Piaget’s Theory ofPiaget’s Theory ofCognitive DevelopmentCognitive DevelopmentIn ChildrenIn ChildrenPresentation By:Presentation By:Miriam AndersonMiriam AndersonPeggy BelgravePeggy BelgravePenny LanePenny LaneRichard MichalekRichard Michalek
Piaget’s BackgroundPiaget’s Background• Born: August 9, 1896• Died: Sept. 16, 1980• Birth Place:– Neuchatel, Switzerland• Education:– Received PhD fromUniversity of Neuchatel• Married in 1923 toValentine Chatenay andbore 3 children• (Piaget, 1952)
The BeginningThe Beginning• Piaget was interested inthe study of knowledge inchildren.• He administered Binet’sIQ test in Paris andobserved that children’sanswers werequalitatively different.• Piaget’s theory is based on theidea that the developing childbuilds cognitive structures(schemes used to understandand respond to physicalenvironment).• He believed the child’scognitive structure increasedwith development(Brainerd,1978).
Genetic EpistemologyGenetic Epistemology• Epistemology is thestudy of knowledge• Genetic isdevelopment• Definition of GeneticEpistemology– Study ofdevelopmentalchanges in theprocess of knowingand in the organizationof knowledge.• Piaget wanted to knowhow children learnedthrough theirdevelopment in thestudy of knowledge.• He was considered astructuralist– Structuralism: therelationship between theparts and the whole(Brainerd,1978; Piaget,1952).
MethodologyMethodology• Clinical– Interviews– Interaction with the child• Behavioral Observations– Watched kids in theirnatural environment.– Put down what representedhis idea, he was biased(Brainerd, 1978).
Characteristics of Piaget’s StagesCharacteristics of Piaget’s Stages1. Each stage is a structured whole and ina state of equilibrium The stages are qualitative within thestructures and quantitative betweenstructures1. Each stage derives from the previousstage and incorporate and transform toprepare for the next No going back
Characteristics ContinuedCharacteristics Continued3. The stages follow an invariant sequence. There is no skipping stages.4. The stages are universal. Culture does not impact the stages.Children everywhere go through the samestages no matter what their culturalbackground is.
Characteristics ContinuedCharacteristics Continued5. Each stage is acoming into being. There is a gradualprogression fromstage to stage(Brainerd, 1978).
Stages of DevelopmentStages of Development• Piaget’s theory identifies fourdevelopmental stages and the processesby which children progress through them.• The four stages are:1. Sensorimotor Stage (birth to 24 months)2. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years old)3. Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years old)4. Formal Operational Stage (11-15 years old)(Brainerd, 1978).
Sensorimotor StageSensorimotor Stage• In this period, intelligence is demonstratedthrough motor activity without the use ofsymbols.• Knowledge of the world is limited (butdeveloping) because it is based onphysical interactions and experiences.• Some symbolic abilities are developed atthe end of this stage.
6 Stages of Sensorimotor Stage6 Stages of Sensorimotor Stage1. Modification ofreflexes (0-1months) Strengthens anddifferentiates reflexes1. Primary CircularReaction (1-4 months) Circular pattern ofhaving a stimulus andresponding Focus is on own body3. Secondary CircularReaction (4-8 months)Focus is on the outsideworld4. Coordination ofSecondary Schema (8-12 months)Goal oriented behaviorApply ability to otherthings
6 Stages Continued6 Stages Continued5. Tertiary Circular Reaction(12-18 months)Active potentialExplore object’s potential6. Invention of New Meansthrough Mental Combinations(18-24 months)Child moves from overt tocovert thoughtsThe child can use mentalrepresentation instead ofphysical objects (Piaget, 1952;Brainerd, 1978).
Preoperational StagePreoperational Stage(2-7 years old)(2-7 years old)• In this period, intelligence is demonstratedthrough the use of symbols.• Language use matures.• Memory and imagination are developed.• Thinking is done in a non-logicallynonreversible manner• Ego centric thinking predominates
Pre-Operational Stage ContinuedPre-Operational Stage Continued• Semiotic Function– Language develops– Uses symbols torepresent ideas– Verbal and writtenlanguage develops• Egocentrism– It is all about them– They can notdifferentiate betweenthemselves and theworld• Rigidity of Thought– Centration: focus onone aspect of anobject• Semi-logicalReasoning– They get the generalidea• Limited socialcognition
Preoperational Stage ContinuedPreoperational Stage Continued• Morality of Constraint– No bending of therules• Morality of Co-Operation– They bend the rules alittle bit
Concrete Operational StageConcrete Operational Stage(7-11 years)(7-11 years)• Operation: internalized action part oforganized structure.• Mentally carried out actions• Intelligence is demonstrated throughlogical and systematic manipulation ofsymbols related to concrete objects.• Egocentric thought diminishes.• Operational thinking develops.
Concrete Operational Stage Cont’dConcrete Operational Stage Cont’d• Piaget’s WaterConservation Task• Consist of twobeakers of differentsizes, one with water• Demonstrates thefollowing:– Reversibility-pourwater in beaker ofdifferent size andrealize that it is still thesame amount.– Compensation- eventhough one beaker istaller than the other,water is higherbecause the glass isthinner– Addition andsubtraction– Starts out with liquid,then mass, then space
Formal Operational StageFormal Operational Stage(11-15 years old)(11-15 years old)• Intelligence is demonstrated through thelogical use of symbols related to abstractconcepts.• There could be a return to egocentricthought early in the period.• Many people do not think formally duringadulthood.• Many people do not make it to this stage.
Formal Operations ContinuedFormal Operations Continued• Children formulatehypothesis by takingconcrete operationsand generatehypothesis aboutlogical relations• Pendulum Swing– The process is moreimportant than thesolution (Piaget, 1952;Brainerd, 1978).
Cognitive EquilibriumCognitive Equilibrium• Balance betweenorganization andadaptation– Always organized canlead to little or nogrowth– Always adapting canlead to little or noknowledge (Piaget,1952; Brainerd, 1978).
Cognitive AdaptationCognitive Adaptation• Allows the child to erect more and morecognitive structures through either– Assimilation: fit reality into current cognitiveorganization– Accommodation: adjust cognitive organizationto fit reality (Piaget, 1952; Brainerd, 1978).
How Piaget’s TheoryHow Piaget’s TheoryImpacts LearningImpacts Learning• Curriculum: Educators must plan adevelopmentally appropriate curriculumthat enhances their student’s logical andconceptual growth.• Instruction: Teachers must emphasize thecritical role that experiences, orinteractions with the surroundingenvironment play in student learning(Bybee & Sund, 1982).
ReferencesReferences• Brainerd, C. (1978). Piaget’s theory ofintelligence. Englewood Cliffs: PrenticeHall.• Bybee, R. & Sund, R. (1982). Piaget foreducators (2ndEd.). Columbus, OH:Charles Merrill.• Piaget, J. (1952). Autobiography. In E.Boring (ed) history of psychology inautobiography (4). Worcester, MA: ClarkUniversity Press.