File System, Dual Boot, Addon Components, Create User

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File System, Dual Boot, Addon Components, Create User

  1. 1. FILE SYSTEMS First, let's understand what a file system is. A file system can be thought of as the way your computer goes about managing the files that gets stored on your hard drive. Your computer has thousands upon thousands of files. If there were no organized way of managing them, your system would be infinitely slow, provided that it works at all. This is understandable if you just consider how much stuff you have piled in your office, and how much time is wasted finding stuff that's buried under a ton of paper. Now take that mess, and multiply it by a thousand. That is what your computer would be going through if an efficient file system didn't exist. And just like there are all kinds of people in the world who organize things differently in the office, there are many file systems out there with varying features. However, there are several key functions that no file system should be without: • Efficiently use the space available on your hard drive to store the necessary data • Catalog all the files on your hard drive so that retrieval is fast and reliable. • Provide methods for performing basic file operations, such as delete, rename, copy, and move. • Provide some kind of data structure that allows a computer to boot off the file system. FAT in Detail So what is FAT, and how do file systems work? The answer is quite simple in fact. The space on your hard drive, at its most basic level, is divided into units called sectors. Each sector is 512 bytes. So if your hard drive had 10 Kilobytes worth of total disk space, that would mean it is divided into 20 sectors. But the file system doesn't directly deal with the hard drive on a sector by sector basis. Instead, it groups a bunch of sectors together into a cluster, and it deals with the cluster. These clusters are also called allocation units by DOS. So another way of thinking about this is to suppose that each sector on your hard disk is a person carrying a bag, where you can store 512 bytes of information into each bag. Now instead of numbering each person as 1,2,3, etc ... The file system first takes several people and put them into a group, and call that group 1. So if you had 400 people, and the file system decided to put 4 people to a group, then you'd have 100 groups. In other words, on a drive with 400 sectors (or roughly 200K of space), and with an allocation size of 4 sectors (or 2K), there would be 100 clusters. So then when the file system needs to access a particular sector, it would first find the cluster number of the sector, and then within that cluster, it would access that particular sector by its sector index. This is akin to saying to find a person, say Jon, I would find Jon's group number first, and then go to his group and lookforhim. FAT started being used with DOS and there are now three different versions of the File Allocation Table file system - FAT12, FAT16 and FAT 32. The numbers used in these versions designate the number of bits used to identify a cluster.
  2. 2. FAT12: The earliest version the file system, FAT12 allows a partition to contain up to 4096 (212)clusters. Since it supports clusters of one to sixteen sectors, the maximum partition size is 32MB. Windows 2000 uses FAT12 for floppy disks and for partitions of 16MB or smaller. FAT16: FAT16 provides a sixteen-fold expansion in the number of clusters it identifies, supporting volumes containing 65,536 (216)clusters. It also expands the maximum cluster size to 128 sectors (64KB) and maximum volume size to 4GB. FAT32: To address the need for even larger storage capacity, Microsoft introduced FAT32 with Windows 95 OSR2. Following the pattern of the earlier versions of the file system, it uses 32 bits to designate a cluster. However the last four bits are reserved. Each volume, therefore, can contain up to nearly 270 million (228)clusters which theoretically translates into a 8 Terabyte volume comprised of 32KB clusters. In practice, however, while Windows 2000 will manage larger volumes created in other operating systems, it limits the size of new FAT32 volumes to 32GB since the file system becomes quite inefficient beyond that size. If you do want to create a larger volume, you can dual boot the system into either Windows 95 or 98, establish the volume using that OS, and then manage the volume using Windows 2000. The above types of FAT file system have key architectural elements in common. Several sections actually comprise a FAT volume, starting with the boot sector. Following this up are the file allocation table and, for protection, a duplicate file allocation table. Next comes the root directory and finally any other directories and files of the volume. FAT32 also stores a duplicate copy of the boot sector for added reliability. The FAT boot sector starts with three bytes containing a jump instruction telling the CPU that the next several bytes are not executable. After that is an eight byte OEM ID which identifies the operating system that formatted the volume. Next comes the BIOS Parameter Block (BPB) which lists the parameters of the volume. These include such items as the number of bytes per sector, sectors per cluster, number of reserved sectors, number of file allocation table copies (generally two), number of possible entries in the root directory and number of sectors in the volume. Each cluster in the volume has an entry in the file allocation table which indicates whether the cluster is bad, whether it contains a file and, if so, if that is the last cluster for that file. If the cluster contains a file which is continued in another cluster, the file allocation table entry will contain the number of that cluster. If the entire cluster is contained in a single cluster, or if that cluster is the final one for a file spanning multiple clusters, the entry will contain the value "0xfff" indicating that it is the last cluster. In FAT12 and FAT16, the root directory or root folder contains 512 entries, each one being 32 bytes. FAT32 permits an unlimited number of entries in the root directory, and that directory can be located anywhere on a hard disk. Each entry begins with the file name in 8.3 format. Following this is the attribute byte which contains six binary flags indicating whether the file has been archived, if the entry is a directory or a file, if it is read-only, whether it is a hidden file, if it is a system file and if it is a volume label.
  3. 3. Next come eleven bytes telling when the file was created, last accessed and last modified. After that are two bytes identifying the location of the first cluster in the file (The locations of the rest of the clusters are stored in the file allocation.) The entry finishes a four byte number giving the size of the file in bytes, yielding a maximum file size of 4GB (232). This root directory structure only natively supports file names using the 8.3 format. For long file names it uses a truncated version of the file name (e.g., FILENA~1.EXE) for the main entry and assigns additional lines in directory to list the long names using Unicode. Since FAT12 and FAT16 have a limit to the size of the root directory, this will reduce the total number of files or directories that can be listed in the root. This is not a problem with FAT32, however, since it doesn't have this directory-size limitation. NTFS While each of the FAT versions represents an incremental improvement over its predecessor, NTFS takes a completely different approach to the way that data is organized. It grew out of Microsoft's desire to increase its share of the corporate marketplace. FAT was a very simple system which worked for PCs, but it lacked the management and security features needed to compete with UNIX in a high-end, networked environment. The first attempt at a newer file system was the High Performance File System (HPFS) introduced with OS/2 Version 1.2. When the IBM/Microsoft partnership that created OS/2 fell apart, and Microsoft decided to create Windows NT, it incorporated some of the features of HPFS into its New Technology File System (NTFS). NTFS is the native file system for Windows NT 4.0, 2000 and XP operating systems. While this O/Ses can operate with FAT, many of their features only work with NTFS, so NTFS should be used whenever possible. Fortunately, if you have one or more FAT partitions running on one of these operating systems, it is a simple matter to convert them to NTFS without losing any data. NTFS, a log-based file system, addresses FAT's reliability and recoverability problems. A partition's clusters are numbered sequentially using a 64-bit logical cluster number (LCN). Theoretically this system would allow access to 16 exabytes (16 billion GB) which far exceeds current storage needs. For now, Windows 2000 limits volumes to 128 Terabytes, but later operating systems could take advantage of even larger storage capacities. Like FAT, it sets a default cluster size depending on the size of the partition, assigning a size of 4KB for anything over 2GB. Also like FAT, administrators can override the defaults and use drop-down box to specify sizes up to 64KB. An NTFS partition is divided into four sectors: the Partition Boot sector, Master File Table, Filesystem Data and a backup copy of the Master File Table. The partition boot sector consists of two sections and occupies the first sixteen sectors. The first section holds the BIOS parameter block containing information on the layout of the volume and the structure of the file system similar to what is laid out above for FAT. The boot code to load Windows NT/2000/XP resides in the second section.
  4. 4. The next section is contains the Master File Table (MFT). When creating an NTFS partition, the system allocates a block, called the MFT Zone, containing 12.5 percent of the capacity of the volume. This size is the amount considered necessary to support a volume with an average file size of 8KB. If the volume will contain a large number of files in the 2 to 7KB range you can increase the size of the MFT Zone with the fsutil behavior set mftzone command. This command offers four options. Setting 1 is the same as the default, Setting 2 reserves 25 percent of the disk, Setting 3 reserves 37.5 percent and Setting 4, fifty percent. When you increase the size of the MFT Zone, NTFS doesn't immediately allocate additional space. But once the original space allocated to the MFT Zone fills up it will allocate additional space. Since this results in fragmenting the MFT and thereby inhibiting performance, it is best to set the desired size before creating the volume. Keep in mind also that resizing the MFT Zone setting will affect all the NTFS volumes on the computer. It can't be done for just a single volume. The MFT consists of a series of 1KB records, one for each file in the partition. The first sixteen entries are reserved for the NTFS system files. Record 0 is the MFT itself. The next ten include a changes log file for system recovery, information about the volume, the index of the root folder and a bitmap showing cluster allocation information. The final five files are reserved for future use. After the MFT, come the non-system files of the volume, followed by a backup copy of the MFT. NTFS considers two types of attributes - resident and non-resident - that can be used to describe a record. Resident attributes are ones that fit within the MFT, while non-resident attributes are ones too large to fit in the MFT record. Each resident MFT record contains four attributes. The first, Standard Information, contains the file attributes such as the archive bit, which shows whether or not the file has been backed up, and timestamps showing when the file was created, last modified and last accessed. The second contains the filenames. Each file can have multiple names, for example both a long and a short name, and both would be listed in this space. NTFS supports names up to 255 Unicode characters. The third, Security Descriptor, contains the Access Control List (ACL) data for the file. The final part, data, contains the data of the file itself. Small files, under 1K can therefore fit entirely within the MFT. This speeds up access since the system doesn't have to first read the MFT to find the location of the desired file and then go fetch the file from elsewhere on the disk. Instead, it is all done in one rapid action. Most files, however, are far too extensive to fit into the MFT record. This can either be because the file itself is too large, or the ACL may be too big. In such a case, the data section of the record contains the locations in the main data portion of the volume where the file contents may be found. Each of these locations is defined by a virtual cluster number (VCN), logical cluster number (LCN) and number of clusters. The VCN is a sequential number relating to each extent of consecutive clusters on the disk which contain the file, the LCN refers to the location of the first cluster of each extent. If, for example, the file was fragmented into four pieces, the MFT record would list four VCNs (1,2,3,4). If the
  5. 5. first extent began on cluster 6097 and included clusters 6098 and 6099, the MFT would have VCN=1, LCN=6097, #c=3. The other extents would be similarly numbered. If the file becomes severely fragmented, additional records in the MFT will have to be used to list the additional extents. Additional NTFS Features In addition to supporting larger volumes than FAT, NTFS contains other features that make it better for corporate operations: • Reliability. A drawback to using FAT is that if a computer goes down, it can be difficult to repair the file system. To make speed recovery, NTFS maintains a log of every transaction that affects the file system. These actions are logged before they are performed. Then, when there is a problem, any incomplete transactions can be completed or changes can be rolled back. • Mount Points - All Windows versions assign a different drive letter to each partition or volume on a disk, which limits the number of accessible volumes to the 26 letters of the alphabet. Mount Points let the administrator attach other partitions to an empty directory within an already mounted NTFS volume. Rather than being limited to NTFS volumes, these additional volumes can also be using FAT16, FAT32, CDFS or UDF which expands the functionality of this feature. • Access Control - The Security Descriptor function provides hierarchal access control for each file or directory in an NTFS volume. It is important to understand that the security features built into Windows NT/2000/XP only work with NTFS. If you use FAT, you lose all security functionality and place the organization at risk. • Disk Quotas - NTFS permits assigning of storage quotas on a per-user basis. It does this by tracking the Security ID (SID) of anyone who creates a file or directory. When the limit is exceeded, the system sends a "Disk Full" error report and logs it in the Event Log. • Encryption - When the computer is running Windows 2000, NTFS includes Microsoft's Encrypting File System (EFS) which automatically encrypts and decrypts files without user intervention. This is particularly useful for remote users, since laptops are frequently lost or stolen and one can't rely on users to remember to encrypt their files. These and other features are not available with FAT. Optical Disk Formats In addition to the magnetic disk formats, Windows 2000 also supports two different optical file formats - CDFS and UDF. CD-ROM File System (CDFS) is based on ISO 9660, a read-only file system standard written by an industry group called High Sierra. The group got that name from its initial meeting in 1985 at Del Webb's High Sierra Hotel and Casino at Lake Tahoe, Nevada, where company representatives began cooperation on developing an non-proprietary file system format for CD- ROM. The initial standard was called by the name of the group, High Sierra, but the
  6. 6. International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requested that an international version of the standard be released and this was formalized as ISO 9660--Volume and File Structure of CD- ROM for Information Interchange. MacIntosh, DOS, Windows, UNIX and Linux all support the standard which calls for 2048-byte physical sectors. In CDFS Level 1, like MS-DOS, follows the 8.3 file name format. Directories are limited to eight-character names and eight nested levels. Levels 2 and 3 permit longer file and directory names, up to thirty-two characters, and allow use of lower case letters. You have a max of 65535 clusters, You have a max of 128 sectors per cluster You have 512 bytes per sector. That means your max FAT16 size is = 65535 * 128 * 512 = 4 GB Wait a second? That's not right! I thought the limit was 2GB? And I thought each cluster in FAT16 can be only 32K, not 64K! And you would be right. The problem is that 128 sectors * 512 bytes per sector is 65536, which is one more than a 16 bit number can handle. So again, we decrement to 64 sectors per cluster, which yields us 32K per cluster. And 32K per cluster * 65535 is roughly 2GB.
  7. 7. DISK PARTITION Disk partitioning is the act of dividing a hard disk drive into multiple virtual hard disk drives, referred to as partitions, in order to treat a single physical disk drive as if it were multiple disks. Benefits of Disk Partition: 1. Separation of the operating system and program files, from user files. This allows image backups (or clones) to be made of only the operating system and installed software. 2. Having an area for operating system virtual memory swapping/paging. 3. Keeping frequently used programs and data near each other. 4. Having cache and log files separate from other files. These can change size dynamically and rapidly, potentially making a file system full. 5. Use of multi booting setups, which allow users to have more than one operating system on a single computer. For example, one could install Linux, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows or others on different partitions of the same hard disk and have a choice of booting into any operating system (supported by the hardware) at power-up. The Partitioning Procedure • Insert the boot disk into the floppy drive and then restart your computer. • As the system begins the boot process and boots to the startup disk, your CD-Rom drivers will begin to load. For now, you can ignore them. • When the system finishes the startup or boot process, you will see the MS-DOS prompt on the screen, which will look something like this: A:> • At the MS-DOS prompt, type "Fdisk" (without the quotes) and touch enter. • You will then be asked whether or not you want large hard drive support (the FAT 32 file system). An explanation of the FAT (File Allocation Table) can be found here: Suffice it to say that if you choose N or No at the prompt, you will be limited to FAT 16 and a 4 gigabyte partition size, while FAT 32 does not have this limitation. Therefore, selecting "N" will give you FAT 16 and a 4 gigabyte partition and "Y" will enable large hard drive support, or the FAT 32 file system. • It is important to note two differences between Windows 95/98 and Windows 2000 with regard to partitioning issues. (1) Unlike that of Windows 95/98, a FAT 16 partition can be as large as 4 gigabytes, instead of 2 gigabytes, and (2) during a fresh installation of Windows 2000 (no previous operating system installed) if you start with a FAT 16 or FAT 32 files system, you will be able to convert it to NTFS later during the installation.
  8. 8. Just remember though, if you use NTFS you will not be able to read the file structure later if you choose to dual-boot the system with Windows 95/98, and if Windows 2000 fails to boot, you will not be able to recover any files using a regular MS-DOS boot disk. Let's partition the drive! • At the next menu, you will be provided with a number of choices: 1. Since we are deleting the original partition, select 3 from the menu - Delete ...... 2. Next, select 3 from next menu to delete any logical DOS drives first; 3. Next, delete any extended DOS partitions you find, (menu item 2) and then delete the primary partition (menu item 1) both on the second menu after selecting 3 delete from the first menu. 4. Now restart your computer and boot back to the Start Up Floppy. Again type "Fdisk" (no quotes) at the MS-DOS prompt. 5. At this point in time you will need to have decided how you want to partition your drive. If you want to use FAT16 or a primary FAT16 partition, then respond to the question about large drive support by selecting "N". If you want to use FAT 32 and large hard drive support, then select "Y". 6. Make a primary partition (menu item 1 then select 1). Select the partition size. The maximum for FAT 16 is about 4G, and for FAT 32 you can select the drive size you desire up to the limits of the drive or the motherboard bios limitations if there are any. Only create the primary partition at this time. You can make the entire drive a single primary partition or you can segment the drive any way you wish, such as primary, then extended logical drives. Once this has been done, touch the ESC keys a few times to exit Fdisk and then restart the computer and boot back to the Startup Disk. If you want to install a second partition or logical drive, then follow the instructions in #7. If you want only one single partition, then move on to step #9. 7. At the MS-DOS prompt, again type Fdisk. This time, when asked about large disk support, select "Y". Use menu item 1 and then 1 (if you did not create a primary partition using FAT16 above). Next use Menu item 1 and then menu item 2 to create an extended DOS partition. Make this the size of the rest of the drive. (This is not needed if you made the whole drive a primary partition). 8. Next select menu item 1 'create ...." then menu item 3 to make logical DOS drives. Make the size whatever you want up to whatever space is available. You may create one or more logical drives. 9. Make sure that you use menu item 2 in Fdisk to set the primary partition as active, as if you forget you won't be able to format that partition and your computer will not provide any clue as to why not.
  9. 9. 10. Restart your computer to the Startup Floppy, and then format the partition<s> you have created. The correct syntax at the MS-DOS prompt is "Format c:/s" (without the quotes) and touch enter. 11. Once the format has completed, remove the Startup Disk from the floppy drive and restart the system and verify that the drive(s) that you fdisk'd are accessible and readable. If you have done everything correctly, your computer will boot to a C:> prompt. 12. Now reinsert your Startup disk and boot to it. You are now ready to install the operating system.
  10. 10. DUAL BOOT Multi-boot or Multi-booting is the act of installing multiple operating systems on a computer, and being able to choose which one to boot when starting the computer. The term dual-booting refers to the common configuration of exactly two operating systems. Multi-booting requires a program called a boot loader. For many users Windows 2000 will meet all their requirements for an Operating System, however there may be many reasons why a user would choose to install a second Operating System alongside it: extra gaming performance, application compatibility, use of DOS/16 bit based programmes, or just a desire to have a change now and then! Dual booting means the simultaneous installation of a second operating system: the selection of which system you wish to use is made during the boot process from a boot loader menu. Initially this section will deal with the most common dual boot configuration: Windows 2000 and Win 95/98/ME (Win9X). It is recommended that you install Windows 9X first in a dual boot configuration. There are good reasons for this: firstly, by not installing 2000 first it ensures that you do not format the boot partition as NTFS, which would prevent the installation of Windows 9X; secondly the Windows 9X installation routine will of overwrite the Windows 2000 boot sector with its own, rendering the 2000 installation unbootable. If you need to install Windows 9X alongside an existing Windows 2000 installation I would strongly recommend the use of third party boot manager software such as the excellent System Commander 2000 . Install this programme after you have completed your Windows 9X installation (it cannot currently be installed under Windows 2000), and it will automatically detect both installations and create the appropriate boot menu. Alternative boot manager programmes are Bootmanager 2000 , XOSL, and Bootstar. Dual Boot Tools is another set of utilities that will allow you to access NTFS from FAT partitions, and to access DOS in NTFS. Alternatively, you can run Windows 2000 set-up again, and select Repair Installation: this will restore the Windows 2000 boot loader and allow you to access both Operating Sytems. Third party boot managers can cause problems when trying to repair installations of Windows 2000. Ensure that you have a separate partition available for your Windows 2000 installation, then run the Windows 2000 setup from within Windows 9X. (Note that if you are trying to install Windows 9X alongside an existing Windows 2000 installation, you will have to use a boot disk to access DOS, and run the setup from a DOS prompt) The setup process will run and install the boot loader automatically: you will be presented with a choice of available Operating Systems at boot up. Note that the boot files for both operating systems are placed on the same partition, even though the Operating Systems themselves are on different partitions. Once your Windows 2000 installation is complete you can configure the options for the boot loader screen in Control Panel/ System/Advanced/StartUp & Recovery: here you can select the default Operating System, and the time the menu will display before the default is selected (if you select 0 here, you will not see the menu displayed).
  11. 11. FOR INFORMATION ON FILES WHICH CAN BE SHARED ON A DUAL BOOT SYSTEM THE BOOT.INI FILE The boot loader information can also be accessed via a system file called boot.ini which is in the root of the boot partition, C: is normally the boot partition. To access this file you must uncheck Tools/Folder Options/View/Hide Protected Operating System Files. To access the boot.ini file on a NTFS partition from DOS you can use the ntfs.ini programme from Powerquest; if it is on a FAT partition you can access it from DOS using the EDIT function, but you may have to set the attributes to make it visible e.g. "attrib -r -h -s c:boot.ini". The contents of the file will look something like this: [Boot Loader] timeout=3 Default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)WINNT [Operating Systems] multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)WINNT="Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional" /fastdetect /nodebug C:="Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition" This is a dual boot configuration with Windows 2000 and Millennium, with a three second menu display, using Windows 2000 as the default Operating System. Here you can alter the timeout figure, and by altering the descriptions in blue, you can change the information that is presented in the boot menu. In this sytem Millennium is actually installed on the D: drive, but it shows as C: because that is where the boot files are for the system. Setting timeout=0 would mean the system would boot into Windows 2000 automatically, with no menu displayed. The multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1) section is important because it gives the path to the Windows 2000 installation folder. The multi(0) means the first IDE or SCSI disk controller, normally a system will have only one (this will show as scsi(0) for a SCSI controller without the bios enabled); the disk(0) refers to the first physical disk on the system, and the partition(1) refers to the first partition on that disk. BOOT.INI SWITCHES Note the addition of the /nodebug switch, this specifies that no monitoring of debugging information takes place, which can speed up the system. The /fastdetect switch, which is usually set by default, disables serial mouse detection during rebooting. One switch worth remembering if you are having driver problems whilst booting is /SOS, which displays the device driver names as they are being loaded, and can help you determine which driver is causing the problem. Finally, adding the switch /BOOTLOG creates a log file of the boot up process called ntbtlog.txt.
  12. 12. CREATING A WINDOWS 2000 BOOT DISK To create a set of Setup boot disks, run Makeboot.exe from the Bootdisk folder on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM: Insert the Windows 2000 CD-ROM in the CD-ROM drive. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Open box type drive:bootdiskmakeboot a:, and then press ENTER, where drive is the letter of your CD-ROM drive. NOTE: You do not have to be running Windows to create the Setup boot disks. For example, you can start your computer with a Windows 98 Startup disk, and then run the Makeboot.exe file from the Windows 2000 CD-ROM. To make a simple boot disk that will allow you to boot into Windows 2000 in the event that your one or more of your boot files is corrupted, e.g. boot.ini or ntldr, you can make a single boot disk by formatting a floppy disk in Windows 2000, and then copying the following files from your active partition e.g. C: to your newly formatted floppy: boot.ini, NTLDR, bootsect.dos, ntbootdd.sys (you will only need this file if you are using scsi(X) in the boot.ini file, see above) and ntdetect.com. Then if you are unable to boot into Windows 2000 for any reason simply insert the Boot Disk, and the loader menu will appear, and you can boot as normal.
  13. 13. ADD ON COMPONENTS There are many components available to you as a Windows user. Many of these components have to be added and configured for your computer before you can actually use them. To see the components available to you, you must go to the “Control Panel” and access them through the “Add or Remove Programs” icon. Instructions 1. Click once on the “Start” menu button, which is located on the taskbar. 2. Find the Control Panel. Click once on it. The “Control Panel” window will pop up. 3. Click twice on “Add or Remove Programs.” The “Add or Remove Programs” window will pop up. Along the left side of the window, you will see four choices: “Change or Remove Programs,” “Add New Programs,” “Add/Remove Windows Components” and “Set Program Access and Defaults.” 4. Choose “Add/Remove Windows Components” by clicking on it. The “Windows Components Wizard” window will pop up. 5. Select the component you want to add by clicking inside the small square next to the component’s name. 6. Click the “Next” button at the bottom of the “Windows Components Wizard” window. The wizard will automatically configure for you the component you want to add. 7. Wait until another window pops up that says, “You have successfully completed the Windows Components Wizard.” 8. Click the “Finish” button at the bottom of the “Windows Components Wizard” window. Read more: eHow.com http://www.ehow.com/how_4479443_add-windows-components.html#ixzz0zUqZeOA6
  14. 14. CREATING A NEW USER ACCOUNT IN WINDOWS 2000 Note: You must have an Administrative account to create and manage user accounts. 1. Click the Start button (usually located at the bottom left-hand corner of your screen). This will bring up a menu. 2. Click on Settings. This will bring up a submenu. 3. Click on Control Panel. This will open the Control Panel window. 4. Click on Users and passwords. 5. Note: If you are not already logged in as an Administrator, you will be prompted to enter the user name and password of your Administrators account. (For information on account groups see, Account Group Permissions.) Type your information and Click on OK. 6. The Users and Passwords window will open, showing a list of all user accounts on the computer.
  15. 15. 7. Click on the Add... button. The Add New User window will open.
  16. 16. 8. Next to User name, Type the user name to be used for the account. Note: If the account user will also be logging into Novell, you must use their Novell User name. 9. Next to Full name, Type the full name of the account owner. 10. Optional: Next to Description, Type a short, unique description of the account. This will help you differentiate between accounts with similar names. 11. Click on the Next button. 12. Next to Password, Type a password for the account. This is the password the account owner will use to log on to the computer. 13. Next to Confirm Password, Type the same password again. 14. Click on the Next button.
  17. 17. 15. Click on the little white circle next to the level of access you want to grant the account owner. (A black dot will appear in the circle.) If you'd like more information about account groups and access levels, see Assigning User Account Groups. 16. Click on the Finish button.
  18. 18. 17. The new account will appear in the Users and Passwords window. 18. Click on the OK button.

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