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B plan(Poultry Farming)
 

B plan(Poultry Farming)

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Business plan on poultry Farming in Punjab And along with all subsides by NABARD . All Accounts related to farming

Business plan on poultry Farming in Punjab And along with all subsides by NABARD . All Accounts related to farming

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    B plan(Poultry Farming) B plan(Poultry Farming) Document Transcript

    • Central University of Himachal Pradesh (Established under Central Universities Act 2009 PO BOX: 21, DHARAMSHALA, DISTRICT KANGRA – 176215, HIMACHAL PRADESH Business plan :- Poultry Farming SUBMITTED To : SUBMITTED BY: Dr. Sanjeev Gupta Mr. Sachin Ashutosh kumar(17) Harish Vasdev(29) Harsh Pawar(30)
    • CONTENTS DESCRIPTIONS  INTRODUCTION OF BUSINESS PLAN  POULTRY FARMING  FEATURES OF POULTRY FARMING  NAME OF FIRM AND LOGO  TYPE OF FIRM  REGISTRATION  LICENSE AND LOCATION  TRAINING  MARKET ANALYSIS AND POTENTIALFOR POULTRY FARMING  BROILER PRODUCTION  HEALTHCARE AND MANAGEMENT  SITE LOCATION, COST AND SUBSIDIES  LAND BUILDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CHICKS  FUTURE OF POULTRY FARMING IN INDIA  SUPPLIERS OF CHICKS AND FEED  POULTRY PRODUCTS
    • INTRODUCTION Poultry meat is an important source of high quality proteins. Minerals and Vitamins to balance the human diet. Specially developed varieties of chicken [broilers] are now available with the traits at quick growth and high teed conversion efficiency. Broiler farming can be a main source of family income or can provide subsidiary income and gainful employment to farmers throughout the year. Poultry manure is at high fertilizer value which can be used for increasing yield of all crops. The advantages of broiler farming are initial investment is a little lower than layer farming. Rearing period is 5-6 weeks only More number of flocks can be taken in the some shed. Broilers have high teed conversion etticiency i.e. the amount at teed required for unit body weight gain is lower in comparison to other livestock. FEATURES OF POULTRY FARMING India has made considerable progress in broiler production in the last three decades. The broiler production has sky rocketed at an annual growth rate of about 10% and stands at about 2.3 million metric tons of chicken meat{FAQ 2005]. The population ot broiler poultry as per 2004-05 census is 199.73million. Today lndia is the titth largest producer of broiler meat in the world. Despite this achievement the annual per capita consumption in lndia is only T600 grams of poultry meat as against the world average of 5.9 kg of meat. Recommended per captta consumption at chicken meat by National Institute ot Nutrition is I I Kg. Owing to the considerable growth in broiler industry. high quality chicks. equipment, vaccines and medicines. technically and professionally competent guidance are available to the iarmers. The management practices have improved and disease and mortality incidences are reduced to a great extent. Many institutions are providing training to entrepreneurs. Increasing assistance from the Central! State governments and poultry corporations is being given to create infrastructure facilities so that new entrepreneurs are attracted to take up this business. Broiler farming has been given considerable importance in the national policy and has a good scope tor further development in the years to come. Due to non vegetation food habit of most of the people of this state and poultry meat being comparatively cheaper among other meats. there is In the recent years, the poultry farming has made rapid strides from a family noccupation to a progressive industry. Poultry meat is the fastest growing component of global meat production, consumption and trade, with developing economies like India playing a leading role in the expansion. The share of poultry meat in total meat production has increased from 19.79% in 1981 to 30.14% in 2002 at world level and from 4.46 % in 1981 to 12.10 % in 2002 in India.
    • NAME OF FIRM- NATURAL FARM
    • TYPE OF FIRM - AGRICULTRAL FIRM REGISRATION – PROJECT APPROVED FROM PUNJAB POULTRY DEPTT. (Hoshiarpur ) LICENSE Project Must be approved from State Pollution Department (For Air Pollution). LOCATION: JHIR DI KHUI (HOSHAIRPUR)
    • Training certificate
    • MEDICAL USES Chicken eggs are used to produce source of molecules to treat snake bite. Duck embryos are used to manufacture anti-rabies vaccine.Diet eggs or designer eggs are going to boost special eggs for vitamin E substitution, Omega fatty acids and antioxidant requirements.Poultry eggs and meat have got sensorial, curative, nutritive and therapeutic potential. Poultry is labour intensive and has a potential to create 25,000 more jobs on the consumption of one more egg per capita and similarly 25,000 additional jobs on the consumption of100gm more chicken meat. India is expected to produce 260 million layers (77700 million eggs) and 3500 million broilers (5.9 million tonnes) by the year 2010. Per capita consumption of meat will be around 3.5 to 4.5 kg and eggs will be around 65 and it is expected to contribute Rs 60,000 crore. No agriculture sector is growing as fast as the Indian poultry, making it the most dynamic rapidly emerging sector of livestock economy. The export of poultry meat at present is worth Rs 150 crore and is expected to reach Rs 1,500 crore by 2010. Indian agriculture contributes 28 per cent to the GDP of which 17% is contributed by poultry. Poultry is the only industry where modern technology co-exists with the traditional poultry keeping because poultry technology is appropriate, adaptable, accessible, available and affordable both for the rich and the poor. MARKET ANALYSIS & POTENTIAL FOR POULTRY FARMING  Focus the highly acclaimed slaughters house which supply meat to the various class of customers.  Target groups would be the high end customers vying for the best possible chicken.
    • BROILER PRODUCTION India is the fourth largest broiler producer after China, US and Brazil. There has been a phenomenal increase in broiler production between 2002 to 2012 in spite of the crisis that arose out of bird flu scare in 2004-2006. Parent breeder placements are estimated to be 30 million in 2012 against 1.5 million in 2002. They are concentrated in a few pockets and there is a heavy movement of hatching eggs to less productive areas. There are more than 500 breeding farms in the country housing the broiler parent stocks. The numbers went up sharply from 2007 to 2010 due to raising demand in chicks. The numbers have since stagnated due to reduced chick sales. The numbers are being compensated by enhanced capacities by few breeding units who grow their own chicks as a part of their downward integration. The stagnation could be a short gap after sharp rise due to changing trends in placements. Most of the broiler breeders are in cages with artificial insemination. Best of the breeding flocks produce up to 200 hatching eggs and 160 chicks. Excellent health standards are maintained and there are 'all in, all out' breeder flock units. Two-tier California cages in open-sided raised-floor houses are common. Due to the raising concern about the environment, trials on closed houses with multi-tier cages are being put up as an alternative cost-effective housing system. Power availability/cost, success in manure handling and artificial insemination result in multi-tier cages will decide on the future systems. Most - 93 per cent - of broilers are marketed live in India and so there is limited opportunity to transport birds to distant locations. Hence, local integrators are coming up with huge volumes of parent stock and broiler rearing. The biggest of them have more than one million parent stock producing more than one 100,000 chicks a day. All multi-national brands of broiler chicks are available in India produced from imported grandparents. Aviagen has established a great grandparent (GGP) farm in India. There are local pure line breeding programmes running in India, producing birds scientifically in open-sided houses with lower energy feeds. Indian-bred birds dominate the replacements. All the commercial broiler chicks are raised on deep litter on 'all in, all out' basis. In 2002, 80 per cent of the chicks produced were sold as day-old chicks and the farmers were rearing them. In 2012, the number of chicks sold has come down to 50 per cent and the rest are reared by the companies who hatch them as a part of integrated production. The trend shows that the shift in rearing may continue.
    • Due to large-scale rearing of broilers, reduced production cycle and marketing live birds, the live broiler market has remained speculative. Single flock-growers lose money when the prices are down and cannot realise the benefit of high prices prevailing for few weeks. Larger scale rearing companies are going in for contract farming to utilise the same facility to increase their volumes. The small growers are becoming a part of the big company which is proving to be healthy growth of the industry. Broiler feed, which used to be all mash, is being processed in to crumbles and pellets. Efficient feeds rather than least-cost formulations are favoured. Feed conversion ratio and overall cost of production are considered more important than the cost of feed alone. Broiler rearing companies are establishing large feed processing plants. Most of the prestarter and starter feed is steamed and crumbled. FCRs are coming down - from 2.0 in 2002 to 1.75 in 2012, with the best of the flock recording 1.5 at 2.0kg bodyweight. Broiler farms are open-sided; controlled houses are not even five per cent of the total volume. The main reason being the live bird market into which the birds reared under climate-controlled houses do not fit in besides the high capital costs and power requirements involved. Live broiler markets fluctuate seasonally. Summer prices are high due to reduced production and availability under open-housing system. Festive seasons record low prices due to reduced consumption as some sects abstain from eating meat during this time. Only seven per cent of the broilers are further processed into chicken products. This volume is not going up due to lack of cold chain availability and traditional consumption habits. People still like to buy a live bird slaughter and cook in their own way HEALTHCARE AND MANAGEMENT Hygiene management measures Good ventilation discourages the spread of diseases and pests. In overnight houses, the provision of perches or loosely plaited bamboo mats (such as those used for sieving) placed on the floor can help to keep them dry. If the birds are housed inside, the floor should be swept daily. An outside chicken house should be cleaned every week to break the breeding cycle of the common housefly. It takes about seven days to complete the breeding cycle from fly egg to hatching of the adult housefly. Wood ash and sand spread on the floor will discourage lice infestation. Mothballs (naphthalene) crushed with ash can also be applied to the feathers or the wings of the birds, or placed where the chickens usually take their dust baths. If the chickens are
    • already infested with mites, the house can be fumigated (while the chickens are outside) with a rag drenched in kerosene. Lice live on the birds, and dust baths with naphthalene powder in the ash will be more effective than dust alone. The practice of keeping chickens and ducks together should be discouraged. This results in wet floors, giving rise to diseases such as Fowl Cholera. Ducks are also much more tolerant than chickens to Newcastle Disease, and are thus often carriers of this viral disease. Adults and young stock of any poultry should be housed separately to minimize cross-infections and injuries from bullying. Manure management Whatever the type of confinement, proper attention must be paid to manure management. Adult birds produce 500 g of fresh manure (70 percent moisture content) per year per kg of body weight. To preserve its fertilizer value, manure should be dried to about 10 to 12 percent moisture content before storage. This will retain the maximum nitrogen content for fertilizer value. Nitrogen in the form of urea is the most volatile component of manure, and is lost as ammonia if moisture content is too high in the stored material. If the moisture content is too high, then the stored manure releases ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and methane, which can have serious physiological effects on humans. Some of these components are also greenhouse gases, which contribute to the global increase in ambient temperature. Poultry manure is very useful as an organic fertilizer, as animal and fish feed and as a raw material for methane gas generation in biogas plants for cooking fuel. Waste management Litter spreader There are many different waste management options for litter including land application of litter as an organic fertiliser. Overseas broiler industries have had restrictions placed
    • upon them regarding this practice due to over application of litter which led to pollution. Fortunately in Australia there are greater agricultural lands that can responsibly utilise litter and growers are generally less concentrated compared to overseas. Therefore, poultry waste managers can rely on land application of litter as a sustainable disposal method for the foreseeable future. That being said, the industry considers all other waste management options and their ability to value add to the litter resource. Closed-loop systems An important concept for a waste manager is a closed-loop system where outputs from one industry become inputs for another. Therefore, pollution could be defined as a resource or raw product that has an adverse effect on the environment which has not been transformed into another useful product. Land application satisfies this requirement as litter is transformed into plants while soil structure is improved by increasing soil organic matter. Composting litter before applying to land can enhance both pant growth and soil structure. Composting Composting broiler litter Composting is the aerobic microbial breakdown of organic matter, usually incorporating a thermophilic phase. The adoption of composting systems for poultry waste has received attention due to its ability to reduce litter volume, dispose of carcasses, stabilise nutrients and trace elements and reduce pathogens. Agronomic benefits of composted litter include increased plant available nutrients and humic residues. The immobilisation of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) during composting reduces the risk of soluble N and P entering
    • aquatic systems via surface flow and leaching. Composting could also offer both on-site and off-site solutions to litter utilisation and potentially enhance a closed-loop system for the Australian poultry industry. Direct combustion The Eye power station is fueled by litter Direct combustion and incineration are recognised as efficient options for generating renewable energy and fertiliser grade ash from litter and could potentially close the nutrient loop for the poultry industry. There are currently successful large scale off-site electricity utilities operating in the UK that primarily use litter as a fuel. For on-site electricity and heat generation, smaller direct combustion systems are being researched and developed, and if commercialised, could supply Australian broiler growers with both environmentally sustainable waste disposal and energy. Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion could also promote a closed-loop system for the poultry industry, as the process could degrade and stabilise a wide range of organic poultry wastes including litter. This could potentially produce saleable methane and digestate. Methane could be captured after digestion, the gas then cleaned and then used as renewable energy, while the digestate could be utilised as a soil improving agent with potentially good fertiliser attributes. Ethanol production (biofuels) It is also likely that poultry litter could be suitable for lignocelluosic alcohol production. If this technology is viable, this waste could supply biofuels to Australia and potentially reduce the demand for grain destined for ethanol production.
    • Vermiculture Broiler litter and earthworms (Eiseniaandrei) after vermi-processing The use of specially selected earthworm species to degrade waste is known as vermiculture. This technique has be widely adopted by home gardeners to utilize green waste and vegetable scraps. Vermiculture has the potential to produce both humic rich vermi-compost (vermicast) and meat meal (vermimeal) from litter. Traditionally, the vermiculture process has primarily been adopted to produce vermicast, a recognised valuable organic fertiliser. However, the production and processing of earthworms into vermimeal is increasingly viewed as a viable component. Both of these outputs potentially render vermiculture as a value-adding opportunity for the Australian poultry industry, while providing an alternative disposal option for litter (promoting a closedloop system). Research is currently underway at the University of New England to determine the role vermiculture has in poultry waste management SITE LOCATION, COST AND SUBSIDIES The broiler chicken production of our country is growing at the rate of nearly 8-10% every yea. The consumption of chicken meat has increased significantly during past two decades. Government is promoting this industry by providing subsidy. Considering the vast potential of this industry in employment generation we have included many poultry project reports in this site. We shall include many more project reports in coming months as per demand by our visitors. We request our visitors to inform us about their requirement by filling form.Before starting a Hybrid Broiler farm the entrepreneurs/ farmers are advised to under go training on poultry farming. They can contact Local Animal Husbandry Department staffs/Veterinary College/agriculture university etc. for
    • the purpose. They should also visit progressive broiler farmers and government/ agricultural university poultry farm in the locality. They must check the following points before starting a Broiler farm. 1. Availability of hybrid broiler chicks in local market 2. Nearness of the Farm to Veterinary Hospital, Animal disease diagnostic laboratory 3. Marketing facility of Broiler in local market 4. Availability of broiler feed & medicine in their locality. Project Report For Establishment Of 1000 Commercial Broilers Per Cycle In Deep Litter Housing (All In All Out System) (Back ended capital subsidy is available for this project subject to a ceiling of Rs 56,000/- for a unit of 1000 birds ( Rs 74,600/- for SC/ST farmers and NEStates including Sikkim). Subsidy shall be restricted on a prorata basis depending on the unit size, subject to a ceiling of Rs 2.80 lakh ( Rs 3.73lakh for SC / ST farmers and NE States including Sikkim ). This project report has been worked out subject to the following conditions: 1. Hybrid Broiler Chicks will be purchased from commercial hatcheries for every batch. 2. Sale price of finisher birds will change in accordance with change in purchase price of feed & chick . 3. Bio-security measures must be strictly adopted. 5. The farm must be managed by the entrepreneur on scientific lines. Deep Litter Housing for broiler chicken Floor – One square feet floor space per bird is required for broiler chicken. The floor of the poultry house should be concrete cemented, strong & rodent proof ,and have slope towards door. Plinth should be 2ft. higher than ground. Walls-lengthwise wall may be only one foot high, brick wall on sides,4ft wire netting
    • above brick wall should be supported with angle iron. End wall of poultry house should be made of bricks. Maximum breadth of poultry house should be 27 feet. There should be partition in every 500 squire feet. Roof – Roof of the poultry house may be of asbestos or tile. It should 12-ft. high at the center and 6-8ft. high on the side wall with 3ft extension of roof beyond wall to prevent rain water from entering poultry house. Techno-Economic Norms Sl.no PARAMETERS VALUE 1 Batch size 1000+5% extra 2 Batch interval 52 days(45 rearing +7days days
    • cleaning period) 3 Mortality of birds 5% 4 Cycle size 1000 5 Cost of day old chick Rs.15 6 Cost of kg of feed Rs.18.00 7 Cost of equipments(waterers feeders Rs.10/bird etc.) 8 Cost of insurance medicine vaccine Rs.3/bird/year etc. 9 No of batches/year introduced first 6 year 10 No of batches /year(sold) 6 11 No of batch introduced 2-5 years 7 12 No of batch sold 2-6 years 7 13 Cost of kg of live broiler Rs.50 14 Average wt. of bird at the time of sale 1.8kg 15 Feed requirement to attain 1.8kg body 3kg weight
    • 16 Rearing period 45 days 17 Cleaning period One week 18 Interest rate 12%/year 19 Repayment period 6 years ECONOMICS OF BROILER FARMING TO PRODUCE 1000 BROILERS PER CYCLE Sl no Capital cost (Amount Rs.) 1. Construction of Brooder cum grower house one 200000 sq.ft/bird for 10000 birds @Rs.200/sq.ft 2. Equipments for 1000 birds @Rs.15/bird 15000 3. Electrification & electrical installation 15000 4. Feed 100sq.ft@200/sq.ft TOTAL CAPITAL COST store 20000 250000 in
    • Working Capital 1. Cost of chicks 1030 @ RS.15/chick (5% extra 15450 for mortality 2% free fro hatchery ) 2. Cost of concentrate feed@3kg/bird for10,00 54000 birds @18/kg for first bath 3. Misc, expenditure i.e. electricity vaccine 3000 medicine insurance etc. including veterinary aid @Rs,3/bird/batch 4. Total working capital 72450 5. Total project cost 322450 6. Say 322500 7. Margin money 15% of project cost 48375 8. Bank loan 274125 9. Back ended capital subsidy under poultry venture 56000 capital fund under general category 10. Back ended capital subsidy under poultry venture capital fund for ST/SC &farmers of north eastern
    • states including Sikim Sl.n o CASH FLOW 74000 Project period (year) Amount in Rs. i ii iii iv v vi 1 Cost of day old chicks 92700 10815 10815 10815 10815 10815 /year@15/bird 0 0 0 0 0 2 Cost of feed for birds 32400 37800 37800 37800 37800 37800 @3kg/bird Rs.18/kg 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 Misc, expenditure i.e. 18000 21000 21000 21000 21000 21000 electricity vaccine medicine insurance etc. including veterinary aid @Rs3/bird /batch 5 Total expenditure 43470 50715 50715 50715 50715 50715 0 0 0 0 0 0 INCOME a) Sale of Rs.90/bird Rs.50/kg) broiler (1.8 kg @ 54000 63000 63000 63000 63000 63000 @ 0 0 0 0 0 0
    • b) Sale of manure c) Sale of gunny bags d) Depreciation on shed and building etc@10%year 88000 e) Depreciation on equipments @15%/year 3000 f) Total 54590 63660 63660 63660 63660 72760 0 0 0 0 0 0 g) Gross profit 11120 12945 12945 12945 12945 22045 0 0 0 0 0 0 YEAR 1 Capital Costs 2 3000 2900 3 3500 3100 4 5 3500 3500 3500 3500 3100 3100 3100 3100 6 250000 Recurring Costs 434700 507150 507150 507150 507150 507150 Total Costs 684700 507150 507150 507150 507150 507150 Benefit 545900 636600 636600 636600 636600 727600 Net Benefit 138800 129450 129450 129450 129450 220450 Present worth costs @15% DF 2073691.70 Present worth Benefit @ 15% DF 2369673.93 Net present worth 295982.23
    • BCR 1.14:1 IRR IRR=33.23% Repayment Schedule Year Loan Gross Outstanding Surplus Interest 1 274125 111200 32895 24125 57020 54180 2 250000 129450 30000 40000 70000 59450 3 210000 129450 25200 50000 75200 54250 4 160000 129450 19200 60000 79200 50250 @12% Principal Total Surplus Repayment LAND BUILDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CHICKS Poultry House Construction Need for poultry house To protect birds from adverse climatic conditions To ensure easy and economic operation To ensure scientific feeding in a controlled manner To facilitate proper micro-climatic conditions in a near vicinity of bird For effective disease control measures To ensure proper supervision
    • Selection of location Poultry house should be located away from residential and industrial area. It should have proper road facilities. It should have the basic amenities like water and electricity. Availability of farm labourers at relatively cheaper wages. Poultry house should be located in an elevated area and there should not be any water-logging. It should have proper ventilation. Layout of poultry farm A small size poultry farm doesn’t require any special layout as it involves construction of only one house. The medium and large size farms require special considerations for placement of building in the farm premises. The basic principles to be observed for layout are Layout should not allow visitors or outside vehicles near the birds. The sheds should be so located that the fresh air first passes through the brooder shed, followed by grower and layer sheds. This prevents the spread of diseases from layer houses to brooder house.
    • There should be a minimum distance of 50-100 feet between chick and grower shed and the distance between grower and layer sheds should be of minimum 100 metre. The egg store room, office room and the feed store room should be located near entrance to minimize the movement of people around the poultry sheds. The disposal pit and sick room should be constructed only at the extreme end of the site Different types of poultry houses Brooder / chick house-It is used to brood and rear egg-type chicks from 0 to 8 weeks of age. Grower house-It is used to grow egg-type birds from 9 to 18 weeks of age. Brooders cum grower house-Here, the birds are reared from 0 to 18 weeks of age (entire brooding and growing period of egg-type chicken). Layer house-In which birds over 18 weeks of age are reared, usually up to 72 weeks of age. Broiler house-In which broilers are reared up to 6 weeks of age. Breeder house-In which both male and female breeders are maintained at appropriate sex ratio. Environmentally controlled (EC) house-In which, entire environment is manipulated in such a way that is optimum for the birds growth. Optimal environmental conditions for rearing broilers Temperature - 22-300C (70-850F) Relative Humidity - 30-60 % Ammonia level - Less than 25 ppm Litter moisture - 15-25% Air flow - 10-30 metres/minute
    • House Orientation (Direction) The poultry house should be located in such a way that long axis is in east-west direction. This will prevent the direct sunshine over the birds. Size Each broiler require one square foot of floor space while a layer requires two square feet of floor space under deep-litter system of rearing. So the size of the house depends on the number of birds to be reared. Length The length of the house can be of any extent. The number of birds reared and availability of the land determines the length of poultry house. Width The open sided poultry houses in tropical countries should have a width not more than 22 to 25 feet in order to allow ample ventilation and aeration at the midportion. Sheds wider than this will not provide adequate ventilation during the hot weather. If the width of the shed is more than 25 feet, ridge ventilation at the middle line of the roof top with proper overhang is a must. Hot air and obnoxious gases which are lighter than air move upward and escape through ridge ventilation. In environmentally controlled poultry houses, the width of the house may be even 40 feet or more since the ventilation is controlled with the help of exhaust fans. Height The height of the sides from foundation to the roof line should be 6 to 7 feet (eaves height) and at the centre 10 to 12 feet. In case of cage houses, the height is decided by the type of cage arrangements (3 tier or 4 tier). Foundation Good foundation is essential to prevent seepage of water into the poultry sheds. The
    • foundation of the house should of concrete with 1 to 1.5 feet below the surface and 1 to 1.5 feet above the ground level. Floor The floor should be made of concrete with rat proof device and free from dampness. The floor of the house should be extended 1.5 feet outside the wall on all sides to prevent rat and snake problems. Doors The door must be open outside in case of deep-litter poultry houses. The size of door is preferably 6 x 2.5 feet. At the entry, a foot bath should be constructed to fill with a disinfectant. Side walls The side wall should be of 1-1.5 feet height, and generally at the level of bird’s back height. This side wall protects the bird during rainy days or chill climate and also provides sufficient ventilation. In case of cage houses, no side wall is needed. Roof The roof of the poultry house may be thatched, tiled, asbestos or concrete one depending upon the cost involvement. Different types of roofs are Shed, Gable, halfmonitor, full-monitor (Monitor), Flat concrete, Gambrel, Gothic etc. Gable type is mostly preferred in tropical countries like India. Overhange The overhang of the roof should not be less than 3.5 feet in order to prevent the entry of rain water into the shed. Lighting Light should be provided at 7-8 feet above the ground level and must be hanged
    • from ceiling. If incandescent bulbs are used, the interval between two bulbs is 10 feet. In case of fluorescent lights (tube lights) the interval is 15 feet. Systems of Poultry Housing Poultry can be housed under different systems based on following factors, 1. Availability of land 2. Cost of land 3. Type of farming activity 4. Climatic condition 5. Labour availability Broadly, poultry housing systems are classified into three systems: 1. Free range or extensive system 2. Semi-intensive system 3. Intensive system 1. Deep-litter system 2. Slatted floor system 3. Slat cum litter system 4. Cage system 1)Free range system This system is adopted only when adequate land is available to ensure desired stocking density by avoiding overcrowding. We can rear about 250 adult birds per hectare. A range provides shelter, greens, feed, water and shade. Foraging is the major source of feeding for birds. Shelter is usually provided by temporary roofing supported by ordinary poles. The fields are generally used on rotational basis after harvesting of crops by moving of birds from one field to another depending on cropping programme. All categories of birds can be reared in this system. This system is most preferred for organic egg production.
    • Advantages Less capital investment Cost of housing is least. Feed requirements are less since birds can consume fairly good amount of feed from grass land. Fertility of soil can be maintained. Disadvantages The scientific management practices can not be adopted. Eggs are lost when laid inside the dense grasses unless special nests are provided. Losses due to predatory animals are more. Wild birds may bring diseases unless proper care is taken. 2) Semi-intensive system As the name indicates birds are half-way reared in houses and half-way on ground or range, i.e. birds are confined to houses in night or as per need and they are also given access to runs. The houses are with solid floors while runs are fields only. The success of rearing depends on maintenance of condition of runs to reduce the contamination. Runs can also be used on turn basis. The stocking density rate on an average for adult birds is 750 per hectare. This system is usually adopted for duck rearing. The feeding and watering facilities are provided in the pen. Advantages More economical use of land compared to free range system Protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions Control over scientific operation is some extent possible
    • Disadvantages High cost for fencing. Need for routine cleaning and removal of litter material from the pen. 3) Intensive system Birds are totally confined to houses either on ground / floor or on wire-netting floor in cages or on slats. It is the most efficient, convenient and economical system for modern poultry production with huge numbers. Advantages Minimum land is required for farming. Farms can be located near market area. Day-to-day management is easier. The production performance is higher as more energy is saved due to restricted movements. Scientific management practices like breeding, feeding, medication, culling etc. can be applied easily and accurately. The sick birds can be detected, isolated and treated easily. Disadvantages Birds’ welfare is affected. They cannot perform the natural behaviour like roosting, spreading wings, scratching the floor with legs etc. Since they are not exposed to outside sunlight and feed sources, all the nutrients should be provided in balanced manner to avoid nutritionally deficient diseases. Chances for spreading of diseases are more.
    • Deep Litter System In this system the birds are kept inside the house all the time. Arrangement for feed, water and nest are made inside the house. The birds are kept on suitable litter material of about 3” to 5” depth. The word litter is used for fresh litter material spread on the floor. Usually paddy husk, saw dust, ground nut hulls, chopped paddy straw or wood shavings are used as litter materials. This arrangement saves labour involved in frequent cleaning of faecal matter (droppings), however it needs periodical stirring. The litter is spread on the floor in layers of 2” height every fortnightly till the required is achieved. Advantages Vit B2 and Vit B12 are made available to birds from the litter material by the bacterial action. The welfare of birds is maintained to some extend The deep litter manure is a useful fertilizer. Lesser nuisance from flies when compared to cage system. Disadvantages Because of the direct contact between bird and litter, bacterial and parasitic disease may be a problem. Respiratory problems may emerge due to dust from the litter.
    • The cost of litter is an additional expenditure on production cost. Faults in ventilation can have more serious consequences than in the cage system The built up litter Deep litter or built up litter is accumulation and decomposition of litter material and excreta until it reaches a depth of 8” to 12”, after an original start of 3” to 5” depth. Bacterial action decomposes litter and excreta into crumble form and heat is produced during decomposition which keeps litter dry and warm. If the amount of droppings exceeds the litter, fresh litter will be added to lower the amount of droppings. Periodical stirring of the litter should be carried out for an effective functioning of built-up litter. After one year, the litter is changed and the decomposed litter is used as good quality manure. The best built-up litter should be dry, friable and free from obnoxious odour. Slatted (Slotted) Floor System In a slatted floor, iron rods or wood reapers are used as floor, usually 2-3 feet above the ground level to facilitate fall of droppings through slats. Wooden reapers or iron rods of 2” diameter can be used on lengthwise of the house with interspaces of 1” between rods. Advantages Less floor space per bird is needed when compared to solid floor system. Bedding is eliminated Manure handling is avoided Increased sanitation Saving in labour Soil borne infection is controlled Disadvantages Higher initial cost than conventional solid floors Less flexibility in the use of the building Any spilled feed is lost through the slots More fly problem.
    • Slat (Slot) Cum Litter System This system is commonly practiced for rearing birds for hatching eggs production, particularly meat-type breeders. Here, a part of the floor area is covered with slats. Usually, 60% of the floor area is covered with slats and rest with litter. Feeders and waterers are arranged in both slat and litter area. In case of breeder flock, nest boxes are usually kept on litter area. Advantages More eggs can be produced per unit of floor space than all solid floors. Fertility is better with the slat cum litter house than with the all-slat house. Disadvantages Housing investment is higher with the slat cum litter house than with the all-litter house. The separation of birds from the manure beneath the slats commonly results in fly problems. Cage System This system involves rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages, either fitted with stands on floor of house or hanged from the roof. It has been proved very efficient for laying operations, right from day-old to till disposal. At present, 75% of commercial layers in the world are kept in cages. Feeders and waterers are attached to cages from outside except nipple waterers, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages. Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing system. The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages or on belts or on the floor or deep pit under cages, depending on type of cages.
    • Advantages Minimum floor space is needed More number of eggs per hen can be received Less feed wastage Better feed efficiency Protection from internal parasites and soil borne illnesses Sick and unproductive birds can be easily identified and eliminated. Clean eggs production Vices like egg eating, pecking is minimal. Broodiness is minimal No need of litter material Artificial Insemination (AI) can be adopted. Disadvantages High initial investment cost. Handling of manure may be problem. Generally, flies become a greater nuisance. The incidence of blood spots in egg is more Problem of cage layer fatigue. (It is a condition, in which laying birds in cages develop lameness. It may be due to Ca and P deficiency but the exact reason is not known) In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is more, especially when the broilers weight is more than 1.5 kg. Types of cages Based on the number of birds in a cage, it is classified as Single or individual bird cage (Only one bird in a cage) Multiple bird cage (From 2 to 10 birds, usually 3 or 4 birds per cage) Colony cages (Holding birds more than 11 per cage) Based on the number of rows Single-deck Double-deck Triple-deck Four-deck Flat-deck
    • Based on arrangement of cages 1) Stair-step cages a) M-type cages b) L-type cages 2) Battery cages (Vertical cages)
    • Based on the type of bird reared 1. Brooder / chick cages 2. Grower cages 3. Layer cages 4. Breeder cages Broiler cages 1) Brooder cage / chick cage Specifications: Front feeding length : 60 inch Front & Back height : 12 inch Depth : 36 inch No. of chicks (0-8 weeks) accommodated per box : 60 Chick cages are arranged either as single deck or double deck system. The feeders and waterers are arranged on outside. Now-a-days nipple drinker system is followed from day-old itself. Newspaper may be spread over the cage floor for first 7 or 10 days. Feed is usually provided inside the cage during the first week of age.
    • 2) Grower cage Grower cage Grower cage Specifications: Front feeding length : 30 inch Front & Back height : 15 inch Depth : 18 inch No. of growers (9 to 18 weeks) accommodated per box : 10 3) Layer cage Two types of stair-step layer cages are commonly used in open-sided poultry houses 1. Conventional cages 2. Reverse cages (Californian cages)
    • a).Conventional cages Specifications for each box: Front feeding length Front height : 18 inch Back height : 15 inch Depth : 18 inch : 15 inch b).Reverse cages Specifications for each box: Front feeding length : 18 inch Front height : 18 inch Back height : 15 inch Depth : 15 inch These cages can hold 3 to 4 birds. They are arranged either in 2-tier or 3-tier. A slope of 1/6 is provided in conventional cages, where as in reverse cages the slope is 1/5. Advantages of reverse cages over conventional cages 1. More feeding space is available in reverse cages. So, all 4 birds can take feed at a time, where as in conventional cages, 3 birds can take feed and the other one is waiting at the back. 2. Number of cracked eggs is less due to lesser rolling distance. 3. Better ventilation in reverse cages than conventional cages.
    • Elevated cage layer house The height of the shed is raised by 6-7 feet using concrete pillars. The distance between two pillars is 10 feet. Two feet wide concrete platforms are made over the pillars. When 3 ‘M’ type cages are arranged 4 platforms are needed. In case of 2 ‘M’ and 2 ‘L’ type cages are arranged 3 platforms are needed. When constructing platforms projecting angles or iron rods to be provided to fix the cages. The inter-platform distance is 6-7 feet depending upon the type of the cages used. The total height of the house is 20-25 feet and the width is 30-33 feet. This type of houses provides sufficient ventilation in tropical countries. Floor space requirements Cages (ft2) 0.60 0.20 9-18 1.25 0.30 >18 1.50 0.50 0-4 Egg-type chicken Deep-litter (ft2) 0-8 Type Age (in weeks) 0.30 - 4-8 0.75 - Meat-type chicken
    • FUTURE OF POULTRY FARMING IN INDIA Fortunately, the economy of the country has been healthy and the purchasing capacity of the average Indian is on the rise, writes Dr Kotaiah. Furthermore, the food requirements of the country are growing. Consumption of non-vegetarian food goes up with increasing purchasing power. Most Indians are now in a position to buy chicken and eggs at reasonable prices. The open market policy of the government opened access to the best of the products in the world and also created pressure on local producers in terms of quality production. The policy of self-sufficiency pursued for the last 60 years by the Government of India has been paying off and India does not import the basic food ingredients like food grains. Grain production of the country is on the rise although it represents just 2.5 per cent of agricultural output. India is self-sufficient in grains and is also exporting. The export of grains is resulting in the price rise of the grains within the country, which is benefiting and encouraging arable farmers to stick to agriculture activity and improve. The animal production industry has to put up with the prices but the rising price of grains and oilseeds is creating enormous pressure on the livestock sector by increasing the cost of production. Only two of the livestock sectors are commercialised in India: the dairy sector consisting of buffaloes is under tremendous pressure between rapidly increasing input costs and slow increase of the price of milk while the poultry sector is most promising in terms of organised production and efficiency. The industry is maintaining the growth of eight to 12 per cent annually in spite of increasing input costs and not that fast improvement of the poultry products. The prices of eggs and chicken are also on the rise. If we examine the rise in prices of eggs compared with layer feed prices, we can see the squeeze between the increased in feed prices against the rise in egg prices. Similar is the case with the broiler feed prices and the farm-gate broiler prices. Feed - now representing 70 per cent of the total cost of production - is going up at a faster rate than the prices of eggs and chicken meat. The production rise is still phenomenal in spite of the above situation. Besides feed, the cost of other inputs like labour and power has also gone up. The outlook for poultry production in India looks bright. The growth of layer business is estimated at six per cent and broilers at 12 per cent annually. Government policies to augment domestic grain production and ensure the availability to the poultry sector without exporting the grains directly will encourage the industry to grow.
    • India may not be an exporting country for eggs and chicken but the industry can assure feeding the more than one billion human population with quality eggs and chicken at cheaper prices than anywhere else in the world. SUPPLIERS OF CHICKS & FEED We offer our clients an exceptional range of Chicken Dress Broiler that re processed as per the hygienic standards. These products are acclaimed among the clients for its optimum quality and excellent taste. We are supported by experienced professionals, who understands the requirement of the liens and deliver the entire product range in welldefined time frame. Features: * Healthy and nutritious * High nutritional value * Reasonable Prabhat Poultry Private Limited, Mumbai Address: No. 14, Sushil, Shivaji Park, Veer Savarkar Road, Dadar , Mumbai - 400 028, Maharashtra, India Phone: 08377806796 Website: http://www.indiamart.com/prabhatpoultry/
    • POULTRY PRODUCTS Frozen Chicken We are listed as one of the leading manufacturers and suppliers of Frozen Chicken, which is known for its rich taste and hygiene. Our products are tested by our quality controllers under food parameters at every production stage. The product offered by us is in bulk quantity to our esteemed clients. Our range of frozen chicken is appreciated for its high nutrition value and delicious taste. Customers can easily avail the range from us at reasonable prices. Chicken Legs With a vast experience of 48 years in this industry, we have positioned ourselves as one of the recognized processor and supplier of hygienically processed product range in Mumbai, Maharashtra. we processed a range of products, which comprises chicken bacon rashers, chicken cheese & onion sausages, chicken salami and chicken sausages. Apart from these we also offer a wide range of chicken shamikabab, chicken sheekkabab, chicken burger and chicken sandwich.
    • Chicken Dress Broiler We offer our clients an exceptional range of Chicken Dress Broiler that re processed as per the hygienic standards. These products are acclaimed among the clients for its optimum quality and excellent taste. We are supported by experienced professionals, who understands the requirement of the liens and deliver the entire product range in well-defined time frame. Features: Healthy and nutritious High nutritional value Reasonable prices Chicken Breast Boneless We offer wide range of Chicken Breast Boneless that is rich in taste and are nutritious in nature. Our entire product range is acclaimed among the clients for long shelf life and immaculate quality. They are safe to consume and add delectable taste to the non-vegetarian dishes. Our entire product range is delivered with air-tight packaging Features: Low cost Hygienic
    • Chicken Lollipops Quality being the main concern, we offer wide range of Chicken Lollipops that are acclaimed among the clients for long shelf life and is rich in taste. Our entire product range is free from harmful preservatives and is offered at most affordable rates. We test them in varied parameters thereby assisting us to deliver an exceptional range of products. Features: Juicy It reduces carbohydrates Chicken Pre Cut In order to cater diverse requirements of the clients, we offer wide range of Chicken Pre Cut that is acclaimed among the clients for immaculate quality and rich taste. Owing to our advanced logistics department, that assists us to deliver an exceptional range of products. We deliver them in well-defined time frame. Features: Delicious Tasty Rich nutritional content