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Document1

  1. 1. HmÀ½Ifn _mXvhme AUz: F³. jwkp±o³ C´y³ bqWnb³ apkvenw eoKnsâ tZiobm²y£³ Kpemw alvaqZv _mXv hme kmln_v hnS]dªn«v mtf¡v cp hÀjw XnIbpIbmWv. 2008 Pq¬ 25þmWv apkvenw PtImSnIfpsS [njWmimenbmb tXmhv A´ybm{XbmbXv. AKm[amb ]mWvUnXyhpw AnXckm[mcWamb {]Xn`m hnemkhpw nÀ`bXzhpw AXncnÃm¯ kapZmb kvtlhpw H¯p tNÀ¶ DuÀÖkzemb mbImbncp¶p _mXvhme. {]XnkÔnIÄ ndª C´y³ apkvenwIfpsS nen¸npw AhImi kwc£W¯npw thn At±lw S¯nb {iaIchpw kpZoÀLhpamb ]cn{ia§sf hnkvacn¨p sImv kzmX´ym´c `mcX¯nse apkvenw yq]£¯nsâ Ncn{Xw tcJs¸Sp¯pI Akm[yamWv. JmCsZ anïv apl½Zv Ckvambn kmln_nsâ, apkvenw kaql¯nsâ A`namIcamb AkvXnXzw F¶ e£y km£mXvImc¯nmbn PohnXw Dgnªp sh¨ almmbnc¶p At±lw. cmPys¯ {]_e yq]£ hn`mK§fpsS {]iv§fpw {]bmk§fpw IrXyambn Is¯pIbpw Ah AhXcn¸nt¡- nS¯v nÀ`bt¯msS iàamb `mjbn AhXcn¸n¡pIbpw hÀ¤ob Iem]§Ä Bfn¡¯nbncp¶ D¯tc´y³ {Kma§fn IS¶v sN¶v aÀ±nXÀ¡p oXn e`n¡phm³ tXrXzw sImSp¡pIbpw, nba nÀ½mW k`Ifn t{]mÖzeamb {]IS§Ä S¯n, apkvenw yq]£§fpsS AhImi§Ä kwc£n¡p¶tXmsSm¸w cmPy¯nsâ atXXc Pm[n]Xyaqey§Ä kwc£n¡p¶ almbXv§fnepw Xsâ hgn tcJs¸Sp¯nbmWv _mXvhme IS¶p t]mbXv. kw`h _lpeamb B PohnXbm{XbpsS ZuXyw hnebncp¯p¶Xpw hniIew sN¿p¶Xpw Hcp ]pÀhmbbv¡p hnt[bam¡p¶Xpw ]pXp Xeapdbv¡p Gsd {]tNmZtaIpw. _mXvhme kz]vw IXv atXXc C´ybnse kpc£nXcmb apkvenw kaqls¯bmWv. At±lw t]mcmSnbXv Ahsc ]mÀizh¡cn¡phm³ {ian¡p¶ iànIÄs¡XnscbmWv. ]mÀ«nbpsS AJnte´ym A²y£³, {]apJ ]mÀensatâdnb³ F¶o neIfn _m¯vhme S¯nb CSs]SepIfpw AXnse {]mKÂ`yhpw bNmXpcnbpw AXphgn kapZmb¯n¶p ssIh¶ t«hpw A`namhpw hnebncp¯nbm B P·w k^eambncp¶p F¶v ap¡v hnthNn¨dnbmmhp¶p. aXhpw cmjv{Sobhpw C´ybn F¶ _rl¯mb {KÙ¯nsâ cN nÀÆln¨ _mXvhmebv¡v aX cmjv{Sob _Ô¯nsâ Ncn{Xhpw, kmaqlnIhpw, cmjv{Sobhpw, nba]chpamb ]mckv]cy¯nse k¦oÀ®XIsf¡pdn¨pw, Ahbpm¡p¶ {]iv§sf kw_Ôn¨pw hyàamb Adnhpw [mcWbpw Dmbncp¶p. Ch F{Xam{Xw Bg¯nepÅXmsW¶v ta kqNn¸n¨ {KÙw hyàam¡p¶pv. aX þ cmjv{Sob _Ô¯nsâ hyXykvX kao]§sf¡pdn¨pw aX cmjv{Sob ]mc¼cy§sf¡pdn¨pw aX cmjv{Sob ]mckv]cy¯nse kaImenIamXrIIsf¡pdn¨psams¡ {]Xn]mZn¡p¶ {KÙw _mXvhmebnse ]WvUnXs AdnbphmpÅ Ahkc§fnsem¶mWv. At±lw Hcp `cWLSm hnZKv[³ IqSnbmbncp¶p. `cWLSbpsS AptÑZ§Ä At±l¯nv ax]mTambncp¶p. `cWLSm hymJym§fpw IrXyambn S¯phm³ At±l¯nmIpambncp¶p. nbanÀ½mW thfIfn C´y³ ]mÀesaâpw almcmjv{Sm nbak`bpw ]e kµÀ`§fnepw Cu sshZKv[y¯nv km£yw hln¨n«pv. C´y I {]KÂ`cmb ]mÀesaâv AwK§fpsS ]«nIbnte¡p _mXvhmesb DbÀ¯nbXv At±l¯nsâ ]mWvUnXyhpw `mjm ss]pWyhpw Xm³ hnizkn¨
  2. 2. BZÀi§Ä¡p thnbpÅ AÀ¸W atm`mht¯msSbpÅ {]hÀ¯§fpambncp¶p. hnhn[ cmPy§fpsS `cWLSIfpw C´y³ `cWLSbpw X½nepÅ kmayhpw hyXykvX§fpw ¶mbn aÊnem¡nbn«pÅ _mXvhmebpsS ]mÀesaânse {]IS§Ä FXncmfnIÄ t]mepw k½Xn¨n«pÅXmWv. 1977 apX 1991 hscbpw ]n¶oSv 1996 apX 2004 hscbpw temIvk`bn s]m¶mn aWvUes¯ {]Xnn[oIcn¨ At±lw nch[n nba nÀ½mW thfIfnepw NÀ¨Ifnepw kPohhpw ^e{]Zhpamb CSs]SepIÄ S¯nbn«pv. kz´ambn cq]I¸ sNbvX _nÃpIÄ ]mÀesaân ]eXhW AhXcn¸n¨ _mXvhme aäpÅhÀ AhXcn¸n¨ _nÃpIfpsS NÀ¨m thfIfn kapZmb XmÂ]cy {]ImcapÅ t`ZKXnIfpw Bt£]§fpw kaÀ°ambn D¶bn¨p. Ahbn ]eXpw nbaambn amdnbn«papv. im_mp _oKw tIknse kp{]ow tImSXn hn[nsb XpSÀ¶v 1985 _mXvhme AhXcn¸n¨ kzImcy _nÃmWv hnhml tamNnXbmb apkvenw kv{XoIfpsS kwc£W nbaambn amdnbXv. Cu nbaw _mXvhmebpsS t]cnemWv nba temI¯v Adnbs¸Sp¶Xv. ]ctam¶X oXn ]oT¯nsâ hn[n ymb¯neqsS C´y³ apkÂam³ hnizmk]camb {]XnkÔnsb A`napJoIcn¨t¸mÄ AXnp ]cnlmcapm¡nbXv _mXvhmebpsS IqÀ½_p²nbpw bNmXpcnbpamWv. C´y³ `cWLSbpsS amÀ¤ nÀt±iIXXz§fpsS ad]nSn¨v GI knhnÂtImUv sIm- phcphm³ {ia§fpmbt¸msgms¡ apkvenw hyàn nbaw ]cnc£n¡phm³ _mXvhme ITnm²zmw sNbvXp. ]cnip² JpÀBpw Xncpkp¶¯pw `cWLS hn`mhw sN¿p¶ ]ucsâ aueoI AhImi§fpw DbÀ¯n GI knhn tImUv hmZ¡msc _mXvhme ASn¨ncp¯n. 1985 amÀ¨v amk¯n GI knhn tImUv sImphcm³ {ian¡Ww F¶ C´y³ `cWLSbpsS BÀ«n¡nÄ 44 ZpÀ_es¸Sp¯Wsa¶ Bhiyhpambn _mXvhme AhXcn¸n¨ _nÃv ]mÀesaân Kuchamb NÀ¨IÄ¡v hgnsh¨p. Hcp aWn¡qtdmfw _nÃv AhXcn¸n¨p sImv kwkmcn¨ At±lw C´yt]mepÅ Hcp _lpaX kaql¯n GI knhn tImUnsâ ncÀ°IX hc¨p ImWn¨p. mmXz¯nse GIXzamWv mw DbÀ¯n¸nSnt¡Xv þ At±lw kaÀ°n¨p. apkvenw hyàn nbaw ssZhoIimkbmsW¶pw AXp amäm³ BÀ¡pw AhImiansöpw JpÀBsâ IÂ]Ifn NneXv sImÅmpw aäv NneXv XÅmpw hnizmknIÄ¡mhnsöpw AXpsImv Xs¶ GI knhn tImUv hmZw hnizmk¯n³taepÅ IS¶v IbäamsW¶pw AXv `cWLSm hncp²amsW¶pw ImcyImcW klnXw hnJymXcmb temI Nn´I·mcpsS D²cWnIÄ klnXw _m¯vhme AhXcn¸n¨t¸mÄ GI knhn tImUnmbn hmZn¡p¶hÀ ncmbp[cmbnt¸mbn. C´ybpsS atXXc kz`mhw nendp¯phmpw yq]£mhImi§Ä kwc£n¡phmpw _mXvhme S¯nb CSs]SepIÄ nch[nbmWv. AeoKÀ apkvenw bqWnthgvknänbpsS yq]£ kz`mhw nenÀ¯nbXpw, Bcm[meb§fpsS AhImiXÀ¡¯nv ASnØm Xn¿Xn nÝbn¨Xpw nÀ_Ô hÔywIcW {iaw Ahkmn¸n¨Xpw, hJ^v kz¯p¡Ä kwc£n¡phmpÅ nbaS]SnIÄ D- m¡nbXpsaÃmw _mXvhmebpsS _p²n]camb ]mÀesaânse CSs]SepIÄ aqeamWv. nbas¯¡pdn¨pw ]mÀesaâv S]SnIsf¡pdn¨papÅ AKm[amb ]mWvUnXyw sImv Xs¶ C´ybnse hnhn[ nba k`Ifntebpw C´y³ ]mÀesaântebpw hmKX AwK§Ä¡pÅ ]cnioe ]cn]mSnbn eIvNÀ S¯phmpÅ Ahkcw ]eXhW At±l¯nv ssIh¶n«pv. hn`Pm´cw t_mws_bn apkvenw eoKv {]hÀ¯n¨Xv t^mÀ¯v ]mÀ«n F¶ t]cnembncp¶p. AXneqsSbmWv _m¯vhme Xsâ s]mXp {]hÀ¯amcw`n¨Xv. t^mÀ¯v ]mÀ«n ]ncn¨phn«v ]e tXm¡fpw aäv ]mÀ«nIfn A`bw tXSnbt¸mÄ _mXvhmebpsS tXrXz¯n apkvenw eoKv ]pxkwLSn¸n¡pIbpw 1962se nbak`mXncsªSp¸n apkvenw eoKv ØmmÀ°nbmbn nbak`bnte¡p aÂkcn¨v sNdnb thm«pIÄ¡p ]cmPbs¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. AtX DaÀJmUn aWvUe¯n n¶v 1967epw 1972epw aÂkcn¨v hnPbn¨v nbak`mwKamb At±lw 1977 apX nc´cambn Ggv XhW s]m¶mn aWvUe¯n n¶v C´y³ ]mÀesaânte¡p sXcsªSp¡s¸«p. ]mÀ«nsb iàns¸Sp¯phm³ C´y apgph³ nc´cw k©cn¨ncp¶ _mXvhme¡v hnhn[ kwØm§fn ]mÀ«n¡p taÂhnemkapm¡m³ Ignsª¦nepw Xsâ ]cn{ia§Ä¡pkrXamb ^eapmIp¶nÃtÃm F¶ thZ
  3. 3. ]¦psh¨ncp¶p. tZiob Xe¯n BZchv e`n¨ tXmhmbncp¶p _mXvhme. ap³ {][m a{´namcmb CµncmKmÔnbpw cmPohv KmÔnbpw ]e yq]£ hnjb§fnepw _mXvhmebpsS A`n{]mbamcmªncp¶p. k¬tU Ìm³tUÀUn ]mÀesaânse AhnkvacWobamb Ap`h§Ä F¶ ]c¼cbn ]s¦Sp¯psImv ap³ {][ma{´n hmPvt]bn ]dªXv Hcp NÀ¨m thfbn {Ia{]ivs¯¸än _mXvhmebpw sU]yq«n kv]o¡dpw X½n S¶ hmZ{]XnhmZ§fmWv Xn¡p ad¡mmhm¯ ]mÀesaâdn Ap`hsa¶mWv. _mXvhmebpsS FXnÀ ØmmÀ°n¡p thn {]NmcW¯np h¶ kn.]n.sF. tZiob tXmhv _ÀZ³ ]dªXv ]mÀesaân _mXvhme CÃmXncn¡p¶Xv Hcp jvSamWv F¶mbncp¶p. H«pan¡ tZiob tXm¡³amcpambn _mXvhme¡p à kplrZv _ÔamWv Dmbncp¶Xv. B{Ôbnse kemlp±o³ DsshknbpsS ]mÀ«ntbbpw aäv Nne ssatmdnän kwLSIsfbpw DÄs¸Sp¯n apkvenw eoKnsâ tXrXz¯n tZiob Xe¯n Hcp ap¶Wn kwhn[mapm¡phm³ _mXvhme {ian¨ncp¶p. ]s£ AXv A[nI Imew op n¶nÃ. tIcf¯nsebpw Xangvm«nsebpw apkvenw eoKnsâ ap¶Wn _Ô§fn {]iv§Ä Dmbt¸mgpw Ah ]cnlcn¨v ]mÀ«n¡p t«apm¡phm³ _mXv hmebpsS ]cn{ia§Ä¡mbn«pv. aebmfn apkvenansâ kwLt_m[s¯¡pdn¨p {]IoÀ¯n¡mdpmbncp¶ _mXvhme kmln_v yq]£ cmjv{Sob¯nse tIcf tamU C´y apgph³ hym]n¡p¶ Hcp ImeapmIpsa¶v Xsâ {]kwK§fn ]eXhW ]dªtXmÀ¡p¶p. tZiob Xe¯n apkvenw yq]£w cmjv{Sob imàoIcW¯np {iant¡Xv tIcf¯nsâ amXrI ]n³]änbmhWw F¶v hnhn[ kwØm§fn S¶n«pÅ kt½f§fn At±lw AXniàamb `mjbn hnhcn¡mdpmbncp¶p. acWw hsc IÀ½ncXmbncp¶p B alm tXmhv. Xangvm«nse apkvenw eoKnsâ kwØm kt½fhpw Ignªv t_mws_bn Xncns¨¯nb sXm«Sp¯ ZnhkamWv At±lw acWs¸«Xv. Xsâ Pohs¡mtfsd At±lw kvtln¨ ]mÀ«n¡pw kapZmb¯npw thnbpÅ bm{X¡nSbnemWv AÃmlphnsâ AewLobamb hn[n At±ls¯ tXSnsb¯nbXv.

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