Recap In the French and Indian war, Great Britain paid for the defense of the colonies The colonies are now expected to help repay that debt through TAXES http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6DPeCXV5bI
Relations with Britain Proclamation of 1763 stated: British wanted to control Fur Trade British wanted to keep 10,000 soldiers in the colonies to protect British interests The colonists thought that British was taking too much control in the colonies.
Trade Laws Grenville new Prime Minister, wanted to lower British Debt Americans were smuggling goods to avoid taxes Grenville passed a law the Writ of Assistance: saying any smuggler was convicted without a jury trial – and that a soldier could search any home for smuggled goods without notice
The Sugar Act Allowing for tax on Molasses imported by colonists What was used to make molasses?? Let officers seize goods from smugglers without going to court
The Stamp Act Placed a tax on almost all printed material in the colonies – from newspapers and pamphlets to wills and playing cards. Stamps applied by British officials Also passed the Quartering Act – saying that colonists had to provide housing for the soldiers, which included food and drink.
Protesting the Stamp Act Patrick Henry “Give me Liberty or Give me death” Patrick Henry from Virginia, got the Virginia congress to protest Virginia passed a resolution declaring it had the exclusive rights to tax its citizens Samuel Adams started Sons of Liberty to protest Led to the Stamp Act Congress: representatives from 9 colonies – decided to boycott – in this case refused to buy stamps
Stamp Act Repealed Stores lost so much money in the boycott that Britain was forced to repeal the Stamp Act But, Britain did pass the Declaratory Act: which said that they did have the power to tax the colonies
Place the following events on a timeline: Include on Timeline: (Put British Legislation on top and Colonial Responses on the Bottom) · Parliament passes Sugar Act in 1764 · In 1765 the Stamp Act places a tax on printed material · Two years later the Townshend Acts impose new taxes on imported goods · Parliament passes the Tea Act in 1773 · Following the Boston Tea party, the Intolerable Acts pass a year later · Sons of Liberty Organize in 1765 · Samuel Adams revives the Boston committee of correspondence in 1772 to circulate writings of grievances against Britain. · Three Years later, George Washington is chosen to head the Continental Army · Thomas Paine Calls for American Action the following year in Common Sense ___________________________________________________________________ 1764 1766 1768 1770 1772 1774 1776
Recap The various taxes imposed on the Colonists drove them to the edge! The latest of these taxes was the Townshend Acts, taxing all goods that the colonies were forced to import because they couldn’t make these goods alone.
New Taxes – And the outcome Townshend Acts Taxes that applied only to imported goods Everything taxed, glass, tea, paper, lead which were things colonists did not make Colonists boycotted these items now as well Daughters of Liberty encouraged everyone to wear homemade clothes Repealed the day of the Boston Massacre
Boston Massacre Troops sent to combat boycott against the Townshend Acts There were 16,000 people living in Boston, plus 4,000 troops Soldiers competed for jobs with colonists March 5, 1770: colonists began rioting against soldiers Threw snow, rocks, and ice at them “Fire” was yelled in the crowd and soldiers killed 5 colonists Adams cousins: Samuel led 10,000 in funeral march. John was the lawyer for the accused soldiers (who were all later acquitted)
Remember, there’s always two sides to a story…
Boston Tea Party Lead by The Sons of Liberty (dressed as Mohawk Indians) December 16, 1773 150 men dumped tea that was being imported from Britain into Boston Harbor for 3 hours King George II said “the die is now cast…the colonies must either submit or triumph” This was the model for tea parties in other colonies Significant because it led to the Continental Congress
The Last Straw…Coercive Acts aka. Intolerable Acts All dumped tea had to be paid for, until then, Boston harbor was closed John Adams serves as the lawyer for the soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre, and then is elected to represent Mass in the Continental Congress which met in Philly http://www.hbo.com/films/johnadams/index.html
In one of the Intolerable Acts… Thomas Gage was named Governor of Mass. He was one of the King’s BFF’s and Patriots really hated him. He controlled the “RED COATS” They closed Boston Harbor and help came from all the other colonies…they gave their exports to Boston…which was illegal bc they didn’t pay taxes on them Even South Carolina sent them rice, this was a big deal because there were NO ROADS to travel on, and the wagons and things would break all the time – but it really brought the colonies together.
People’s Emotions Patriots – people who supported the Revolution – wanted to break free from Great Brit and King George Loyalists – people who wanted to remain loyal to Great Britain
Continental Congress (important) Who: Delegates from all colonies (except GA): total 56 men What: A meeting; effect from the Intolerable Acts. Came up with 10 resolutions of enumerated rights of colonists When: Sept. 5 -Oct. 26, 1774 (6 weeks long) Where: Philadelphia, Penn. Why: to make a game plan; set up meeting #2 in case Britain didn’t change http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6caJv__WSM&feature=related Meet George Washington
“We have not men fit for the times. We are deficient in genius, in education, in travel, in fortune, in everything.” –John Adams
WHO WAS THERE?
Go to teachers.parkhill.k12.mo.us/harjungl
Then click on SS CLASS PAGE
Then click on “WHICH MEMBER OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS ARE YOU LIKE?”
Take the quiz, when you’re done, answer these questions on a sheet of paper:
Name of the representative/what colony did they represent? What, if any, contributions did they make to the congress? Couple of brief sentences about their life
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RbK4cL3QSc0 Boston accent
What would you do? You’re ticket out today: Would you be a patriot or a loyalist? Write a paragraph (5 sentences) to support your answer. When you are finished, you may begin working on Learning Targets.
Setting the Scene… After the Coercive Acts: King George III made General Thomas Gage Governor of Mass. Gage was also Commander in Chief of all British forces in America Moved Mass. Capital from Boston to Salem and dissolved the colony’s congress Many people fled Boston Gage captured stores of hidden patriot guns/powder Arrested Sons of Liberty leaders: Sam Adams and John Hancock Sons of Liberty expected this and started practicing loading their muskets – became known as Minutemen
Shot Heard ‘Round the World – Lexington Paul Revere was on watch for British troop movements April 18, 1775: British began moving towards Lexington, Revere left to warn Adams and Hancock (Revere would be caught and arrested) 77 minutemen got ready at Lexington British tried to just march past them, but a random shot was fired British troops broke formation and started shooting 8 Minutemen dead
Concord British troops had sent some guys ahead and took control of Salem Bridge Minutemen attacked them and the bridge was unguarded As British troops crossed the bridge, Minutemen hiding began shooting at them 73 British died, 174 wounded These are significant because: war had not yet been declared, but this was an unofficial start to the war http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=0ED7E159-4C47-412C-9FAB- Differences in US/British Soldiers
Second Continental Congress Formed the Continental Army and appointed George Washington as General of all American forces
School House Rocks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7VQA5NDNkUM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofYmhlclqr4&feature=related
Bunker Hill Colonists low on ammunition Colonists on top of Bunker Hill; British ‘redcoats’ began to march up “Don’t fire ‘till you see the whites of their eyes” – Colonel Prescott Colonists ran out of bullets and had to retreat, British won but had huge losses More than 1,000 British casualties
What is a… Social Contract?
Influences to this point: John Locke’s Natural Right Theory Magna Carta – British document Thomas Paine’s Common Sense- pamphlet written that circulated through the colonies calling for a rebellion/revolution from Great Britain
Drafting the Declaration of Independence Began in May 1776, Finished on July 4, 1776 Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson Had three major sections 1st: Natural Rights/Preamble 2nd: List of issues with King George III 3rd: Call for a new form of government- Break from Britain http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nrvpZxMfKaU&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-7Y1ougODMo&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T1Txi1687wo
I'm not sure how to start this letter but I feel we need to talk. I've been thinking about us a lot lately. Things used to be so great - it was like we were M.F.E.O. I mean everyone said it was perfect. I really thought we would be together forever but then things changed. I feel like you started to take me for granted. You just started to do whatever you wanted and never even asked me about anything or how I felt. I've been thinking about this for a while and I don't want to hurt you but I think it is time we broke up. I mean it's just not going to work. I need some time by myself to see what it is like on my own. I'm sorry things didn't work out but I do think YOU are the one to blame. Sorry but "US" is over. -The American Colonies
FYI about Jefferson
Re-write these excerpts in your own words, you may work with a partner, but you each need a paper… pg. 154. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights…” (paragraph 2) “…whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institutie new Government…”(paragraph 4) “That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and independent States, that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved…” (second sent. of last paragraph)
Dec of Ind. Cont. Inalienable rights – rights that can not be taken away Consent of the Governed – people should have the right to choose who is their leader and what rules their leader creates (from John Locke’s ideas)
Issues with Taxes: One of the major issues in the Dec. was taxes. Tariffs: tax on imports Sales Tax: tax on items you buy: ie: a bottle of water marked 99¢ really rings up as $1.07 Income Tax: tax on the money you make: FYI the more you make, the more the government takes out, its called “graduated income tax” For example:
Why was it done? Colonists were FINALLY ready to formally break from the King and Great Britain They were ready to formally state that
Video: Declaration of Independence: A Living Blueprint for Democracy Follow along…you are going to need this for our lessons this week. Each one of you has a section, you need to summarize/write it in your own words. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jYyttEu_NLU
Battle of Saratoga- Set up British winning big time – Captured the U.S. Capital at Philadelphia – members from the Continental Congress fled to another town British move toward Albany, NY but are also low on supplies, don’t make it all the way there and stop in Saratoga, NY to stay for the winter
British Surrender at Saratoga British troops think that they are going to be reinforced, but they never were Surrounded by American troops, British general Burgoyne tries to make one last attack to defend himself on October 17, 1777 He loses, surrenders to the Patriots – hands over all their weapons to colonists to the song of Yankee Doodle Significant because it’s a MAJOR turning point – British had been winning, now Americans start winning
African Americans in the Revolution What your book says: “As many as 5,000 African Americans joined the Patriots.” What your book does not say: That 10,000 African Americans fought with the British redcoats Why? Because the British promised them freedom after the war was won
Viva la France Franklin had been in Paris, France for a year He was trying to gain allies for the patriots Once the patriots started defeating the British, France began to support them 1778-France declares war on Britain, sent money, equipment, troops, and aid to the Continental Army
Spain Declared war on British in 1779 – not because they liked the colonies, but mostly because they hated the British Spanish began to raise an army to help the colonists
Checking in on the Loyalists Every colony had loyalists Thousands of them fought with the British against the Patriots Many fled the colonies during the war, they sold all of their belongings and returned to England Some left for Florida Some became victims of mob violence Loyalists could be arrested, some were even killed by patriots
Who is Benedict Arnold?
Battle of Yorktown and Surrender… Both armies getting tired, both need reinforcements Its now 1781, the war has been going on for 6 long years. French came to reinforce the Patriots at Chesapeake Bay The British came behind them and locked them in the bay Then, more French came behind them and locked in the British Washington hears about fighting in VA, marches his troops 200 miles in 2 weeks to Yorktown, VA
Washington goes South While marching South, Washington faked letters to throw off the British The plan worked, British in VA had no idea he was coming. The French navy sailed south and were on the shores of VA and unloaded ships and fought with Patriots
Yorktown British are surrounded Patriots and French fire tirelessly for days They have all of their new supplies from the French Cornwallis (general of British troops) surrenders on the Oct. 19, 1781 February 4, 1783 – British declares an end to Revolutionary War
The look of defeat
Cost and outcome Reports say that as much as 90% of the Patriots gunpowder came from France The “United States” was now considered from the East coast up to the Mississippi River, Except for New Orleans and Florida American losses: 25,324 Only 6,284 killed in battle >10,000 died from disease 8,500 died in captivity of the British $11,710,379 in debt to allies http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bvn-bYVR2YI Adams meets george III
Articles of Confederation Our first governing document Written immediately after the end of the Revolutionary War Basic Ideas: One vote per state 2/3 majority needed to pass legislation (only one house) Unanimous vote needed to amend Articles (hard to change)