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# Applied game design 2 analysis

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### Applied game design 2 analysis

1. 1. APPLIED GAME DESIGN Analysis
2. 2. Advanced Analysis Throughout the program you have been looking at analysis. Deconstructing games, looking at systems, working out mechanics.
3. 3. Advanced Analysis But this has always been an isolated action: Something done in a single course. Something that is described but the process has been left up to you
4. 4. Advanced Analysis This course is based on analysing, and isolating systems. So understanding how to do this, we’re going to go through different processes
5. 5. Analysis Analysis is the process of transforming a problem definition from a fuzzy set of facts and myths into a coherent statement of a system’s requirements.
6. 6. Analysis The main objective of the analysis is to capture: – a complete, unambiguous, and consistent picture of the requirements of the system and – what the system must do to satisfy the users' requirements and needs.
7. 7. Systems Let’s start with a definition: A system is a set of interrelated components that function together to achieve a common goal. The components of a system are called subsystems. The components of a system are interdependent; that is, the output of one subsystem is usually becomes the input of another subsystem. Thus, malfunctioning of one component affects the functioning of other components.
8. 8. Systems A system receives inputs from the outside environment, which are then processed by various subsystems, and then delivers required outputs to the outside environment. A system also has control mechanisms to make certain decisions. This is usually performed as a feedback to the system user (or automated to the system environment) followed by certain decisions.
9. 9. Use Cases When looking at the system as a whole, Use Case Analysis identifies all the major uses of the system. It is a functional description of the entire system.
10. 10. Use Cases · Use Cases are the main tasks performed by the users of the system. · Use Cases describe the behavioural aspects of the system. · Use Cases are used to identify how the system will be used. · Use Cases are a convenient way to document the functions that the system must support. · Use Cases are used to identify the components (objects) of the system.
11. 11. Use Cases Describe each use case, actor and relationship. Describe how the use case interacts with the actor as opposed to how it will perform its task.
12. 12. Use Cases Use Case examples • Clerk prints a sales receipt for a video rental. • Person spell checks a typed document. • Receptionist schedules an appointment. • Advisor registers student for classes.
13. 13. Physical and Logical Models
14. 14. Physical Model To create a physical model, the following questions are asked: • Who performs the tasks? • How they are performed? • When or how often they are performed? • How the data is stored (media)? • How the dataflows are implemented (media)?
15. 15. Objects, Properties, Behaviours, Relationships This brings us back to the familiar ground of analysis that you are all aware of. The “Game Design Workbook” describes systems. It says The basic elements of systems are objects, properties, behaviours, and relationships. Objects within the system interact with each other according to their properties, behaviours, and relationships, causing changes to the system state. How those changes are manifested depend on the nature of the objects and interactions.
16. 16. Objects Objects are the basic building blocks of a system. Systems can be thought of as a group of interrelated pieces called objects, which may be physical, abstract, or both, depending on the nature of the system. Examples of objects in games might be individual game pieces (such as the “king” or “ queen ” in chess), in-game concepts (such as the “bank” in Monopoly ), the players themselves , or representations of the players (such as the avatars in an online environment)
17. 17. Objects Objects are defined by their properties and behaviors. They are also defined by their relationships with other objects.
18. 18. Properties Properties are qualities or attributes that define physical or conceptual aspects of objects. Generally, these are a set of values that describe an object.
19. 19. Properties For example, the attributes of a bishop include its color (white or black) and its location. The properties of a character in a role-playing game may be much more complex, including variables such as health, strength, dexterity, experience, level, as well as its location in the online environment, and even the artwork or other media associated with that object.
20. 20. Behaviours The next defining characteristics of objects in a system are their behaviors. Behaviors are the potential actions that an object might perform in a given state. The behaviors of the bishop in chess include moving along any of the diagonals radiating from its current position until it is blocked by or captures another piece.
21. 21. Behaviours The behaviors of the role-playing character described previously might include walking, running, fighting, talking, using items, etc.
22. 22. Relationships As we mentioned earlier, systems also have relationships among their objects. This is a key concept in design. If there are no relationships between the objects in question, then you have a collection, not a system.
23. 23. Relationships For example, a stack of blank index cards is a collection. If you write numbers on the cards, or mark them in several suits , then you have created relationships among the cards. Removing the “3” card from a sequence of 12 will change the dynamics of a system which uses those cards.
24. 24. Relationships Relationships can be expressed in a number of ways. A game played on a board might express relationships between objects based on location. Alternately, relationships between objects might be defined hierarchically, as in the numerical sequence of cards described previously.
25. 25. Relationships How relationships between objects in a system are defined plays a large part in how the system develops when it’s put in motion.
26. 26. Objects, Properties, Behaviours, Relationships Give this a go. Analyse this and come back in 30
27. 27. MDA Analysis What’s the A
28. 28. Analysis Analysing games is easy. They are controlled systems, in some cases, obviously signposted. Applying this to other subjects is hard and requires careful thought.
29. 29. Analysis But it isn’t hard. The Institute of Play teaches Systems Thinking to 6th Graders (11-12 year olds) They include the following
30. 30. Analysis Distinguishing what is important and salient. Identifying causal relationships among things and ideas. Sequencing causes and effects to act and think effectively over time. Establishing patterns and relationships over time and space. Clarifying disparate bits of information and reconciling them to a larger whole.
31. 31. Analysis Resolving tensions and discrepancies within existing structures. Explaining knowledge in terms relative to the individual whose discourse is the reference point. Providing relevant examples from other knowledge bases that help to demonstrate and exemplify the efficacy of primary knowledge. Applying knowledge to new circumstances and situations.
32. 32. Analysis Do this all the time, where ever you are. Analyse shopping, walking to uni, getting on a ferry, a train, a bus. Analyse making a coffee. Because now it gets hard.
33. 33. MDA Analysis We all know about MDA as a framework, and you may have used it to analyse games. But analysis is analysis. So – how do we use MDA to analyse real world systems?
34. 34. MDA Analysis Games can be seen to be developed like this: DESIGN Procedures And play patterns Player Experience A Design is written. It features the games rules The player interacts with these rules and develops play styles Which translates into one of 8 kinds of “fun”
35. 35. 8 Kinds of Fun • Sensation: game as sense-pleasure • Fantasy: game as make-believe • Narrative: game as unfolding story • Challenge: game as obstacle course • Fellowship: game as social framework • Discovery: Game as uncharted territory • Expression: Game as soap box • Submission: Game as mindless pastime
36. 36. Type of Work • High-stakes work • Busy work • Mental Work • Physical Work • Discovery Work • Teamwork • Creative Work Jane McGonigal describes Fun in terms of Work. There are:
37. 37. MDA This can be analysed down to: Mechanics Dynamics Aesthetics
38. 38. MDA • Mechanics: The rules and concepts that formally specify the game system • Dynamics: The run-time behavior of the game-as-system. • Aesthetics: The desirable emotional responses evoked by the game dynamics.
39. 39. MDA Analysis How do we even start? Aesthetics Let’s start here. With an emotional response.
40. 40. MDA Analysis When you are analysing a system to gamify it, you are looking to engage your players. Interaction with your system is going to give them an emotional response. The chances are they already have one that you might want to change
41. 41. The Dentist We all have an emotional response to a Dentist trip. Generally the response isn’t a good one. What is the Mechanic and Dynamic of this?
42. 42. The Dentist How have we got there? The mechanic is a medical professional. The dynamic might be where the problem is?
43. 43. MDA Analysis A Dental dynamic could be the noise of the drill, the waiting room, the fear of pain? How do we change this? What elements could we modify in improve that dynamic?
44. 44. MDA Analysis When analysing with MDA, you have to broadly apply terms. What is the output for the player? An emotional response? An effect? A take-away?
45. 45. MDA Analysis When analysing with MDA, you have to broadly apply terms. How do you define your mechanics? What are the elements that set up your emotional response? What are your basic blocks? Individual objects? Concepts? The people involved, or representations/notions of them?
46. 46. MDA Analysis Then – what is the “The run-time behavior of the game-as-system”? This, obviously, requires you to understand the system and see how the objects work within it.
47. 47. MDA Analysis Early attempts at this will be long and tortuous. But it gets easier. At some point you’ll think about systems/MDA as second nature. Until then – practice…
48. 48. The “Out of Left Field” Option This is Aleister Crowley. Known as The Great Beast, the wickedest man in the world. He was an English occultist, ceremonial magician, poet, painter, novelist, and mountaineer
49. 49. Aleister Crowley He analysed magick and reduced it to an, almost, post-modern simplicity that wasn’t to be seen again until the Chaos Magic movement in the mid-70s, popularised in the 80s He was also a monumental troll.
50. 50. Aleister Crowley The reason we’re looking at him today is because of something he wrote in 1904. While in the midst of a ritual, and over the course of 3 days, Crowley heard the voice of Aiwass, an entity who was the messenger of Horus, or Hoor- Paar-Kraat. The voice dictated what became The Book of The Law
51. 51. Aleister Crowley It stated that a supreme moral law was to be introduced in this Aeon, "Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law” This became the subject of many interpretations. Some seeing it as a call to just do what you want, others seeing it, as Crowley did, as living intentionally
52. 52. Aleister Crowley Magick is the Science and Art of causing Change to occur in conformity with Will. (Illustration: It is my Will to inform the World of certain facts within my knowledge. I therefore take "magickal weapons", pen, ink, and paper; I write "incantations" — these sentences — in the "magickal language" ie, that which is understood by the people I wish to instruct;
53. 53. Aleister Crowley I call forth "spirits", such as printers, publishers, booksellers and so forth and constrain them to convey my message to those people. The composition and distribution of this book is thus an act of Magick by which I cause Changes to take place in conformity with my Will.)
54. 54. Aleister Crowley Intentional Acts. Using this view of “living magically” you can weigh up the actions of your designs. What are the consequences of choosing one action over another? What tools are available for you to cause change?
55. 55. Aleister Crowley Intentional Acts. How do you live “designery”? What are the tools you use to cause change?