Advertising and Promotional
Advertising could possibly be the most common form of photography seen today.
It is all about creating an image which helps sell a product or service.
A huge range of techniques can be used with many different types of shots being
utilized. There is also lots of different pieces of equipment that are made use of.
They use things such as artificial lighting to create a more desirable environment.
There is also a huge amount of post-production, meaning programmes such as
Photoshop are used to manipulate the image after it has been taken. They do this
because it allows them to change the image in ways that make it more suitable
for the product or service they are advertising.
Promotional photography is where photographs are used to promote something,
rather than sell something, for example a music artist may use photographs to
help promote their music. It is similar to advertising but it has a different purpose.
Like advertising photography, the environment is often heavily controlled through
the use of thing such as artificial light and photography studios. Usually a lot of
post-production editing is also involved to create the desired image.
Depending on the nature of the shoot, many different types of lenses may be
used. Which lenses depend on the desired outcome.
Use this slide to annotate an archetype image
In the room
it is nice a
Its not a
Notice that the product that is being advertised is
directly in the centre of the shot and takes up
most of the image. Also the depth of field is
focused on the product, drawing your attention
to it immediately.
bowl of fruit
that it is in
This is to
the idea that
it is healthy.
Fashion photography's aim is to promote fashion labels and help sell clothes. It is
most predominant in magazines and newspapers but is also widely used online
and in catalogues.
Fashion photography usually tries to create an atmosphere of a mood or moment
in the story, while flaunting the clothing.
Styles vary hugely within fashion photography depending on the photographer,
designer and end user (magazine or website etc.)
The majority of the time shoots happen in studios or other controlled
environments, such as constructed sets. However they can also take place on
location. Equipment such as artificial lighting and specialist camera lenses are
commonplace. The images are also manipulated and edited post-production.
Sometime fashion photography can take the shape of editorial work, taking up
multiple pages of a magazine for a fashion shoot.
The model is
into the camera
makes them feel
involved and as
if it is aimed at
The dress that the
model is wearing
goes with the
setting. It is dark
and wavy, and
in the way it
almost floats out,
trailing along the
Use this slide to annotate an archetype image
The walls look very worn and battered, adding to the
There are dead leaves all over the floor
and mattress which give the idea that it
is shot in an abandoned building.
shoot is a
the set is
Photojournalism is where pictures are created to help tell a news story or
somehow contribute to the story. The people who do this are called
photojournalists. And example of some types of photography within
photojournalism would be sport, war and paparazzi style photos.
In photojournalism image manipulation is a big controversy. Some believe that
minor adjustments are okay but many others feel that all post production is
unacceptable with these kinds of images.
Photojournalism works within the same ethical approaches in relation to
objectivity that are applied by other journalists.
As a general rule of thumb, rather than being staged, images are usually
observational, meaning that it is not staged and is just a photo that is taken
without models, actors or props. The use of additional light is often limited to a
If it is a shot where the photographer is further away a telephoto lens would be
used. If it is a shot where the photographer is close to the action then in general,
wider lenses are normally used.
Portraiture is one of the most common types of photography. In portraiture the
face, facial features and facial expressions are the most predominant aspect of
The constructionist approach is where the photographer constructs and idea
around the portrait, for example a romantic couple or happy family. It is the most
common approach in studio and social photography. It is common for it to involve
artificial lighting and post-production editing.
The environmental approach shows the subject in their environment whether a
social, family, work or leisure one. The environmental approach reveals more
about the subject.
The candid approach is where people are photographed without them knowing,
as they go about their daily business. It is a still shot of a moment within everyday
life as it happens. These are observational images and rely on the ambient light.
The Creative Approach is where image manipulation is used to create portraits.
Its is becoming a popular form
High street studio
There a many different types of high street photography such as portraiture and
There are multiple companies and franchises, such as venture focus on wall
paintings and family portraits. They have made popular the high class feel of
modern family portraiture.
Over time it is becoming more and more difficult for independent high street
photographers to get by. The increasing price of rent has forced many
photographers to turn to home studio production.
Artificial light is often used in studios to help create a range of moods. A lot of the
time images then go through post-production editing to get the right feel. The
majority of the time wide lenses are used, as in the studio work space is often
There is a huge variety of different styles and each different photographer and
company have their own way of doing things.
Architectural photography is where the main focus point is buildings and other
Architectural photographers usually have a great understanding of specialist
techniques and equipment. An example of some of the equipment they might use
would be tilt shift lenses.
Images can then be passed on to architects, surveyors, construction companies,
consulting engineers, property developers, hoteliers etc. these people may then
use the images for a wide range of things such as websites, adverts, brochures
and editorial features.
Depending on the desired use of the images they may or may not undergo postproduction editing. There are distinct different styles used for engineers and
surveyors than that used for hoteliers.
Illustration photography is where photographs are used alongside newspaper
articles to support the story and give the reader more information. It is often
confused with photographs of illustration (drawings).
Illustration can take the form of detailed step by step images designed to help
convey information in text books or other forms of educational literature.
It can also be used to influence the reader in terms of what they feel about
Techniques, equipment and styles can vary hugely depending on the subject and
purpose. You will have to think about what you think has been utilised in your
It is the aim of a medical photographer to produce accurate and objective images
that truthfully record injuries, diseases, operations and medical procedures, as
well as the progress of these.
Their photographs can be used for measurement and analysis, as well as to
support medical or scientific reports, research papers or articles.
The majority of medical photographers work in medical illustration departments in
hospitals or medical schools. Most of these illustration departments are relatively
They normally use digital cameras and flash to photograph patients in the wards
and in the operating theatre during surgery. They also take photographs to
document bodies in the post mortem room.
In more complex situations they may use a range of specialist photo imaging
techniques and equipment, such as micro and macrography, time lapse
cinematography, thermal imaging, endoscopy (internal organ photography), and
photography outside the visible spectrum.
A medical photographer may also have to take commercial or public relations
style photography for more general use.
Fine art photography
Fine art photography can involve almost anything. It may involve a huge range of
different styles of photography and techniques and this makes it quite hard to
There is no limit on what subject it can be but some of the more popular ones
include wildlife, architecture and nudes. There are not many boundaries fro fine
art, as there is not a specific definition, it is as much opinion as specification. It
could include portraits or landscapes, black and white or coloured, it could be
heavily edited post-production or it could not be edited at all.
Fine art photographs are usually produced to be sold as pieces by themselves or
included in things such as books or calendars. However, a lot of fine art is
produced by people who just enjoy photography and may use their images
recreationally and upload them to blogs etc. instead of producing them as a way
of creating income.
It is different from things such as photojournalism which provides illustration for
news events, and commercial photography which is used to help sell or promote
a product or service, in the way that it does not have a purpose as such, it is
mostly created for people to enjoy however they like. For example some fine art
may be collected and used as decorations around a home, some may be
collected and presented as a compilation on a blog. There is not really any limit
as to what fine art photography can be used for.
Documentary photography is similar to photojournalism but often consists of working
on long-term projects (such as going on tour with a band to create promotional
material) and often consists of complicated multi-strand narratives. Photojournalism
focuses on more breaking news stories.
This is usually done with observational photography, as opposed to staging the shot.
The images are often subject to post-production editing, but nowhere near the
amount that fashion or advertising photography undergo. Types of lenses vary
depending on the shot.
Documentary photography allows the photographer to show the different aspects of
life and the day-to-day happenings of their subjects. Documentary photography makes
use of multiple images to help tell a story instead of relying on a single image