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  • 1. Ih¿tÃmdn dmin-Zp¬ Kqin kv{XobpsS cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fnØw Ah-Imiw am{X-a-√, An-hm-cyX Cß- s - s bmcp Xe- s °´v sImSp- t °- ≠ n- h - ∂ Xv cmjv{Sob Pohn-X-Ønse kv{Xo]-¶m-fnØw Ct∏mgpw Nne apkvenw- k-aq-l-ß-fn¬ Hcp {]iv-ambn ne- n¬°p-∂p F∂XpsIm-≠m-Wv. C°m-cy-Øn¬ Ckvem- ans‚ A[ym-]--ßfpw ne-]m-Sp-Ifpw hfsc hy‡- am-Wv. F∂n-´pw- kv{Xosb cmjv{Sob Pohn-XØn¬n∂v - ]msS AI-‰n-n¿Øp∂ {]h-WX ne-n¬°p-∂p. A√m-lp-hn¬ hniz-kn-°-W-sa∂pw Ahs‚ I¬]--Iƒ°v hgn-s∏-S-W-sa∂pw DZvt_m-[n-∏n-°p∂ Hcp Zoo {]ÿm--am-bn-´mWv Ckvem-ans‚ BK-a-w. AtX-k-abw Cu {]ÿmw Hcp kaqe kmaq-lnI cmjv{Sob hnπ-hsØbpw Bhm-ln-®n-cp-∂p. B hnπhw - Ad-_n-I-fpsS Pohn-XsØ Bg-Ønepw ]c-∏nepw ]q¿W-ambn am‰n-°f™p. AXn-m¬ Cu BZ¿isØ - - BZyw st©-‰nb kaqlw ΩpsS ImesØ e£y- t_m-[-ap≈ hnπh {]ÿm--ß-sf-t∏m-se-bp≈ H∂m- bn-cp-∂p. hy‡n-I-sfbpw hy‡n-_-‘-ß-sfbpw am{X- a√ AXv am‰n-bXv. A[n-Im-cÿm-ßsfbpw AXv am‰n- - - - - °-f™p. bmYm-ÿn-XnI ]mc-ºcy-i‡n-Iƒs°-Xnsc - - - Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 2. hnπ-h-{]-ÿm--Øn¬ AWn-tN-cp-∂-Xnv Xpey-am-bn-cp∂p Cu ]pXnb Zon¬ AWn-tN-cp-∂-Xpw. bmYm-ÿn-XnI Nn¥-I-sfbpw _‘-ß-sfbpw Pohn-X-ssi-en- I-sf-bp-sa√mw AXv tNmZyw sNbvXp. nc-¥-c-amb t]mcm´w Xs∂-bm-bn-cp∂p AXv. AXmbXv kz¥-tØm-Sv, Np‰p-]m-Sp-I-tfm-Sv, temI-tØmSv S-Øp∂ Hcp Iem-]w. Cu Nn¥-bp-sSbpw AXns‚ ASn-Ø-d-bn¬ ÿm]n-X-am-hp∂ {]ÿm- -Øn-s‚bpw A]-ISw ]mc-ºcy bmYm-ÿn-XnI i‡n-Iƒ Xncn-®-dn-™n-cp-∂p. hnπh {]ÿm-sØ XI¿°m≥ C∂sØ bmYm-ÿn-XnI hn`m-K-߃ {]tbm- Kn-°p∂ AtX AS-hp-Iƒ Xs∂-bmWv A∂sØ ]mc-ºcy i‡n-Ifpw {]tbm- Kn-®-Xv. I≈m-tcm-]-W-߃, D]-tcm-[w, ]´n-Wn-°n-S¬, ASn-®-a¿Ø¬, B´n-tbm- Sn-°¬, HSp-hn¬ bp≤-{]-Jym-]-w. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Cu hnπ-h-{]-ÿm--Øn¬ AWn-tN¿∂-h¿ AXns‚ BZ¿i-߃ kwc-£n-°m≥ th≠n Xß-fpsS tXr-Xz-Ønv ]n∂n¬ AWn-n- c∂p. kaq-l-sØbpw cmjv{S-sØbpw kwc-£n-°m-m-bn-cp∂p Cu t]mcm-´w. hnπh {]ÿm--Øns‚ mb-I≥ Xs‚ c£n-Xm-hn-¶-te°v bm{X-bm-b-t∏mƒ Adnhpw ]cn-N-bhpw {]mK-¤y-hp-ap-≈-h¿ HØp-IqSn ]pXnb tXr-XzsØ sXc- s™-Sp-Øp. Xß-fpsS mb-I≥ XpS-ßn-sh® hnπ-h-ZuXyw XpS-c-W-sa∂ Imcy- Øn¬ Hcmƒ°pw FXn-c-`n-{]m-b-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. Aßs hnπ-h-Zu-Xyhpw kaq- lhpw cmjv{Shpw tXr-Xzhpw H∂n-s®m-∂mbn apt∂m-´v. Cu hnπh ZuXy-Øns‚ Pw apX¬ AXns‚ F√m L´-ß-fnepw Im¬sh-∏p-I-fnepw kv{Xo ]¶m-fnØw D≠m-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂Xv An-tj-[y-am-Wv. {]t_m-[ {]h¿Ø--ß-fnepw t]mcm-´-ß-fnepw kv{Xo kPoh km∂n-[y-a-dn-bn- ®n-cp-∂p. BZyw Ckvemw kzoI-cn-®Xv Hcp kv{Xobm-Wv. BZysØ c‡-km- £nbpw kv{Xo Xs∂. Ahƒ FtXym-]y-bn-te-°p≈ ]em-b--Øn¬ ]¶m-fn-bm- bn-cp-∂p. aZo--bn-te°v ]em-bw sNømpw AhnsS Hcp Ckvem-anI `c-W-kw- hn-[mw ÿm]n-°mpw Xocp-am--amb Ncn-{X-{]-[m--amb c≠mw AJ_m DS-º- Sn°v Ahƒ km£n-bm-Wv. km[m-c-W-K-Xn-bn¬ kv{Xo apdpsI ]nSn-°p∂ Zmº- Xyw, hoSv, k¥m--߃, kzØv XpS-ßn-b-h-sb√mw Cu BZ¿i-Øns‚ km£m- XvIm-c-Ønv th≠n Ahƒ XyPn-®p. Ckvem-anse al-Ømb Ncn{X kw`-h- ߃s°√mw Ahƒ ZrIvkm-£n. kwL-Sm sI´p-d-∏ns De-°p∂ {]iv-߃ Db¿∂p-h∂t∏mƒ AXv ]cn-lcn-°m-mbn hnπ-hm-bI≥ Xs∂ Ah-fpsS A`n- - - - - - {]mbw kzoI-cn-°p-∂p. lpssZ-_nb Zn-Øn¬ tXmhpw AWn-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘w Debp-sa∂v tXm∂n® L´-Øn¬ kz¥w ]Xvn DΩp-k-e-a-bpsS A`n- {]mbw kzoI-cn-®mWv {]hm-N-I≥ {]iv-Ønv ]cn-lmcw I≠-Xv. _n-bpsS ho´nse kv{Xobm-bn-cp-∂p -C-kvem-anI hn⁄m--߃ kzmb- Ø-am°n Ah kaq-l-Ønv ]I¿∂p-sIm-Sp-Ø-Xv. Ahƒ ZAvhØpw PnlmZpw lnPvdbpw S-Øn, ]oUn-∏n-°-s∏-´p. ∑ {]N-cn-∏n-°p-Ibpw Xn∑ XS-bp-Ibpw sNøp∂ I¿a-a-fi-e-ß-fn-se√mw Ah-fpsS km∂n[yw kPo-hw. Hcp {]tZ-i- Øns‚ nXo-ymbapƒs∏-sS-bp≈ Db¿∂ `c-W-]-c-amb DØ-c-hm-Zn-Xz-߃ (J- Zm-D¬ lnkv_) hsc Ahsf G¬]n-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp. Jeo-^-amsc n›-bn-°p- tºmƒ Ah-fp-ambn IqSn-bm-tem-Nn-®p. Jpe-^m-D¿dm-in-Zp-I-fn¬s]´ {]ap-J-mb Hcp Jeo-^-s°-Xn-sc-bp≈ kmbp[ {]Xn-]£nc°v tXrXzw ¬In-bXv Hcp kv{Xobm-Wv. Cu nc-bn¬ kz¿Kw hmKvZmw sNø-s∏-´-h¿ Dƒs∏sS {]ap-J- c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 3. cmb nc-h[n kzlm-_n-h-cy-∑m¿ D≠m-bn-cp-∂p. CsXm∂pw cmjv{Sob ]¶m- fnØas√-¶n¬, ]ns∂ F¥mWv Cu cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fnØw F∂p ]d-bp-∂Xv? Hcp hnπ-h-kw-Lw, Hcp sNdnb cmjv{Sw F∂ ne-bn¬n∂v Ckvem-sa∂ {]Xy- b-imkv{Xw AXns‚ Nn¥-Ifmepw _‘-ßfmepw ÿm]-ßfmepw Hcp BtKmf - - - - km∂n-[y-ambn hf¿∂-t∏mƒ, Cu hf¿®bn¬ kv{Xo]-¶m-fn-Ø-an-√mØ GsX- ¶n-ep-samcp L´-sØ Nq-≠n-°m-Wn®p Xcm≥ ]‰ptam? C∂sØ ]pXnb cmjv{Sob - kwhn-[m--ßfpw kam-[m]c-amb A[n-Im-c-ss°-am‰w km[y-am-°p∂ sXc- s™-Sp∏v t]mep≈ {]{In-b-Ifpw A∂p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√t√m Fs∂m-s° ymbw Na-®mWv Nne¿ kv{XobpsS cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fn-ØsØ FXn¿°p-∂Xv. Nne hm°p- - I-fnepw {]tbm-K-ß-fnepw ISn-®p-Xq-ßn -A-o-Xn-s°-Xn-sc-bp≈ t]mcm-´-ap-J-ß- fn-sem∂pw kv{Xo th≠-Xn-s√-∂mWv Ah-cpsS Xn´q-cw. CXn-sm-s°-bp≈ Ckvem- an-I-amb ymbw F¥mWv? Ckvemw F√m Ime-tØ°pw tZi-tØ-°p-ap-≈-Xm- sW-¶n¬, ΩpsS ImeØp am{Xw kv{Xo Fß-s-bmWv ]pd-Øm-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂Xv? hm°p-I-fn¬ Xqßn-∏n-Sn-°msX mw Bi-b-Øn-te°v IS-∂p-sN-√p-I. kmaq-ln-I, cmjv{Sob Pohn-XØn¬ ]¶m-fn-bm-Im-p≈ apkvenw kv{Xo-bpsS - Ah-Im-i߃ Db¿Øn-°m-´p∂ thZ-hm-Iy-ßfpw {]hmN-IhNßfpw FSp-Øp- - - - - - tN¿°m≥ am{Xw hnim-e-a√ Cu A[ym-bw. Hscm‰ Imcyw man-hnsS Hm¿an-®n- cp-∂m¬ aXn. hne-°p-Iƒ C√mØ F¥p Imcyhpw sNøm-p≈ Ap-hm-Z(-C- _ml-Xv)hpw kzmX-{¥y-hp-amWv Ckvem-anI nb-a-kw-ln-X-bpsS ASn-ÿm-w. AXp-t]mse apkvenw kv{Xo]pcp-j-∑msc kw_-‘n-°p∂ GXp Imcy-Ønepw ka-Xz-amWv A√m-lp njvI¿jn-°p-∂-sX-∂Xpw as‰mcp ASn-ÿm--am-Wv. Htc {]ivw kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿°n-S-bn¬ hyXykvX coXn-bn¬ ssIImcyw sNø-W-sa- ¶n¬, AXns km[q-I-cn-°p∂ {]am-W-߃ hy‡-am-°n-bn-cn-°-Ww. kv{XoI- fpsS Ah-Im-i߃ {]am-WßfpsS ]n≥_-eØn¬ t{ImUo-Icn-°s∏´ ΩpsS - - - - - - ImesØ G‰hpw atm-l-c-amb Hcp {KŸ-Øn-te°v Rm≥ nß-fpsS {i≤ £Wn-°p-I-bm-Wv. A_vZp¬ leow A_q iJ Fs∂m-cm-fmWv {KŸ-Im-c≥. {KŸ-Øns‚ t]cv "kv{Xo hntam-Nw {]hm-NI Ime-L-´-Øn¬' (X-lvco-dp¬ a¿A ^o Akzvdn cnkm-e). AXy¥w kvt^mS--ti-jn-bp≈ IrXn; H∏w Hcp {]Im-i-tKm-]p-c-hpw. 1300 t]Pp≈ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ kv{XoI-fpsS Ah-Im-i-ß-sf- °p-dn®pw a‰pw _pJm-cn, apkvenw F∂o lZokv IrXn-I-fn¬ h∂ -{]-hm-NI hN--߃ am{Xw t{ImUo-I-cn®v hni-I-ew S-Øp-I-bmWv sNbvXn-´p-≈-Xv. ∑ I¬]n-°p-I, Xn∑ hntcm-[n-°p-I CXmWv Ckvem-anI {]t_m-[-- Øns‚ c≠v B[m-c-in-e-Iƒ; {]t_m-[w hy‡n-]-c-am-h-s´ kmaq-ln-I-am-hs´, bp≤-Im-e-Øm-h-s´ kam-[m--Im-e-Øm-h-s´. CXv s]mXp-_m-[y-X-bm-Wv; ]pcp-j- ∑m¿s°∂ t]mse kv{XoIƒ°pw _m[-I-am-b-Xv. A°mcyw A¿Y-i-¶-°n-S-bn- √m-Ø-hn[w {]Jym-]n-°p∂ Hcp alZv hN--ap≠v Jp¿-B-n¬: ""kXy-hn-izm-kn- Ifpw hnizm-kn-n-Ifpw ]c-kv]cw klm-bn-Ifpw an{X-ß-fp-am-Ip∂p'' (AØu_ 7). ]Xn-mev q‰m-≠p-Iƒ Ign™p Cu kq‡w Ah-X-cn-®n-´v. h¿W-Øn-s‚bpw hwi-Øn-s‚bpw enwK-Øn-s‚bpw t]cn-ep≈ kI-ehn[ hnth-N߃°pw Adp- - - - Xn-h-cp-Ønb Ckvem-ans‚ {]Jym-]--߃. XpS¿∂p-≠mb hnπ-h-I-c-amb ]cn- h¿Ø-߃. kIehn[- A-Sn-aØßfn¬ n∂p-ap≈ kv{XobpsS hntam-Nhpw - - AXn¬ s]Spw. CsXms° ]I¬sh-fn®w t]mse hy‡-am-bn-cn-s°, Nne apkvenw Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 4. Xn°v icn-sb∂v tXm∂p∂ A`n- {]mbw GXv thZn- I-fnepw Xpd∂p ]d-bm-p≈ Ah- Imiw kv{Xo°p- ≠v. ∑ {]N-cn-∏n- °mpw Xn∑ XS- bmpw Ahƒ°v cwK- Ø n- d - ß mw. Cu [¿a-߃ nd- th- ‰ p∂ k`- I - fn¬ Ahƒ°v AwKXzw ]mSn√ F∂v njvI¿jn-°p∂ Hcp ]cm-a¿ihpw {]am-Wßfn¬ h∂n-´n-√. - - cmPy-ß-fn¬n-s∂-¶nepw kv{XobpsS cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fnØw hne-°p∂ ^Xvh- Iƒ ]pd-Øp-h-cp-∂Xv e÷m-I-c-at√? kv{Xosb Hcp thm´-dmbn AwKo-I-cn-°m≥ t]mepw Nne aX-hr-Ø߃ Xbm-d√. hnj-bØns‚ c≠masØ `mKw, kv{Xo°v - - - Hcp {Kma-Øn-s‚tbm Hcp K-c-Øn-s‚tbm at‰m A[n-Imc ÿm-ß-fn-te°v a’-cn-°mtam F∂-Xm-Wv. auemm A_p¬ AAvem auZq-Zn-sb-t]mse Dƒ°m- gvN-bp≈ ]fin-X-∑m¿ hsc kv{XoIƒ ÿmm¿Yn-I-fm-Ip∂Xv hne-°n-bn-´p-≠v. apl-Ω-Zp¬ K€m-en, bqkp-^p¬ Jd-Zmhn XpS-ßnb ka-Im-enI Ckvem-an-I-{]- ÿm--ß-fpsS ap≥n-c-bn-ep-≈-h¿ kv{Xo°v ÿmm¿Yn-bmhmw F∂v Ap-h- Zn-®n-´pap≠v. {]Xn-n[n k`-I-fn-te°v kv{Xo a’-cn-®p-IqSm F∂v hmZn-°p-∂-h¿ ]d-bp∂Xv, AXv cmjv{S `cW(hn-emb BΩ)-Øns‚ afi-e-am-sW∂pw ]pcp-j- ∑m¿°-√msX kv{XoIƒ°v AhnsS {]th-i--an-s√-∂p-am-Wv. ]pcp-j-∑m¿ kv{XobpsS mY-∑m-cm-sW∂v ka¿Yn-°p∂ Jp¿-B≥ kq‡-Ønv (A-∂n-kmAv 34) CXv FXn-cm-hp-sa∂pw Ah¿ hmZn-°p-∂p. Cu ne A´n-a-dn®v ]pcp-j- ∑m¿°pta¬ kv{XoIƒ hmgp-∂Xv Fßs s]mdp-∏n°pw? ChnsS c≠v Imcy- ߃ hy‡-am-°m≥ Rm≥ Dt±-in-°p-∂p. H∂v, s]mXp-`-cW ÿm]--ß-fn-te°v ÿmm¿Yn-I-fm-hp∂ kv{XoI-fpsS FÆw Ft∏mgpw hfsc ]cn-an-X-am-bn-cn-°pw. ko‰p-I-fpsS knwl-`m-Khpw ]pcp- j-∑m-cpsS ssIhiw Xs∂-bm-bn-cn-°pw. ]pcp-j-∑m¿°v `qcn-]-£-ap≈ Hcp k`/ kanXn Bbn-cn-°p-at√m Imcy-߃ Xocp-am-n-°p-∂Xpw S-∏m-°p-∂-Xpw. AXn- m¬ kv{XoIƒ a’-cn®v XpS-ßn-bm¬ Ah-cpsS Iogn-embn-t∏mIpw ]pcp-j∑m¿ F∂v ]d-bp-∂-Xn¬ bmsXmcp ymb-hp-an-√.1 c≠v, ]pcp-j∑m¿ kv{XoI-fpsS mY-∑m-cmWv F∂ ]cm-a¿iw sshhmlnI - Pohn-X-sØ-°p-dn-®p-≈-Xm-sW-∂-Xnv B Jp¿-B-nI kq‡-Øn¬ Xs∂ sXfn- hp-I-fp-≠v. IpSpw-_-Øns‚ mY≥ ]pcp-j-mWv F∂v ]d-bp-I-bm-Wv. ""]pcp-j- c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 5. ∑m¿ Ah-cpsS [w sNe-hgn-°p-∂Xn-mepw'' (A∂n-kmAv 34) F∂v B kq‡- - - Øn¬ h∂n-´p-≠v. IpSpw-_-Øns‚ tXrXzw (J-∆m-a) F∂Xv ]pcp-j-∑m¿°v ¬Inb Hcp ÿm-am-sW∂pw Xmsg sImSp-°p∂ kq‡-Øn¬n∂v sXfn-bp- ∂p≠v: ""kv{XoIƒ°v _m[y-X-Iƒ D≈-Xp-t]mse Xs∂ ymb-am-b -A-h-Im-i- ß-fp-ap-≠.v F∂m¬ ]pcp-j∑m¿°v Ah-tc-°mƒ Hcp ]Zhn IqSp-Xep≠v'' (A¬_- - - Jd 228). Ip-Spw-_-L-S-°v ]pdØv Nne Imcy-ß-fn¬ ]pcp-j-∑m¿°v tXrXzw ¬Ip-∂Xv kv{Xo Bbn-t∏m-bm¬ AXv XS-tb-≠XmWv Fs∂m∂pw Cu kq‡- - ß-fn¬n∂v kn≤n-°p-∂n-√. ""Xß-fpsS Imcyw-kv{Xosb G¬]n® Hcp kaq- lhpw hnP-bn-°n√'' F∂ _pJmcn D≤cn-®--_n-h-N--Øn¬n∂v, `c-Wm-[n-Im- c-Øns‚ tXrXzw kv{Xosb G¬]n-°-cpXv Ft∂ s∂-°-hn-™m¬ kn≤n- °p-Ibp-≈q. "Xß-fpsS Imcyw' (Aw-dlpw) F∂ {]tbm-KØn¬n∂v AXv hy‡- - - - am-Wv. AtX-k-abw ^Xvh, CPvXn-lm-Zv, A[ym-]-w, lZokv nth-Z-w, `c-W- n¿h-lWw XpS-ßnb Imcy-ß-fn¬ Ahƒ°v tXr-]-Z-hn-bp-≠m-Ip-∂-Xn¬ (hn- em-b-Øv) Hcp ]fin-Xpw sX‰v ImWp-∂n-√. oXn-ym-b-Øn¬ hsc, Nne hyh- ÿ-I-tfm-sS, CXm-Im-sa∂v A_q-l-o-^-sb-t∏m-ep≈ ]fin-X-∑m¿ A`n-{]m-b- s∏-´n-´p-≠v. C°m-cy-ßfn-sem∂pw kv{Xohnem-bØns XSbp∂ Ckvem-an-Im-[ym- - - ]--߃ C√ F∂m-Wt√m CXns‚ A¿Yw. tcsØ kqNn-∏n® _n-h-N-- Ønv Hcp {]tXyI Ncn{X ]›m-Ø-e-ap-≠v. t]¿jy-bnse N{I-h¿Øn acn-®- t∏mƒ Ahn-SsØ-bm-fp-Iƒ- A-t±-lØns‚ aIsf `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bmbn sXc-s™- - - Sp-Øp. At∏m-gmWv _n Aßs ]-d™-Xv. `c-Wm-[n-Im-c-Øn¬ ]cn-an-X-amWv B ]cm-a¿i-sa∂v hy‡w. Xn°v icn-sb∂v tXm∂p∂ A`n-{]mbw GXv thZn-I-fnepw Xpd∂v ]d-bm- p≈ Ah-Imiw kv{Xo°p-≠v. ∑ {]N-cn-∏n-°mpw Xn∑ XS-bmpw Ahƒ°v cwK-Øn-d-ßmw. Cu [¿a-߃ nd-th-‰p∂ k`-I-fn¬ Ahƒ°v AwKXzw ]mSn√ F∂v njvI¿jn-°p∂ Hcp ]cm-a¿ihpw {]am-W-ß-fn¬ h∂n-´n-√. Ckvem-anI Ncn-{X-Ønse D∂X IqSn-bm-tem-Nm kan-Xn-I-fn¬ (iq-dm) kv{XoIsf ImWp- ∂n-√t√m F∂v Nne¿ hmZn-°m-dp-≠v. CXp]t£ kv{XoIƒ°v {]th-iw ntj- [n-°p-∂-Xnv Ckvem-an-I-amb sXfn-hm-Ip-∂n-√. Ime-tZ-i-߃ amdp-tºmƒ aX- hn-[n(-^-Xvh)bpw amdWw F∂ C-Øn¬ Dƒs∏-Sp-Øn-bmWv Cu hnjbw N¿® sNtø-≠-Xv. ]pcp-j-∑m¿°m-h-s´, kv{XoIƒ°m-hs´ hyhÿm-]n-X-amb coXn- bn¬ iqdm kwhn-[mw ap≥Im-e-ß-fn¬ D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. iqdm t]mep≈ kwhn-[m--ß-fpsS {][m ZuXy-ß-fn-sem∂v nb-a-n¿am- W-am-Wv. `c-W-tØ-°mfpw s]mXp-t-Xr-Xz-tØ-°mfpw Kuc-h-X-c-amWv CsX∂v Nne ISpw-]n-Sp-Ø-°m¿-A-Xyp‡n Ie¿Øn ]d-bm-dp-≠v. cmjv{S-Ønv th≠n-bm- Wt√m nb-aap-≠m-°p-∂-Xv. kwKXn hfsc A]-ISw ]n-Sn-®-Xm-b-Xn-m¬ kv{XoIsf Atßm´v ASp-∏n-°m≥ ]mSn√! Cu hmZw hfsc Zp¿_-e-am-Wv. ChnsS nb-a-n¿am-W-a√ S-°p-∂-Xv. bYm¿Y nb-aZmXmhv A√m-lp- hm-Wv. GsXmcp Imcyhpw hne-°mpw Ap-h-Zn-°mpw Aht Ah-Im-i-ap- ≈q. as‰mcp hm-°n¬ ]d-™m¬ Kth-j-Ww, nb-a-n¿[m-c-Ww, hni-I-e-w, ]pXnb ImeØv Fßs {]tbm-K-h-XvI-cn°mw XpS-ßnb N¿®-I-fmWv iqd t]mep≈ thZn-I-fn¬ D≠m-hp-I. Kth-jWw (C-PvXn-lm-Zv) F∂Xv ]pcp-j-s- t∏mse kv{Xo°v th≠nbpw Xpd-∂n´ hmXn-em-Wv. ]pcp-j-m-bn-cn°pI F∂Xv Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 6. lk≥ Xpdm_n B[p- nI Ckv e m- a nI {]ÿm- ßfn¬ kv{Xohn-tam-Nm-ib߃ G‰hpw i‡-ambn - - - {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw kv{Xo]-¶m-fn-Ø-Ønv hotdmsS hmZn-°p-Ibpw sNøp-∂-Xv kp-Um-n¬ tUm. lk≥ Xp- d m- _ n tXrXzw ¬Ip∂ {]ÿm-am-Wv. skIyp-e- - cnÃv hn-X-Isf a-dn-I-S∂v AhnsS BZyw ]m¿e-sa-‚ n¬ FØn-bXv Hcp Ckvem-anÃv {]t_m-[Ibm-W˛kp-BZv A¬^m-Xn-lv. - - v- - kp-BZv A¬^m-Xn-lv Kth-jWw S-Øm-p≈ D]m-[n-bm-sWt∂m kv{XoIƒ°v CPvXn-lmZv ]mSn-s√t∂m Ct∂-hsc Hcp Ckvem-anI nb-ahn-im-cZpw ]d-™n-´n-√. kv{Xobp-amtbm IpSpw- - - _-hp-amtbm _‘-s∏´ nba N¿®-Ifm-sW¶n¬ A°m-cy-Øn¬ Ah-fpsS A`n- - {]m-bsa¥v F∂v Bcm-b¬ Nne-t∏mƒ An-hm-cy-am-sb∂pw hcpw. Nne kµ¿`- ß-fn¬, ]pcp-j-t-°mƒ Dƒ°m-gvN-bp≈ A`n-{]m-b-߃ tcJ-s∏-Sp-ØpI kv{Xobm-bn-cn-°pw. apkvenw temIØv Ckvem-an-Im-i-b-߃ ssIsh-Sn™v en_-d¬ Nn-¥m-K- Xn-I-fp-ambn S-°p∂ hn-X-Isf tcn-Sm≥ kZvhr-Ø-cmb apkvenw kv{XoIƒ sXc-s™-Sp∏v tKmZ-bn¬ Cd-ß-W-sa∂v tUm. bqkp-^p¬ Jd-Zmhn Xs‚ Hcp ^Xvhbn¬ ]d-bp-∂p-≠v. Hmtcm kv{Xo°pw s]mXp {]h¿Øw S-Øm≥ kzmX- - {¥y-ap≠v F∂ hy‡n-K-X-amb hi-a√ ChnsS IqSp-X¬ ]cn-K-W-obw; adn®v kmaq-ln-Ihpw cmjv{So-b-hp-am-b- H-cm-hiyw ]q¿Øo-I-cn-°pI F∂ hi-am-Wv2. F∂m¬ auemm A_p¬ AAvem auZqZn ]mIn-kvXmv th≠n Xbm-dm-°nb Ckvem-anI `c-W-L-S--bn¬, iqd/P-{]-Xn-n[n k`-bnse AwK-Xz-Ønv ]pcp- j-m-bn-cn-°pI F∂Xv D]m-[n-bmbn Fgp-Xnt®¿Øn-´p-≠v. cmjv{S mb-I-Xz-Øn- v th≠n kv{Xo a’-cn-°p∂ Imcyw ]ns∂ ]d-bm-p-an-√-t√m. "]p-cp-j-∑m¿ kv{XoI-fpsS mY∑m-cmWv' F∂ Jp¿-B-nI hN-hpw "Xß-fpsS Imcyw kv{Xosb Gev]n® Hcp kaq-lhpw hnP-bn-°p-I-bn√' F∂ {]hm-NI hN--hp- amWv At±lw sXfn-hmbn D≤-cn-°p-∂-Xv. cmjv{S-m-b-I-Xztam a{¥n-]-Z-hntbm {]Xn-n-[n-k`bnse AwK-Xztam a‰p Kh¨sa‚ v ]Zhn-Itfm kv{XoIƒ°v ¬I- - - cpXv F∂-Xnv Cu c≠v hmIy-ßfpw Jfin-X-amb sXfn-hm-sW-∂mWv At±-l- Øns‚ hmZw. cmjv{So-bhpw `c-Whpw kv{XobpsS {]h¿Ø hrØ-Ønv ]pd- Øm-Wv.3 CtX A`n-{]mbw Xs∂ A¬ Akvl¿ bqn-th-gvkn-‰n-bnse ^Xvhm kan-Xn-bpw Ipssh-Øn-ep≈ as‰mcp kan-Xn-bpw {]I-Sn-∏n-®n-´p-≠v. sXc-s™-Sp- ∏n¬ kv{Xo ]¶m-fn-bm-hmt ]mSn√ F∂v Ipssh-Ønse ^Xvhm kanXn hne- °p-∂p.4 P-{]-Xn-n-[n-k`bnepw Db¿∂ `c-WIqS XkvXn-IIfn-ep-ap≈ kv{Xo AwK- - - - - - c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 7. Xz-sØ-°p-dn®v auemm auZqZn {]I-Sn-∏n® A`n-{]m-bsØ ap°v tNmZyw sNømsX nhr-Øn-bn-√. kv{XoIƒ°v Ah-cpsS tbmKy-X-Iƒ°p-kcn®v k¿h taJ-e-I-fnepw ]¶m-fnØw Ap-h-Zn-°p-I-bmWv kap-Zmb thm-∞m--Ønpw kv{Xo im‡o-I-c-W-Ønpw An-hm-cy-ambn th≠Xv F∂v mw Icp-Xp-∂-Xn- m¬, CØcw am¿K-X-S-€-߃ ot°-≠-Xp-≠v. tcsØ D≤-cn® Jp¿-B≥ hmIyhpw _n-h-N-hpw s]mXp-Po-hn-X- Øn¬n∂v kv{Xosb AI-‰n-n¿Øp-∂Xnv sXfn-hp-Ifmbn sIm≠p-hcs∏-´t∏mƒ, - - - - - CXp kw_-‘-ambn ]q¿h-Ime ]fin-X-∑m¿ F¥p ]-d™n-cn°pw F∂ BImw£ F∂n¬ DW¿∂p. Rm≥ In´m-hp-t∂-S-tØmfw Ckvem-anI ss]Xr-I- Ir-Xn-Iƒ ]cn-tim-[n®p; {]tXy-In®v Ahbn¬ cmjv{S-ao-amwk ssIImcyw sNøp- ∂h. `c-W-t-XrXzw (C-am-a-Øv) F∂ Xe-s°-´n¬ am{X-amWv Cu hnjbw N¿®-sN-bvXn-´p-≈Xv F∂ Imcyw Fs∂ A¤p-X-s∏-Sp-Øn. cmjv{S `c-W-Øns‚ tXrXzw kv{Xo°v BI-cpXv F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ ]q¿h ]fin-X-∑m¿°n-S-bn¬ Gd-°psd A`n-{]mb ka-zbw (C-PvamAv) D≈-Xmbpw Fn°v ImWm≥ Ign- ™p. Ah¿°v sXfnhv ta¬]-d-bs∏´ lZo-kmWv. AtX-k-abw oXn-ymb ]Z- hn-Iƒ Ah¿°mImw F∂ A`n-{]m-b-amWv [mcmfw ]fin-X-∑m¿°v. A_q- bAve¬ ^¿dmAv C{X hsc ]d™psh®p: ""PUvPnbm-Im≥ Fs¥m-s°- KpW߃ HØp-h-c-Wtam AsXms° tXm-hnepw (C-amw) HØp-h-c¬ D]m-[n- bm-Wv. kzmX-{¥y-ap-≠m-hp-I, {]mb-]q¿ØnsbØp-I, _p≤n-ÿn-c-X-bp-≠m-hp-I, Adnhpw oXn-t_m-[-hp-ap-≠m-bn-cn-°pI F∂n-h-bmWv B KpW-߃.''5 Ckvem-anI Ncn-{X-Ønse i_o-_nø t]mep≈ Jhm-cnPv hn`m-K-߃, {]P-I-fpsS Imcy-߃ tm°n--S-Ømpw Ah-cpsS i{Xp-°ƒs°-Xnsc s]m-cp- Xmpw {]m]vXn-bp-s≠-¶n¬ kv{Xo°v `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bmhmw F∂ ]£-°m-cm-Wv. i_o-_ns‚ ac-W-tijw Kkme DΩp i_o_v `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp∂ Imcyw Ah¿ Nq≠n-°m-´p-∂p.6 l{kØv BC-i(-d) Hcp kmbp[ {]Xn-]£sØ Db¿Øn- - s°m≠phcnI hgn cmjv{So-bØn¬ Xn°pw Imcy-ap-s≠∂v hy‡-am-°n. kz¿Kw - hmKvZmw sNø-s∏´ kzlm-_n-Iƒ Dƒs∏sS aphm-bncw sskn-Icp-≠m-bn-cp∂p - Cu {]Xn-]£ nc-bn¬. A_q-_Ivd ]d-™Xp t]mse, "BC-i(-d) I¬]n-°p- Ibpw hne-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂p. Imcy-߃ Ah-cpsS nb-{¥-W-Øn-em-bn- cp∂p' 7. Ah-cmWv tXr-ÿm-Øv D≠m-bn-cp-∂Xv; Ah-cmWv {]kw-Kn-°p-Ibpw N¿® S-Øp-Ibpw akvIm-c-Ønv Cam-ans n›-bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp-∂- Xv.8 cmjv{SobØn¬ Io¿Øn tSnb thsdbpw hnXm cXv-ß-fp≠v Ckvem- anI Ncn-{X-Øn¬. ln. Bdmw q‰m-≠n¬ ba≥ taJ-e-bn¬ m¬]-Xn-e-[n-Iw- h¿jw `cWw Øn-bn-´p≠v A¬lp¿d kzeo-lnø F∂ hn-X. `c-Wm-[n-Im-c-Øns‚ G‰hpw Db¿∂ ]Zhn kv{Xo°v ¬Imw F∂v hmZn- °p-∂-h-cpsS ymbw CXmWv: kv{Xo˛]pcpj ka-Xz-amWv Ckvemw Du∂n-∏-d-bp- ∂-Xv. ka-`m-h--sb∂ Cu s]mXp-X-ØzsØ ntj-[n-°p∂ Hc-Sn-ÿm--ambn hnI-kn-∏n-°m-hp-∂-X√ mw tcsØ D≤-cn® {]hm-NI hN-w. Hcp {]tXyI kµ¿`-Øn-emWv _n AXv ]d-™n-´p-≈-Xv. t]¿jy-bnse Inkvdm cmPmhv ac- W-s∏-Sp-Ibpw Ahn-SØp-Im¿ `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bmbn A-t±-lØns‚ ]p{Xnsb n›- - - bn-°p-Ibpw sNbvX hnhcw In´n-b-t∏m-gmWv _n Aßs ]d-™-Xv. Xm≥ t]¿jy-bn-te°v ]d-™-b® Xs‚ ZqXs Ahn-S-Øp-Im¿ sIme-s∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xn- Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 8. ep≈ tcmj-amWv Cu hm°p-I-fn¬ ImWm-m-hp-I... AXn-m¬ Cu kw`-h-Øn- -∏pdw Hcp kmam-y-h-XvI-c-W-Ønv tbmPn-®-X√ Cu lZo-kv. AXns `cW- L-Sm nb-am-h-en-bn¬ ASn-ÿm-ambn kzoI-cn-°m-hp-∂-Xp-a-√. Hcp {]tXyI kw`-h-sØ-°p-dn®v h∂-Xm-sW-¶n-epw, hmIy-L-S s]mXp-kz-`m-h-ap-≈-Xm-sW- ¶n¬ AXns s]mXp-X-Øz-ambn kzoI-cn-°Ww F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ ]fin-X- ∑m¿°n-S-bn¬ GIm-`n-{]m-b-sam-∂p-an-√. hmIy-L-S s]mXp-kz-`m-h-ap-≈-Xm-sW- ¶nepw AXv s]mXpXØz-am-h-W-sa-∂n√ F∂¿Yw. AXn-m¬ Cu _n-h-N- sØ Hcp JfinX sXfn-hmbn kzoI-cn-°m-m-hn-√. am{X-a-√, Cu lZo-kns‚ nth-ZI ]c-º-c-bn¬ kwi-bm-kv]-Z-amb Nne IÆn-I-fp-ap-≠v.9 Cn tcsØ ]cm-a¿in® Jp¿-B≥ kq-‡-Øns‚ Imcyw. auemm auZq- Zn°v ap-ºp≈ cmjv{S-ao-amwkm ]fin-X∑m-scm∂pw Xs∂, kv{Xo s]mXp-`-cWw ssIbm-fm≥ ]mSn√ F∂-Xnv sXfn-hmbn {]kvXpX kq‡sØ D≤-cn®v ImWp- ∂n-√. ]ns∂ Fßs-bXv cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fnØw hsc XS-bp-∂Xnv sXfn-hmIpw? - kq‡-Ønse "J∆ma' F∂ {]tbm-K-Ønv tXrXzw F∂ s]mXp-hmb A¿Y- amWv I¬]n-°p-∂sX-¶n¬ inip-kw-c£Ww, sshZyw, hym]mc hyh-kmb ÿm]- - - - -߃ XpSßn H∂n-s‚bpw tXrXzw kv{Xo°v ]mSn-s√∂v hcpw. Cß-s-sbmcp A¿Y-I¬] ap≥Ime Jp¿-B≥ hymJym-Xm-°tfm lZokv ]fin-X-∑mtcm Bcpw Xs∂ S-Øn-bn-´n-√. ΩpsS ImesØ G‰hpw {]i-kvX-mb Jp¿B≥ hymJym-Xmhv hsc, Jp¿-B≥ hymJym--Øn¬ At±-l-Øns‚ ke^n Nmbvhpw ]m›mXy hncp-≤-Xbpw {]I-S-am-sW-¶n¬ t]mepw, ]d-bp-∂Xv Cß-s-bmWv: ""s]mXp-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ kakvX taJ-e-I-fnepw kv{Xo°p ta¬ ]pcp-js‚ tXr- Xz-amWv th≠Xv F∂ ne-°m-bn-cp∂p Cu Jp¿-B≥ kq‡sØ Xm≥ a-€n- em-°n-bn-cp-∂-Xv. Zo¿L-tcw Btem-Nn-®-t∏mƒ B A`n-{]mbw Xncp-tØ-≠n-h- ∂p. Cu kq‡-Øns‚ kµ¿`w ]cn-tim-[n-°p-I. ZmºXy `n∂-X-Iƒ ]cm-a¿in- °shbmWv AXv h∂n´p-≈Xv. AXn-m¬ B kq‡-Øn¬ ]cm-a¿in® tXrXzw - (J∆m-a) IpSpw-_-hr-Ø-Ønv ]pd-tØ°v o´m≥ ]‰p-I-bn-√.''10 oXn-ym-bam-sW-¶nepw cmjv{S `c-Wam-sW-¶nepw s]mXp-`cWØn¬n∂v - - - - - kv{Xosb XS-bp∂ Jfin-X-amb sXfn-hp-I-sfm∂pw Ckvem-an¬ C√ F∂v mw I≠p; cmjv{S-Øns‚ `c-Wm-[n-Imcn Ah-fm-Im≥ ]mSn√ F∂XmWv `qcn-]£w ]fin-X∑m-cp-sSbpw A`n-{]m-b-sa-¶nepw. s]mXp-Po-hn-X-Øns‚ k¿h Xpd-I-fn- ep-ap≈ ]¶m-fnØw Ahƒ°v ntj-[n-°p∂ Iq´¿°v ]ns∂ F¥v sXfn-hmWv lmP-cm-°m-p-≈Xv?11 Ah¿ A‘-ambn ap≥Km-an-Isf ]n¥p-ScpI (X-Jveo-Zv) am{X-am-Wv. F¶n¬ Ckvem-ans‚ kph¿W-bp-K-Øn¬ Pohn® alm-∑msc Ch¿ XJveoZv sNbvsX-¶n¬ F∂v Bin-®p-t]m-Ip-∂p. AXv kzX{¥ Nn¥-bp-sSbpw kap-Zm-bØns‚ IpXn-®pNm-´Øn-s‚bpw bpK-am-bn-cp-∂p. Cu kv{Xohn-cp≤ ho£- - - W-°m¿ icn-bmb hgn-bn¬ sNs∂-Øn-bn-cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬ Jp¿-B≥ hymJym-Xm-°- fpsS Kpcp C_vp Pco¿ Xz_vcn-sbbpw Camw A_q-l-o-^-sbbpw apkvenw kvs]bn-nse hnπ-h-Im-cn-bmb ^Jolv C_vp lk-an-sbpw Ah¿°v hmbn- °m≥ Ign-t™-s. Cu alm-]fin-X∑m¿ tIhe cmjv{Sob ]¶m-fn-Øtam ]m¿´n - - AwK-Xztam a{¥n-˛-sk-{I-´dn ]Wn-Itfm am{X-a√ kv{XoIƒ°v Ap-h-Zn-®-Xv. cmjv{S-`cWØns‚ ASn-ÿm-ßfn-sem-∂mb oXn-ymbw (J-ZmAv) kv{XoIsf - - - - - G¬]n-°m-sa∂v Ah¿ {]Jym-]n-®p. ΩpsS kv{Xohn-cp≤ ]£-°m¿ XJveoZv c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 9. sNbvXXv A[x-]-X--Øn-s‚bpw Po¿W-X-bp-sSbpw L´-Øn¬ Pohn® ap≥Km-an- I-sf-bm-bncp∂p F∂¿Yw. -C-sXms° F¥np ]d-bp-∂p, Ah¿°v {]hm- NIs‚bpw k®-cn-X-cmb Jeo-^-am-cp-sSbpw Ime-L-´-߃ ]Tn-®m¬ aXn-bm-bn- cp-∂-t√m. F¶n¬ An-hmcyL´ß-fn¬ hmfpw Ducn-∏n-Sn®v hcp-∂, {]iv-k- ¶o¿W-amb kµ¿`-ß-fn¬ kpNn-¥n-X-amb A`n-{]m-b-߃ ]d-bp∂ kv{Xosb Ah¿°v Is≠-Øm-am-bn-cp-∂p. tm°q, {]hm-NI ]Xvn DΩp-k-e-a-bpsS CSs]S¬. lpssZ-_nb k‘n-bpsS kµ¿`w. kz¥w Ap-bm-bn-Iƒ {]hm-N- Is ipWvTn ]nSn-∏n-°p-I-bm-Wv. {]hm-N-I≥ I¬]n-°p-∂-sXm∂pw Ah¿ Ap- k-cn-°p-∂n-√. hfsc ZpxJn-X-mbn Ahn-Sp∂v DΩp-k-e-a-bpsS ASpØv hcp-∂p. tXmhpw Ap-bm-bn-Ifpw XΩn-ep≈ _‘-Øn¬ hn≈¬ hogv-Ønb Cu AXn- k-¶o¿W-amb kml-N-cysØ adn-I-S-°m≥ DΩp-k-ea Hcp t]mwhgn n¿tZ-in- °p-∂p. CXv cmjv{Sob Imcy-a-t√, kv{Xo°v ChnsS F¥p Imcyw F∂v At∏mƒ Bcpw tNmZn-®n-√-t√m. Cn as‰mcp kµ¿`w. ac-Wm-k-∂-mb Dadp-_v-p¬ JØzm-_ns‚ hkzn-øØv {]Imcw A_vZp¿dlvam-p_vp Hu^v Bdv t]cpsS Hcp ]´n-Ibp-≠m-°p-∂p. CXn¬ ns∂m-cm-fmWv ASpØ Jeo-^bm-hp-I. C_vp - - Hu^v aZo-bn-ep-≈- ap-gp-hm-fp-Ifp-sSbpw A`n-{]mbw Bcm-bp-∂p. G‰hpw anI® - - - ]n≥Km-an-sb-°p-dn-®v A`n-{]m-b-am-cm™v At±lw kv{XoIƒ ]m¿°p∂ IqSm-c- ß-fn¬ hsc Ib-dn-s®-∂nt√? Jp¿-B-nse J∆ma BbØpw Jnkvd-bpsS aI- sf-°p-dn® lZokpw At±lw ImWmsX t]mb-Xm-bn-cn-°n-√-t√m. ]pXnb `c-Wm- [n-Im-cn-bpsS sXc-s™-Sp∏v kv{Xosbbpw ]pcp-j-sbpw Xpey Af-hn-emWv _m[n-°p-I-sb-∂pw, ]pcp-j-s-t∏mse kzX{¥ _m[yX-tb¬-]n-°-s∏-´-h-fmWv kv{Xosb∂pw a-€n-em-°n-bm-bn-cn-°nt√ C_p Hu^v Cu a¿a-{]-[m hnj- b-Øn¬ Ah-cpsS A-`n-{]mbw Bcm-™Xv? CXn-s‚-sb√mw ASn-ÿm--Øn¬ ka-Im-enI cmjv{S-ao-amwkm ]fin-X- ∑m¿, auemm auZq-Zn-sb-t∏mse sXm´p-ap-ºp≈ Xe-ap-d-bpsS ss]Xr-IsØ {]Xn-tcm-[n-°p-∂Xmbn mw ImWp-∂n-√. Ah-sc√mw kv{Xo]p-cpj kaXzw F∂ - ASn-ÿm-sØ Db¿Øn-°m-´p-I-bmWv sNøp-∂-Xv. ssPh-{]-Ir-Xnbpw kml-N- cy-ßfpw IW-°n-se-SpØv kv{Xo]p-cp-j-∑m¿ XΩn¬ Nne Npa-Xem hyXym-k- ߃ D≠v Ft∂-bp-≈q. A¬ Akvl¿ sdIvS-dm-bn-cp∂ A_vZp√m Z¿dm-kns‚ hcn-Iƒ ImWpI: ""cmjv{S-Ønepw kaq-lØnepw XØpey kv{Xo]pcpj ]¶m-fn-ØamWv Jp¿- - - B≥ apt∂m-´p-sh-°p-∂-Xv. kv{XobpsS enwK-]-c-amb {]tXy-I-XIƒ ImcWw hf-sc-°p-dn®v Imcy-߃ am{X-amWv CXn¬n∂v Hgn-®p-n¿Øm-hp-∂-Xv. hnhn[ cm-jv{Sob kmaq-lnI Xpd-I-fn¬ Ahƒ I¿tam-’pI-bm-h-W-sa∂pw AX-h-fpsS Ah-Im-i-am-sW∂pw Jp¿-B≥ DW¿Øp-∂p. P-ßsf {]Xn-n-[o-I-cn-°p∂ ]m¿e-sa‚pw cmjv{S-`-c-WsØ nb-{¥n-°p∂ nb-am-hn-jvImc thZn-I-fp-sa√mw AXn¬ s]Spw... apkvenw kv{Xo hnh-c-an-√m-Ø-h-fm-Wv, s]mXp-Im-cy-ß-sf-°p- dn®v ]nSn-]m-Sn-√m-Ø-h-fm-Wv, Ahƒ hoSpw Ip´n-I-fp-ambn Ign-™p-Iq-Sn-bm¬ aXn Fs∂√mw Nne¿ ]d-bm-dp-≠v. Ad_v apkvenw mSp-I-fnse _lp-`q-cn-]£w P-Xbpw hnh-c-an-√m-Ø-hcpw s]mXp {]iv-ß-fn¬ ]nSn-]m-Sn-√m-Ø-h-cp-at√? AXns‚ t]cn¬ Ah¿°v kmaq-ln-I, cmjv{Sob Ah-Im-i-߃ ntj-[n-°-W- Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 10. kv{Xo DZv_p-≤- bm- s b- ¶ n- t e s√mcp Xe-ap- dsb hm-¿sØ- - Sp-°m≥ Ah- ƒ-°v Ign-bq. kv{Xo-t-Xr-Xzw Bh- i y- a mb F{X-sb{X taJ-e-I-fp≠v C∂v. BC-i, JZo-P, DΩp-k- e-a, ^mXzn-a, AkvamAv, DΩp AΩm-d, ssk-_p¬ K€m-en, kpB-Zp A¬^mXnlv XpS-ßn-bh¿ ¬In-bXp-t]m-ep≈ tXr- - - Xzw. ΩpsS s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ FhnsS? sa∂v Bsc-¶nepw ]d-™n-´pt≠m? F√m kv{XoIfpw sXc-s™-Sp-∏n¬ a’-cn- °-W-sat∂m cmjv{Sob kmaq-lnI Imcy-ß-fn¬ CS-s]-S-W-sat∂m mw ]d-bp- ∂n-√. A¿l-Xbpw tbmKy-X-bp-ap≈ kv{Xo°v AXn-p≈ Ah-kcw D≠m-IWw Ft∂ ]d-bp-∂p≈q; ]pcp-j-∑m-sc-t∏mse Xs∂. amXr-Xz-Øns‚ Npa-X-e-Iƒ n¿hln°msX kv{Xo hoSv hn´n-d-ßWw Fs∂m∂pw C∏-d-™-Xnv A¿Y-hp- an√''12 Ign™ GXmpw q‰m-≠p-I-fnse apkvenw PohnXw ]cn-tim-[n-®m¬ AXv {KmasØ tI{µo-Icn-®m-bn-cp∂p F∂v ImWmw. Cu {KmaoW Pohn-XØn¬ kv{Xo°v - - cmjv{S-`-c-W-Øn¬ Imcy-amb Hcp ]¶pw D≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√. A∂sØ kmaq-lnI kml-N-cy-߃ sIm≠v Aßs kw`-hn®p Ft∂ CXn-s-°p-dn®v ]d-bm-m- hq. CsXm∂pw Jp¿-B-nI n¿tZ-i-{]-Imcw kw`-hn® Imcy-ß-f-√. Jp¿-B-nI n¿tZi-߃ F√m Ime-tØ°pw F√m Np‰p-]m-Sn-te-°p-ap-≈Xm-Wv. kaqlsØ - am‰n-∏-Wn-bp-∂-Xnpw Ckvem-anI kwkvIm-csØ Icp-∏n-Sn-∏n-°p-∂-Xnpw {]hm- N-Is‚ a°o-˛-a-Zo L´-ß-fnepw k®-cn-X-cmb ]n≥Km-an-I-fpsS dminZo bpK- Ønepw XpS¿∂p≈ Ckvem-ans‚ ]pjvIe bpK-ß-fnepw kv{Xo hln® ]¶v An-tj-[yhpw al-Ø-c-hp-am-Wv. `c-Wm-[n-Im-cnsb sXcs™-Sp-°p-tºmgpw bp≤w t]mep≈ hn[n-n¿Wm- bI kµ¿`-ß-fnepw Ah-fpsS km∂n-[y-ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂p. Da-dp-_v-p¬ JØzm_v, in^mAv F∂ hn-Xsb Hcp sXcp-hns‚ nb-{¥Ww G¬]n® kw`hw D≤-cn- ®p-sIm≠v C_vp lkw A`n-{]m-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv, `c-Wm-[n-Im-chpw Ahsf G¬]n°mw F∂m-Wv. XJvbp-±o≥ _-lmn ]d-bp-∂-Xv, ]uc-Xz-ap≈ B¿°pw ˛kv{Xo-bm-hs´ ]pcp-jm-hs´˛ {]mb-]q¿Øn-sb-Øp-Ibpw _p≤n ÿnc-Xbp-≠m- - - - - hp-Ibpw sNbvXm¬ IqSn-bm-tem-Nm kan-Xn(iq-dm)bn¬ AwK-amImw F∂m-Wv.13 Ckvem-anIv dn∏-ªnIv Hm^v Cdms‚ `c-W-L-S-, "∑ I¬]n-°p-∂-Xnepw c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 11. Xn∑ hntcm-[n-°p-∂Xnepw kXy-hn-izm-kn-Ifpw hnizm-kn-n-Ifpw ]c-kv]cw klm- - bn-I-fmWv' F∂ Jp¿-B-nI kq‡sØ ap≥n¿Øn Db¿∂ ÿm-amWv kv{Xo°v ¬In-bn-cn-°p-∂-Xv. ΩpsS ImesØ henb hnπ-h-ß-fn-sem-∂ns‚ kwLm-S--Øn¬ Cdm-n-b≥ hn-X-Iƒ hln® ]¶n-p≈ A¿l-amb AwKo-Im- c-am-Wn-Xv. Cdm≥ Ckvem-anIv dn∏-ªnIv `c-W-LS--bpsS 21-˛mw Jfin-I-bn¬ Cßs ]d-bp∂p: ""Ckvem-anI aqey-߃ apºn¬sh®v kIe Xpd-I-fnepw kv{Xo°v Ah-fpsS Ah-Im-i-߃ ¬Im≥ `c-W-IqSw {]-Xn-⁄m-_-≤-am-bn-cn- °pw.'' Cdm-n-b≥ aPvenkv iqdm-bn¬ kv{XoIƒ°v {]m-Xn-n-[y-ap-≠v. A¿∏-W- t_m-[-ap-≈, c‡-km-£y-Ønv Xbm-dp≈ Icp-Øp‰ Xe-ap-d-Isf hm¿sØ-Sp- °p-∂Xn-p≈ {]m]vXn Ahn-SsØ kv{Xok-aqlw B¿Pn-s®-Sp-°p-Ibpw sNbvXp. - F∂m¬ ]mIn-kvXm-nse Ckvem-anI {]ÿm--amb Pam-AsØ Ckvem-an, AXns‚ Nn¥m-]-c-amb IcpØpw A-y-Xbpw ne-n¿Øp-∂p-s≠-¶nepw CXp- t]mse P-Io-b-amb Hcp kmaq-lnI ImgvN∏mSv hnI-kn∏n-°p-∂-Xn¬ hnP-bn-®n- ´n-√. kv{Xo-sb-°p-dn-®p≈ {]ÿm-Øns‚ ho£Ww bmYmÿn-Xn-Iambn XpScp- - - ∂p. tXrXzw P-ß-fn¬ n∂v H‰-s∏-´p-n¬°p-∂Xpt]mse Ap-`-h-s∏-Sp- ∂p. ka-Im-enI temIsØ G‰hpw henb Ckvem-anI {]ÿm--amb CJvhm- p¬ apkvenaqm-I-s´, H‰-s∏-´p-n¬°msX Hcp P-Iob ]cn-jvI-cW apt∂-‰- Ønv If-sam-cp-°p-∂-Xm-bmWv ImWp-∂-Xv. kv{XoIƒ F∂pw {]ÿm--Øn¬ kap-∂X ÿmw Ae-¶-cn-®n-cp-∂p. Icp-Øp‰ hnXm hnwKns hm¿sØ-Sp- °mpw CJvhmv km[n-®p. hnXm tXr-n-cbpw i‡w. [oc-ap-Pm-ln-Zbpw ]cn-ip≤ Jp¿-Bv hymJym--sa-gp-Xnb hn-X-bp-amb ssk-_p¬ K€men DZm-lcWw. cmjv{So-b, kmaq-lnI cwK-ßfn¬ aX-hn-cp≤ Bi-b߃ ta¬ss° - - - - tSp-∂Xv XS-bm≥ 1996-˛¬ CJvhm≥ Ncn-{X-{]-[m--amb c≠v {]Jym-]--߃ S-Øn. H∂v, Pm-[n-]Xy-sØbpw _lp-I£n k{º-Zm-bsØbpw Hcp {]h¿Ø - - coXn-bmbn AwKo-I-cn-°pw. c≠v,- P--{]-mXnn[y k`-bn¬ kv{Xo]-¶m-fnØw Dd- ∏phcpØm≥ {ian-°pw. B[p-nI Ckvem-anI {]ÿmßfn¬ kv{Xohn-tam-Nm-ib߃ G‰hpw - - - i‡-ambn {]I-Sn-∏n-°p-Ibpw kv{Xo]-¶m-fn-ØØnv hotdmsS hmZn-°p-Ibpw sNøp- - ∂Xv kp-Um-n¬ tUm. lk≥ Xpdm_n tXrXzw ¬Ip∂ {]ÿm--am-Wv. skIyp-e-cnÃv hn-X-Isf adn-I-S∂v AhnsS BZyw ]m¿e-sa‚n¬ FØn-bXv Hcp Ckvem-anÃv {]t_m-[-I-bm-Wv-˛-kp-BZv A¬^m-Xn-lv. Hcp-h-iØv Cßs Nne apt∂-‰-ß-fp-s≠-¶n-epw, samØ-Øn¬ ac-hn∏pw Po¿W-X-bp-amWv Ct∏mgpw ImWm-p-≈-Xv. Xn∑-bn-te-°p≈ hgn AS-°m≥ (k- ±p-±-dm-CAv) F∂ t]cn¬ kI-e-hn[ kv{Xo]-¶m-fn-Ø-sØbpw hne-°p∂ {]h- W-X-Iƒ hym]-I-am-Wv. bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-Xz-Øns‚ ]nSn Ab-™n-´n-√. GXv ]cn- jvI-cW o°-sØbpw A´n-a-dn-°m≥ Cu bmYm-ÿn-XnI tIm´°v Icp-Øp-≠v. kaq-lØns‚ t¿ ]Ip-Xn-bmb Hcp hn`m-KsØ s]mXp-Po-hn-XØn¬n∂v - - AI-‰n-n¿Øm≥ bmsXmcp sXfn-hp-an-s√∂v mw I≠p. Aßs sNøp-∂Xv kv{Xotbm-sS-∂-√, Ckvem-an-tmSpw apkvenwkaq-ltØmSpw sNøp∂ AXn-{I-a- am-bn-cn-°pw. ImcWw s]mXp-Po-hn-XØn¬ CSw Ap-hZn-®p-sIm-≠√msX kv{Xosb - - - DZv_p-≤-bm-°m≥ Ign-bn-√. kv{Xo DZv_p-≤-bm-sb-¶n-te s√mcp Xe-ap-dsb Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v
  • 12. hm¿sØSp°m≥ Ahƒ°v Ign-bq. kv{Xot-XrXzw Bh-iy-amb F{X-sb{X taJ- e-I-fp≠v C∂v. BC-i, JZo-P, DΩp-k-e-a, ^mXzn-a, AkvamAv, DΩp AΩm-d, ssk-_p¬ K€m-en, kpB-Zp A¬^mXnlv XpS-ßn-bh¿ ¬In-bXp-t]m-ep≈ - - tXr-Xzw. ΩpsS s]¨Ip-´n-Iƒ FhnsS? Ipdn-∏p-Iƒ 1. cmjv{S-`-c-W-Øns‚ Db¿∂ ÿm-ß-fn¬ FØn-s∏-Sp-∂-h-cpsS ]´nI ]cn- tim-[n-®m¬ Ah-cn¬ kv{XoI-fpsS FÆw GXp cmPyØpw hfsc ]cn-an-X-am-sW∂v n߃°v ImWmw. kv{XoIƒ men-sem∂v hcp∂ k`-Iƒ Xs∂ AXy-]q-¿hw. GsX- ¶nepw aX-hp-ambn _‘-s∏´v D≠m-bn-Øo¿∂ {]Xn-`m-k-sam-∂p-a√ CXv. s]mXp ÿm- am--ßfpsS hn`P--Ønepw hnX-c-W-Ønepw ap-jy{]-Ir-Xn-bpsS kzm`m-hnI tX´-sa∂ ne°v CØcw k`-I-fn¬ ]pcp-j≥ A[n-I-am-bn-t∏m-Ip-∂-Xm-Wv. kmaq-lnI˛kpc£m ÿm]-ß-fnepw a‰p-amWv kv{XoIsf IqSp-X-embn ImWp∂Xv. CXv Hcp hn`m-KsØ Db¿Øn-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xntm as‰mcp hn`m-KsØ CI-gvØp-∂-Xntm Imc-W-am-bn-°q-Sm- Ø-Xm-Wv.- k-aq-l-Ønse AwKXzw kv{Xo, ]pcp-j≥ F∂n-ßs hn`-Pn-°m-h-X-√. H‰ AwK-Xz-ta-bp-≈q. kIe Xpd-Ifpw kaql ]ptcmK-Xn°v Bh-iy-am-sW∂ [mcW Dd- ∏n-°-s∏-Sp-Ibpw thWw. 2. -^-Xmhm apB-kzd F∂ IrXn-bn¬n∂v. A_vZp¬ leow A_q-iJ "kv{Xohn- tam-Nw {]hmNI Ime-L-´-Øn¬' (2/448) F∂- Xs‚ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬ D≤-cn-®-Xv. 3. Ckvem-anI `c-W-L-S (A-d_n ]Xn-∏v) t]Pv 65. 4. ^Xmhm ^o AlvIm-an-∂nkmAv F∂ eLp-Ir-Xn-bn¬n∂v D≤-cn-®-Xv. Ipssh- Ønse Nne {Kq∏p-Iƒ Ct∏mgpw Cu A`n-{]m-b-Øn¬ Dd-®p-n¬°p-∂p. 5. A_p¬ lk≥ A¬am-h¿Zn: A¬-A-lvIm-ap-€p¬Xzm-nø h¬ hnem-bm-Øp- ±o-n-ø. 6. _KvZm-Zn-bpsS A¬an-lep h∂n-l¬ 75,76. 7. Ibid, D≤-cWw id-lp-∂lvPv 2/81 8. id-lp-∂lvPv 2/81 9. lZokv D≤-cn® A_q-_-Ivd(-d) F∂ kzlm-_n-bmWv nth-ZI ]c-º-c-bnse kwi-bm-kv]Zamb IÆn. a°m hnP-bØnv tijw Ckvemw kzoI-cn® alm-mb kzlm- - - - _n-bmWv Ct±-l-sa-¶nepw A]hmZw ]d™p-]-c-Øn-b-Xns‚ t]cn¬ (J-Zv^v) At±lw in£n-°-s∏-´n-´p-≠v. At±lw Xs∂ C°mcyw kΩ-Xn-®-Xp-am-Wv. in£°v hnt[-b-mb Hcmƒ ]›m-Ø-]n®v aS-ßn-bm¬ Xs∂ Abm-fpsS nth-Zw kzoIcn°mtam F∂ Imcy-Øn¬ `n∂m-`n-{]m-b-ap-≠v. Camw _pJmcn Xs‚ kzloln¬ At±lw hgn-bp≈ lZokv D≤-cn-°p-Ibpw At±-lsØ hniz-kvX-cn¬ Hcm-fmbn FÆp-I-bp-sams° sNbvXn- ´p-s≠-∂Xv icn-bm-Wv. ]t£, cmjv{S-`-cWw t]mep≈ Hcp kp{]-[m hnj-b-Øn¬ kwi-bm-kv]-Z-amb Hcp hN-w, kwi-b-Øns‚ tXmXv F{X Ipd-hm-sW-¶n-epw, ASn- ÿm--ambn hcm-h-X-√. Cu lZo-kns sXfn-hmbn D≤-cn®v kv{Xo `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn- °qSm F∂v hmZn-°p∂ ]-fin-X-∑m-cpsS A`n-{]m-b-߃ hni-I-ew sNbvXv alvaq-Zp¬ apdmZn F∂ Kth-j-I≥ ]d-bp-∂-Xv, AXnv Cu sXfnhv t]msc-∂mWv (kv{Xo s]mXp afi-e-Øn¬ IS°mt ]mSn√ F∂-Xnv Cu lZokv sXfn-hmbn D≤-cn-°p-∂-h-cpsS Imcyw ]ns∂ ]d-bm-pt≠m?) A¬ Jnem-^Xp ss_Ø≥focn hØXzv_oJv 131). 10. kønZv JpXzv_ns‚ ^o fnem-en¬ Jp¿B≥ aq∂mw `mKw (D-≤-c-Wn-b-√, Bi- b-kw-{K-lw). 11. B[p-nI Ckvem-anI Nn¥-I-cn¬ ap≥n-c-bn-ep-≠m-bn-cp∂ apl-Ω-Zp¬ K€m- en-bpsS ne-]mSv sΩ Bthiw sIm≈n-°p-∂-Xm-Wv. bmYm-ÿn-Xn-I-X-bpsS Cf°w X´mØ tIm´-bn-te°v (A-Xm-bXv kv{Xo hnj-b-Øn-ep≈ ISpØ ne-]m-Sn-s-Xn-sc) At±lw ]S--bn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p. "_n-Ncy ^nJvln-s‚bpw lZo-kn-s‚bpw h‡m- c≠m-bn-cØn-sbmºXv - HIvtSm_¿ ap∏-Øn-sbm∂v
  • 13. °ƒ°n-S-bn¬' (A-€p-∂-Øp-∂-_-hnø ss_ Alven¬ ^nJvln h Alven¬ lZo- kv) F∂ Xs‚ ]pkvX-I-Øn¬, Ckvem-an¬ kv{XobpsS b-Ym¿Y ÿmw hmZn-®p-d-∏n- °p-Ibpw Ckv-em-anI thm-∞m--Øn¬ {Inbm-flI ]-¶m-fnØw hln-°p-∂-Xn¬n∂v kv{Xo-Isf q‰m-≠p-I-fmbn XS-™p-sIm-≠n-cn-°p∂ am¿K-X-S-€-ßsf X´n-o-°p-I-bp- am-Wv A-t±lw sNøp-∂-Xv. ]n∂m-°m-h-ÿ-bpsS C-Øcw kv{Xohn-cp≤ tijn-∏p-Iƒ Zons‚ `mK-a-s√-¶nepw Ah Zons‚ ad-]-‰n-bmWv ne-n¬°p-∂-Xv. Ωƒ ]d-™p- h∂ Imcyw- X-s∂-bmWv At±-lhpw ka¿Yn-°p-∂Xv. tbmKy-X-bp-s≠-¶n¬ cmjv{S-`- cWw Dƒs∏-sS-bp≈ s]mXp-]-Z-hn-Iƒ hln-°p-∂-Xn¬n∂v kv{Xosb Ckvemw XS-bp- ∂n-√. tUm. bqkp-^p¬ Jd-Zmhn kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xp-t]m-se, ap≥Ime ]fin-X-∑m¿ cm- jv{S-`-cWw (A¬hn-emb A¬B-Ω) F∂v ]d-™n-cp-∂Xv Jnem-^Øv hyh-ÿsb Bbn-cp-∂p. AXmbXv apkvenw kaq-l-Øn-s‚ samØw ISn-™m¨ Itø¬°p∂ A- [n-Im-c-tI-{µw. AXn-m¬ C∂sØ ap-kv-enw cmjv{S-ßsf "hnemb BΩ' F∂v hn-ti- jn-∏n-°m-m-hp-I-bn-√. Ah `c-W{]-hn-iy-Iƒ (C-am-dm-Øv) am{X-am-Wv. am{Xhp-a-√, C∂v cmjv{S-`cWw F∂v ]d-bp-∂Xv Iq-´p-Øchm-Zn-Xz-am-Wv. ]¶m-fnØ `c-WamWv S-°p-∂Xv. - - - - - ]e-Xcw kwhn-[m--ßfpw ÿm]--ßfpw hgn-bmWv `c-W-n¿h-l-Ww. Cu Iq´p-`-c-W- Øn¬ kv{Xo `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bmbm¬ Xs∂ AXns‚ Hcp n¿WnX `mKw am{X-amWv Ahƒ Gs‰-Sp-°p-∂-Xv. ncp-]m-[n-I-amb A[n-Imcw Ahƒ°v e`n-°p-∂n-√. Ahƒ Hcp I£n-bpsS tXm-hmbn sXc-s™-Sp-°-s∏-Sp-I-bm-Wv. AXns FXn¿°p∂ {]Xn-]-£- hpw Ahn-sS-bp-≠m-hpw. `c-WI£n-bpsS tXm-hm-sW-¶nepw Ahƒ°v Hcp thm´p am{Xta - - D≠m-hq. ]m¿´n-bnse `qcn-]-£hpw FXn¿°p-I-bm-sW-¶n¬ at‰-sXm-cm-sf-t∏m-se Ahƒ°pw A`n-{]mbw amt‰-≠n-hcpw (J-d-Zm-hn-bpsS ^nJvlp-±u-eØn ^n¬ C-kvemw, t]Pv 176 F∂ IrXn-Im-Wp-I). kv-{Xo hnj-b-Øn-ep≈ ne-]m-Sp-Iƒ cq]-s∏-´-Xns‚ Ncn{X ]›m-Ø-ehpw Jd-Zmhn ]cn-tim-[n-°p-∂p-≠v. ap≥Im-e-ß-fn¬ temIw apgps° Hcp hy‡nsb tI{µo-I-cn-®p≈ `c-W-am-bn-cp-∂p. kv{XoI-fm-sW-¶n¬ th-≠{X DZv_p-≤- cm-bn-cp-∂n-√. s]mXp-Po-hn-X-Øn¬ Ah¿°v ]cn-N-bhpw Ipd-hm-bn-cp-∂p. Cusbmcp Ncn- {X-]-›m-Ø-e-Øn-emWv ta¬ hnh-cn® kv{Xo ne-]m-Sp-I-fpsS H´p-an° `qan-I-Ifpw cq]- s∏-´-Xv. Cu ne-]m-Sp-I-fn¬ ]eXpw Ckvem-anI e£y-ß-fn¬ ]c-a-{]-[m--amb oXn- tbmSv HØp-t]m-Im-Ø-Xp-am-Wv. ssZh-`-‡nbpw DXvIr-jvS kz`m-h-ß-fp-am-bn-cn-°Ww t{ijvT-X-bpsS am-Z-fi-sa∂v Jp¿-B≥ ASn-h-c-bn-Sp-∂p-≠v. Cu hnj-b-Øn¬ ap°v In´nb ss]Xr-IsØ njv]-£-ambn hni-I-ew sNtø-≠-Xp-s≠-∂mWv ]d-™p-h-cp- ∂-Xv. akn¬ ]h¿ Zp¿_-e-am-b-Xp-sIm≠v kv{Xo A[n-Imc tI{µ-ß-fn¬n∂v AI-‰n- n¿Ø-s∏-Sp-Ibm-bn-cp∂p; ]mh-ßfpw Ah-icpw AI-‰n-n¿Ø-s∏-´Xp-t]m-se. "Hcp B¨ - - Dincv ImWn-®m¬ Ahs Apkcn-t°-≠n-hcpw' F∂v ]g-sam-gn. 12. ZkvXq-dp¬ AJvemJv (n-fm-ap¬ lpIvap ^n¬ Ckvemw F∂ IrXn-bn¬n∂v D≤-cn-®-Xv) t]Pv 343. 13. ZkvXq-dp¬ AJvemJv. Bbn-cØn mq‰n ap∏Xv Zp¬JAZv ]{¥≠v