 2000 is found to be more stable than its predecessor Window NT and is specialized to remove incorrect copies of DLL files when applications are installed. The Windows 2000 Advanced Server is quite like the Windows NT Server, Enterprise Edition, designed to support clustering and mechanical failover in case of a system failure. However the Windows 2000 Datacenter Server is a top server offering with enhanced clustering features. Windows Server 2003, a server operating system introduced by Microsoft on March 28th, 2003 as the successor to Windows 2000 Server, is acknowledged by the company to be the hallmark
  • 5. of their Windows Server System line of business server products. It incorporates the compatible features of Windows XP. Though it is regarded as a follow-up of Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003's default installation has none of the server components enabled, to minimize the attack surface of new machines. Further the Windows Server 2003 has compatibility features to permit even obsolete application to run with stability. Upgrading a Window NT 4.0 domain to Windows 2000 was a time consuming task, especially when it came to dealing with the Active Directory. Thankfully, Windows Server 2003 brought in enhanced Active Directory compatibility, and enhanced operational support for easy transition. 9x(95, 98 & 98SE) and ME NT, 2000 & XP 1.98 & ME are build from 95 1. 2000 & XP are build from NT 2.Windows 95 supports Fat 16 2. Windows 2000 supports FAT16, FAT32, & Windows 95 OSR2 was the first Microsoft OS to NTFS support Fat32 3. Windows 9x/ME do not offer system security3. Windows NT, 2000 & XP offers security 4. Boot with IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS & 4. Boot with NTLDR, BOOT.INI & COMMAND.COM NTDETECT.COM 5. For clean install for 9x/ME run SETUP 5. For 2000/XP run either WINNT or WINNT32 6. 9x/NT uses Network Neighborhood 6. 2000/ME/XP uses My Network Places 7. Command Line for 9x/ME is called MS-DOS 7. Command Line for 2000/XP is called prompt Command Prompt 8. To find IP address with 9x/ME is WINIPCFG 8. To find IP address with NT/2000/XP is IPCONFIG
  • 6. Name Release Based on Supported Editions OS type FAT16 FAT N date (kernel) architectur 32 T es F S Windows 2000-0 NT 5.0 x86-32, Professional, Desktop, Yes No Y 2000 2-17 IA-64 Server, Workstation, e Professional Advanced Server s Server, Datacenter Server Windows3.1 1993-0 NT 3.1 x86-32, Workstation, Workstation, Yes No Y 7-27 DEC Alpha, Advanced Server e MIPS Server s Windows 95 1995-0 Monolithic Hybrid Retail, Desktop Yes Yes Y 8-24 kernel 16/32-bit OSR2.5 e OSR1, s OSR2, OSR2.1 Windows 98 1998-0 Monolithic Hybrid First edition, Desktop Yes Yes Y 6-25 kernel 16/32-bit Second e Edition s Windows 1996-0 NT 4.0 x86-32, Workstation, Workstation, Yes Yes Y NT 4.0 8-24 DEC Alpha, Server, Server, e MIPS, Server Embedded s PowerPC Enterprise Edition, Terminal Server, Embedded HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS Minimum/recommended system requirements (for x86 processors) 9x Kernel-based Free disk Video adapter and Name CPU RAM Drives Devices space monitor Windows 95 386 4 MB 120 MB 486 DX2 16 Windows 98 300 MB 66 MHz MB Windows Me Pentium 32 400 MB
  • 7. (Millennium Edition) 150 MHz MB NT Kernel-based Video Free disk Name CPU RAM adapter and Drives Devices space monitor Windows NT 386, Workstation 8 MB 90 MB 25 MHz 3.51 Windows NT 486, 12 MB 110 MB 4.0 Workstation 33 MHz Windows 2000 Pentium, 32 MB 650 MB Professional 133 MHz Super VGA CD- Pentium (800 x 600) ROM or Keyboard Windows XP MMX, 64 MB 1.5 GB or higher DVD- and mouse 233 MHz resolution ROM Windows Pentium, Fundamentals 64 MB 500 MB 233 MHz for Legacy PCs 15 GB (may Super VGA Pentium 512 MB/1 GB or be installed (800 x 600) DVD- Windows Vista III, higher with as few or higher ROM 800 MHz recommended as 7GB) resolution 1 GHz 512 MB RAM Super VGA Windows Server (x86) or (may limit (800 x 600) DVD- Keyboard 10 GB 2008 1.4 GHz performance and or higher ROM and mouse (x64) some features) resolution 1 GB or higher 16 GB 1 GHz recommended (2 128MB DVD- Windows 7 (installs in 7 (x86/64) GB or Higher for (Aero) ROM GB) x64)

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