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# Risk, Return, & the Capital Asset Pricing Model

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• For value box in Ch 4 time value FM13.
• ### Risk, Return, & the Capital Asset Pricing Model

1. 1. Risk, Return, & the Capital Asset Pricing Model 1
2. 2. Topics in Chapter      Basic return concepts Basic risk concepts Stand-alone risk Portfolio (market) risk Risk and return: CAPM/SML 2
3. 3. Determinants of Intrinsic Value: The Cost of Equity Net operating profit after taxes Free cash flow (FCF) Value = Required investments in operating capital − FCF 1 FCF 2 + (1 + WACC) 1 (1 + WACC) 2 = ... + FCF ∞ + (1 + WACC) ∞ Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) Market interest rates Cost of debt Cost of debt Firm’s debt/equity mix Market risk aversion Cost of equity Cost of equity Firm’s business risk
4. 4. > Risk, > Return, (both + & -) Risk in Portfolio Context Stand – Alone Risk  a. Diversifiable  b. Market Risk  Quantified by Beta & used in  CAPM: Capital Asset Pricing Model   Relationship b/w market risk & required return as depicted in SML Req’d return =   Risk-free return + Mrkt risk Prem(Beta) SML: ri = rRF + (RM - rRF )bi
5. 5. What are investment returns?    Investment returns measure financial results of an investment. Returns may be historical or prospective (anticipated). Returns can be expressed in:   (\$) dollar terms. (%) percentage terms. 5
6. 6. An investment costs \$1,000 and is sold after 1 year for \$1,100. Dollar return: \$ Received - \$ Invested \$1,100 - \$1,000 = \$100 Percentage return: \$ Return/\$ Invested \$100/\$1,000 = 0.10 = 10% 6
7. 7. What is investment risk?    Typically, investment returns are not known with certainty. Investment risk pertains to the probability of earning a return less than expected. Greater the chance of a return far below the expected return, greater the risk. 7
8. 8. Risk & Return Student Sue Student Bob Exam 1 70% X weight X 50% Exam 1 50% Exam 2 80% X wt. X 50% ----------- Exam 2 100% Final grade = 75 % x x weight .50 x x wt .50 ------- Final grade = 75 %
9. 9. Probability Distribution: Which stock is riskier? Why? St ock A St ock B -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 Ret urns ( % ) 9
10. 10. WedTech Co     Normal 40% Bad 30% Good 30% Return 20% = .08 Return 5% = .015 Return 35% = .105 =Expected ave return = 20%
11. 11. WedTech Co     Standard Deviation: Measure of standalone risk Return-Exp Ret = Diff2 x Prob = Variance: SD:
12. 12. Standard Deviation and Normal Distributions    1 SD = 68.26% likelihood 2 SD = 95.46% 3 SD = 99.74%
13. 13. WedTech Co vs. IBM
14. 14. Stand-Alone Risk   Standard deviation measures the standalone risk of an investment. The larger the standard deviation, the higher the probability that returns will be far below the expected return. 14
15. 15. WedTech Co & IBM in 2 stock Portfolio  Ave Portfolio Return  Portfolio Standard Deviation
16. 16. WedTech Co & IBM & adding other stocks to Portfolio  IBM WedTech  Coke Microsoft
17. 17. Historical Risk vs. Return Return: Hi – Lo      Small Co stock Large Co Stock LT Corp Bonds LT Treasuries ST T-Bills Risk: Hi - Lo
18. 18. Reward-to-Variabilty Ratio (Sharpe’s)  Portfolio’s average return in excess of riskfree rate divided by standard deviation
19. 19. Comparing Different Stocks       Coefficient of Variation : = S.D. / Return; or Risk / Return WalMart 12% vs. Return S.D. = C.V. = Philip Morris 12%
20. 20. Expected Return versus Coefficient of Variation Security Alta Inds Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected Return 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk: σ 20.0% 15.3 18.8 0.0 13.4 Risk: CV 1.1 1.0 1.4 0.0 7.9 20
21. 21. Comparing Different Stocks     Correlation coefficient = r (rho): Measures tendency of 2 variables to move together. Rho (r) = 1 = perfect + correlation & variables move together in unison. Does not help with diversification See text figures 6-9 thru 6-11
22. 22. Two-Stock Portfolios      Two stocks can be combined to form a riskless portfolio if ρ = -1.0. Risk is not reduced at all if the two stocks have ρ = +1.0. In general, stocks have ρ ≈ 0.35, so risk is lowered but not eliminated. Investors typically hold many stocks. What happens when ρ = 0? 22
23. 23. Adding Stocks to a Portfolio   What would happen to the risk of an average 1-stock portfolio as more randomly selected stocks were added? σp would decrease because the added stocks would not be perfectly correlated, but the expected portfolio return would remain relatively constant. 23
24. 24. σ1 stock ≈ 35% σMany stocks ≈ 20% 1 st ock 2 st ocks Many st ocks -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 10 5 Ret urns ( % ) 24
25. 25. Risk vs. Number of Stock in Portfolio σp Company Specific (Diversifiable) Risk 35% Stand-Alone Risk, σ p 20% Market Risk 0 10 20 30 40 2,000 stocks 25
26. 26. Stand-alone risk = Market risk + Diversifiable risk   Market risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification. Firm-specific, or diversifiable, risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that can be eliminated by diversification. 26
27. 27. Conclusions    As more stocks are added, each new stock has a smaller risk-reducing impact on the portfolio. σp falls very slowly after about 40 stocks are included. The lower limit for σp is about 20% = σM . By forming well-diversified portfolios, investors can eliminate about half the risk of owning a single stock. 27
28. 28. Can an investor holding one stock earn a return commensurate with its risk?    No. Rational investors will minimize risk by holding portfolios. They bear only market risk, so prices and returns reflect this lower risk. The one-stock investor bears higher (stand-alone) risk, so the return is less than that required by the risk. 28
29. 29. How is market risk measured for individual securities?    Market risk, which is relevant for stocks held in well-diversified portfolios, is defined as the contribution of a security to the overall riskiness of the portfolio. It is measured by a stock’s beta coefficient. For stock i, its beta is: bi = (ρi,M σi) / σM 29
30. 30. How are betas calculated?  In addition to measuring a stock’s contribution of risk to a portfolio, beta also measures the stock’s volatility relative to the market. 30
31. 31. Using a Regression to Estimate Beta   Run a regression with returns on the stock in question plotted on the Y axis and returns on the market portfolio plotted on the X axis. The slope of the regression line, which measures relative volatility, is defined as the stock’s beta coefficient, or b. 31
32. 32. Use the historical stock returns to calculate the beta for PQU. Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Market 25.7% 8.0% -11.0% 15.0% 32.5% 13.7% 40.0% 10.0% -10.8% -13.1% PQU 40.0% -15.0% -15.0% 35.0% 10.0% 30.0% 42.0% -10.0% -25.0% 25.0% 32
33. 33. PQU Return Calculating Beta for PQU 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -30% -20% -10% rPQU = 0.8308 rM + 0.0256 R2 = 0.3546 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Market Return 33
34. 34. Beta & PQU Co.      Beta reflects slope of line via regression y = mx + b m=slope + b= y intercept Rpqu = 0.8308 r + 0.0256 M So, PQU’s beta is .8308 & y-intercept @ 2.56%
35. 35. Beta & PQU Co. & R2    R2 measures degree of dispersion about regression line (ie – measures % of variance explained by regression equation) PQU’s R2 of .3546 means about 35% of PQU’s returns are explained by the market returns (32% for a typical stock) R2 of .95 on portfolio of 40 randomly selected stocks would reflect a regression line with points tightly clustered to it.
36. 36. Two-Stock Portfolios      Two stocks can be combined to form a riskless portfolio if ρ = -1.0. Risk is not reduced at all if the two stocks have ρ = +1.0. In general, stocks have ρ ≈ 0.35, so risk is lowered but not eliminated. Investors typically hold many stocks. What happens when ρ = 0? 36
37. 37. Adding Stocks to a Portfolio   What would happen to the risk of an average 1-stock portfolio as more randomly selected stocks were added? σp would decrease because the added stocks would not be perfectly correlated, but the expected portfolio return would remain relatively constant. 37
38. 38. σ1 stock ≈ 35% σMany stocks ≈ 20% 1 st ock 2 st ocks Many st ocks -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 10 5 Ret urns ( % ) 38
39. 39. Risk vs. Number of Stock in Portfolio σp Company Specific (Diversifiable) Risk 35% Stand-Alone Risk, σ p 20% Market Risk 0 10 20 30 40 2,000 stocks 39
40. 40. Stand-alone risk = Market risk + Diversifiable risk   Market risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification. Firm-specific, or diversifiable, risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that can be eliminated by diversification. 40
41. 41. Conclusions    As more stocks are added, each new stock has a smaller risk-reducing impact on the portfolio. σp falls very slowly after about 40 stocks are included. The lower limit for σp is about 20% = σM . By forming well-diversified portfolios, investors can eliminate about half the risk of owning a single stock. 41
42. 42. Can an investor holding one stock earn a return commensurate with its risk?    No. Rational investors will minimize risk by holding portfolios. They bear only market risk, so prices and returns reflect this lower risk. The one-stock investor bears higher (stand-alone) risk, so the return is less than that required by the risk. 42
43. 43. How is market risk measured for individual securities?    Market risk, which is relevant for stocks held in well-diversified portfolios, is defined as the contribution of a security to the overall riskiness of the portfolio. It is measured by a stock’s beta coefficient. For stock i, its beta is: bi = (ρi,M σi) / σM 43
44. 44. How are betas calculated?  In addition to measuring a stock’s contribution of risk to a portfolio, beta also measures the stock’s volatility relative to the market. 44
45. 45. Using a Regression to Estimate Beta   Run a regression with returns on the stock in question plotted on the Y axis and returns on the market portfolio plotted on the X axis. The slope of the regression line, which measures relative volatility, is defined as the stock’s beta coefficient, or b. 45
46. 46. Use the historical stock returns to calculate the beta for PQU. Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Market 25.7% 8.0% -11.0% 15.0% 32.5% 13.7% 40.0% 10.0% -10.8% -13.1% PQU 40.0% -15.0% -15.0% 35.0% 10.0% 30.0% 42.0% -10.0% -25.0% 25.0% 46
47. 47. PQU Return Calculating Beta for PQU 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -30% -20% -10% rPQU = 0.8308 rM + 0.0256 R2 = 0.3546 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Market Return 47
48. 48. Expected Return versus Market Risk: Which investment is best? Security Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected Return (%) 17.4 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk, b 1.29 1.00 0.68 0.00 -0.86 48
49. 49. Capital Asset Pricing Model   The Security Market Line (SML) is part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Return = Risk Free + Beta (RetMrkt –Rf)  SML: ri = rRF + (RPM)bi .  Assume rRF = 8%; rM = rM = 15%.  RPM = (rM - rRF) = 15% - 8% = 7%. 49
50. 50. Use the SML to calculate each alternative’s required return.  The Security Market Line (SML) is part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).  SML: ri = rRF + (RPM)bi .  Assume rRF = 8%; rM = rM = 15%.  RPM = (rM - rRF) = 15% - 8% = 7%. 50
51. 51. Required Rates of Return  rAlta = 8.0% + (7%)(1.29) = 17%.  rM = 8.0% + (7%)(1.00) = 15.0%.  rAm. F. = 8.0% + (7%)(0.68) = 12.8%.  rT-bill = 8.0% + (7%)(0.00) = 8.0%.  rRepo = 8.0% + (7%)(-0.86) = 2.0%. 51
52. 52. Expected versus Required Returns (%) Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Exp. r 17.4 15.0 13.8 Req. r 17.0 15.0 12.8 8.0 1.7 8.0 2.0 Undervalued Fairly valued Undervalued Fairly valued Overvalued 52
53. 53. SML: ri = rRF + (RPM) bi ri = 8% + (7%) bi ri (%) . Alta rM = 15 rRF = 8 . Repo -1 . . . T-bills 0 Market Am. Foam 1 2 Risk, bi 53
54. 54. Calculate beta for a portfolio with 50% Alta and 50% Repo bp = Weighted average = 0.5(bAlta) + 0.5(bRepo) = 0.5(1.29) + 0.5(-0.86) = 0.22. 54
55. 55. Required Return on the Alta/Repo Portfolio? rp = Weighted average r = 0.5(17%) + 0.5(2%) = 9.5%. Or use SML: rp = rRF + (RPM) bp = 8.0% + 7%(0.22) = 9.5%. 55
56. 56. Impact of Inflation Change on SML r (%) New SML ∆ I = 3% SML2 SML1 18 15 Original situation 11 8 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Risk, bi 56
57. 57. Impact of Risk Aversion Change r (%) After change SML2 SML1 18 ∆ RPM = 3% 15 Original situation 8 1.0 Risk, bi 57
58. 58. Has the CAPM been completely confirmed or refuted?  No. The statistical tests have problems that make empirical verification or rejection virtually impossible.   Investors’ required returns are based on future risk, but betas are calculated with historical data. Investors may be concerned about both stand-alone and market risk. 58
59. 59. Below are per book mini-case
60. 60. Consider the Following Investment Alternatives Econ. Prob. T-Bill Alta Repo Am F. MP 10.0% -13.0% Bust 0.10 8.0% -22.0% 28.0% Below avg. 0.20 8.0 -2.0 14.7 -10.0 1.0 Avg. 0.40 8.0 20.0 0.0 7.0 15.0 Above avg. 0.20 8.0 35.0 -10.0 45.0 29.0 Boom 0.10 8.0 50.0 -20.0 30.0 43.0 1.00 60
61. 61. What is unique about T-bill returns?   T-bill returns 8% regardless of the state of the economy. Is T-bill riskless? Explain. 61
62. 62. Alta Inds. and Repo Men vs. Economy   Alta moves with economy, so it is positively correlated with economy. This is typical Repo Men moves counter to economy. Such negative correlation is unusual. 62
63. 63. Calculate the expected rate of return on each alternative. ^ r = expected rate of return (think wtd average) ^ ^= r rAlta = 0.10(-22%) + 0.20(-2%) + 0.40(20%) + 0.20(35%) + 0.10(50%) = 17.4%. n ∑ riPi. i=1 63
64. 64. Alta has the highest rate of return. Does that make it best? Alta Market Am. Foam T-bill Repo Men Expected return 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 64
65. 65. What is the standard deviation of returns for each alternative? σ = Standard deviation σ = √ Variance = √ σ2 = √ n ^ ∑ (ri – r)2 Pi. i=1 65
66. 66. Standard Deviation of Alta Industries σ = [(-22 - 17.4)20.10 + (-2 - 17.4)20.20 + (20 - 17.4)20.40 + (35 - 17.4)20.20 + (50 - 17.4)20.10]1/2 = 20.0%. 66
67. 67. Standard Deviation of Alternatives σT-bills = 0.0%. σ Alta = 20.0%. σ Repo = 13.4%. σ Am Foam = 18.8%. σMarket = 15.3%. 67
68. 68. Expected Return versus Risk Security Alta Inds. Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected Return 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk, σ 20.0% 15.3 18.8 0.0 13.4 68
69. 69. Coefficient of Variation (CV)       CV = Standard deviation / Expected return CVT-BILLS = 0.0% / 8.0% = 0.0. CVAlta Inds = 20.0% / 17.4% = 1.1. CVRepo Men = 13.4% / 1.7% = 7.9. CVAm. Foam = 18.8% / 13.8% = 1.4. CVM = 15.3% / 15.0% = 1.0. 69
70. 70. Expected Return versus Coefficient of Variation Security Alta Inds Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected Return 17.4% 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk: σ 20.0% 15.3 18.8 0.0 13.4 Risk: CV 1.1 1.0 1.4 0.0 7.9 70
71. 71. Return vs. Risk (Std. Dev.): Which investment is best? 20.0% Alta Return 15.0% 10.0% Mkt Am. Foam T-bills 5.0% Repo 0.0% 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% 25.0% Risk (Std. Dev.) 71
72. 72. Portfolio Risk and Return Assume a two-stock portfolio with \$50,000 in Alta Inds. and \$50,000 in Repo Men. Calculate ^ p and σp. r 72
73. 73. Portfolio Expected Return ^ rp is a weighted average (wi is % of portfolio in stock i): n ^ = Σ w r^ rp i i i=1 ^ r = 0.5(17.4%) + 0.5(1.7%) = 9.6%. p 73
74. 74. Alternative Method: Find portfolio return in each economic state Economy Port.= 0.5(Alta) + 0.5(Repo) 3.0% Prob. Alta Repo Bust 0.10 -22.0% 28.0% Below avg. Average Above avg. Boom 0.20 -2.0 14.7 6.4 0.40 0.20 20.0 35.0 0.0 -10.0 10.0 12.5 0.10 50.0 -20.0 15.0 74
75. 75. Use portfolio outcomes to estimate risk and expected return ^ = (3.0%)0.10 + (6.4%)0.20 + (10.0%)0.40 rp + (12.5%)0.20 + (15.0%)0.10 = 9.6% σp = ((3.0 - 9.6)20.10 + (6.4 - 9.6)20.20 +(10.0 - 9.6)20.40 + (12.5 - 9.6)20.20 + (15.0 - 9.6)20.10)1/2 = 3.3% CVp = 3.3%/9.6% = .34 75
76. 76. Portfolio vs. Its Components   Portfolio expected return (9.6%) is between Alta (17.4%) and Repo (1.7%) returns. Portfolio standard deviation is much lower than:    either stock (20% and 13.4%). average of Alta and Repo (16.7%). The reason is due to negative correlation (ρ) between Alta and Repo returns. 76
77. 77. Two-Stock Portfolios      Two stocks can be combined to form a riskless portfolio if ρ = -1.0. Risk is not reduced at all if the two stocks have ρ = +1.0. In general, stocks have ρ ≈ 0.35, so risk is lowered but not eliminated. Investors typically hold many stocks. What happens when ρ = 0? 77
78. 78. Adding Stocks to a Portfolio   What would happen to the risk of an average 1-stock portfolio as more randomly selected stocks were added? σp would decrease because the added stocks would not be perfectly correlated, but the expected portfolio return would remain relatively constant. 78
79. 79. σ1 stock ≈ 35% σMany stocks ≈ 20% 1 st ock 2 st ocks Many st ocks -75 -60 -45 -30 -15 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 10 5 Ret urns ( % ) 79
80. 80. Risk vs. Number of Stock in Portfolio σp Company Specific (Diversifiable) Risk 35% Stand-Alone Risk, σ p 20% Market Risk 0 10 20 30 40 2,000 stocks 80
81. 81. Stand-alone risk = Market risk + Diversifiable risk   Market risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that cannot be eliminated by diversification. Firm-specific, or diversifiable, risk is that part of a security’s stand-alone risk that can be eliminated by diversification. 81
82. 82. Conclusions    As more stocks are added, each new stock has a smaller risk-reducing impact on the portfolio. σp falls very slowly after about 40 stocks are included. The lower limit for σp is about 20% = σM . By forming well-diversified portfolios, investors can eliminate about half the risk of owning a single stock. 82
83. 83. Can an investor holding one stock earn a return commensurate with its risk?    No. Rational investors will minimize risk by holding portfolios. They bear only market risk, so prices and returns reflect this lower risk. The one-stock investor bears higher (stand-alone) risk, so the return is less than that required by the risk. 83
84. 84. How is market risk measured for individual securities?    Market risk, which is relevant for stocks held in well-diversified portfolios, is defined as the contribution of a security to the overall riskiness of the portfolio. It is measured by a stock’s beta coefficient. For stock i, its beta is: bi = (ρi,M σi) / σM 84
85. 85. How are betas calculated?  In addition to measuring a stock’s contribution of risk to a portfolio, beta also measures the stock’s volatility relative to the market. 85
86. 86. Using a Regression to Estimate Beta   Run a regression with returns on the stock in question plotted on the Y axis and returns on the market portfolio plotted on the X axis. The slope of the regression line, which measures relative volatility, is defined as the stock’s beta coefficient, or b. 86
87. 87. Use the historical stock returns to calculate the beta for PQU. Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Market 25.7% 8.0% -11.0% 15.0% 32.5% 13.7% 40.0% 10.0% -10.8% -13.1% PQU 40.0% -15.0% -15.0% 35.0% 10.0% 30.0% 42.0% -10.0% -25.0% 25.0% 87
88. 88. PQU Return Calculating Beta for PQU 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -30% -20% -10% rPQU = 0.8308 rM + 0.0256 R2 = 0.3546 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Market Return 88
89. 89. What is beta for PQU?  The regression line, and hence beta, can be found using a calculator with a regression function or a spreadsheet program. In this example, b = 0.83. 89
90. 90. Calculating Beta in Practice    Many analysts use the S&P 500 to find the market return. Analysts typically use four or five years’ of monthly returns to establish the regression line. Some analysts use 52 weeks of weekly returns. 90
91. 91. How is beta interpreted?      If b = 1.0, stock has average risk. If b > 1.0, stock is riskier than average. If b < 1.0, stock is less risky than average. Most stocks have betas in the range of 0.5 to 1.5. Can a stock have a negative beta? 91
92. 92. Other Web Sites for Beta    Go to http://finance.yahoo.com Enter the ticker symbol for a “Stock Quote”, such as IBM or Dell, then click GO. When the quote comes up, select Key Statistics from panel on left. 92
93. 93. Expected Return versus Market Risk: Which investment is best? Security Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Men Expected Return (%) 17.4 15.0 13.8 8.0 1.7 Risk, b 1.29 1.00 0.68 0.00 -0.86 93
94. 94. Use the SML to calculate each alternative’s required return.  The Security Market Line (SML) is part of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM).  SML: ri = rRF + (RPM)bi .  Assume rRF = 8%; rM = rM = 15%.  RPM = (rM - rRF) = 15% - 8% = 7%. 94
95. 95. Required Rates of Return  rAlta = 8.0% + (7%)(1.29) = 17%.  rM = 8.0% + (7%)(1.00) = 15.0%.  rAm. F. = 8.0% + (7%)(0.68) = 12.8%.  rT-bill = 8.0% + (7%)(0.00) = 8.0%.  rRepo = 8.0% + (7%)(-0.86) = 2.0%. 95
96. 96. Expected versus Required Returns (%) Alta Market Am. Foam T-bills Repo Exp. r 17.4 15.0 13.8 Req. r 17.0 15.0 12.8 8.0 1.7 8.0 2.0 Undervalued Fairly valued Undervalued Fairly valued Overvalued 96
97. 97. SML: ri = rRF + (RPM) bi ri = 8% + (7%) bi ri (%) . Alta rM = 15 rRF = 8 . Repo -1 . . . T-bills 0 Market Am. Foam 1 2 Risk, bi 97
98. 98. Calculate beta for a portfolio with 50% Alta and 50% Repo bp = Weighted average = 0.5(bAlta) + 0.5(bRepo) = 0.5(1.29) + 0.5(-0.86) = 0.22. 98
99. 99. Required Return on the Alta/Repo Portfolio? rp = Weighted average r = 0.5(17%) + 0.5(2%) = 9.5%. Or use SML: rp = rRF + (RPM) bp = 8.0% + 7%(0.22) = 9.5%. 99
100. 100. Impact of Inflation Change on SML r (%) New SML ∆ I = 3% SML2 SML1 18 15 Original situation 11 8 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Risk, bi 100
101. 101. Impact of Risk Aversion Change r (%) After change SML2 SML1 18 ∆ RPM = 3% 15 Original situation 8 1.0 Risk, bi101
102. 102. Has the CAPM been completely confirmed or refuted?  No. The statistical tests have problems that make empirical verification or rejection virtually impossible.   Investors’ required returns are based on future risk, but betas are calculated with historical data. Investors may be concerned about both stand-alone and market risk. 102