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Mm consumer mkt & org mkt

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ini semua slide marketing strategik kelas sabtu ukm semester 1 2010/2011

ini semua slide marketing strategik kelas sabtu ukm semester 1 2010/2011

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Mm consumer mkt & org mkt Mm consumer mkt & org mkt Presentation Transcript

  • What is Consumer Behavior?
    • The processes involved when consumers select , purchase , use , and/or dispose of products to satisfy needs and desires
    16-
  • 16-
  • What Influences Consumer Behavior?
    • 3 Factors Influence Consumer Behavior
    • Cultural
    • Social
    • Personal
    16-
  • What Influences Consumer Behavior? 16- Cultural Factors
    • CULTURAL FACTORS
    • The accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions among members
    • - Culture is mainly about “life values”
    • US values:
    • i. achievement & success
    • ii. activities
    • iii. individualistic
    • iv. fitness & health
  • Culture is dynamic
    • Subcultures
    • Provide more specific identification and socialization for their members
    • - religions subculture,
    • ethnic subculture,
    • geographic subculture,
    • Disneyland Hotel
    • Hong Kong
    • Does not have a 4th floor
    • WHY?
    • “ 4” sounds like “death” in Cantonese
    16-
    • Subcultures
    • Why subcultures important to marketers?
            • Among others:
            • Rituals
            • Myths
  • Ritual A type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps occurring in a fixed sequence and repeated over time - wedding - religion celebrations - death - birthday - Valentine’s day, mother’s day - graduation Why rituals are important to marketing? Rituals tend to be replete with ritual artifacts (products and services)
  • Myths
    • A story containing symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions/ideals of a culture
      • Outcome serves as moral guide for people
    16-
    • Myths
    • How myths being applied in marketing?
    • Through advertisements – relating the product with the intended value where the relationship between the two is already understood.
    • Perodua Kancil….
    • ” a smart choice – just like you are”
    • Garuda Airlines
    • The Goldern Arch of McDonald’s
  • What Influences Consumer Behavior? 16- Social Factors
  • Social Class
    • A person’s social class impacts what he/she does with money and on how consumption choices reflect one’s place in society
      • Products as status symbols
    16-
  • Social Classes 16- Upper uppers Lower uppers Upper middles Middle class Working class Upper lowers Lower lowers
  • Social Class
    • “ Haves” vs. “have-nots”
    • Where we occupy in the social structure determines how much we spend and how we spend it
    • Social class is determined by:
    • income, family background, and occupation
    16-
  • Conspicuous Consumption
    • People’s desire to provide prominent visible evidence of their :
    • ability to afford luxury goods
    16-
  • The Trophy Wife
    • Beautiful and young lady married to a very rich man who is very much older than she is
    • Wives of wealthy husbands as “walking billboards”
    16-
  • What Influences Consumer Behavior? 16- Personal Factors
    • Personal
    • Factors
    • Personality
    • Lifestyle
  • Personality
    • A person’s unique psychological makeup and how it consistently influences the way a person responds to his/her environment
    16-
  • Brand Personality
    • Set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person
    • Brand equity
    16-
    • Marketers create “brand personality” to be matched with their target market.
    • Levi’s: ruggedness
        • Ladylike: feminine
        • Polo: politeness
  • Brand Personality 16-
  • Brand Personality 16-
  • Brand Personality 16-
  • Brand Personality 16-
  • Brand Personality 16-
    • LIFESTYLE
    • A lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests, and opinions.
    • - achievement-oriented
    • - materialistic
    • - familyman
    • - outgoing
    • Marketers search for relationships between their products and lifestyle groups.
  •  
  • The handling and performance of a sport car, with the comfort and space of a sedan
  • For Urban adventures, the sporty and agile RAV4 will be Able to take you anywhere your wanderlust leads you.
  • Innova: Spacious and luxurious appointed, the Innova offers unparalleled comfort for the entire family. Avanza: Versatile, stylish and specious, the Avanza is also surprisingly affordable
  • The rockers enjoyed Rock and Roll, and their style consisted of jeans, boots and leather jackets. They wore black leather and studs, had anti-authority beliefs, and projected an easy rider nomadic romanticism. The Rockers lived for the present, with a scruffy, masculine, ‘bad boy’ image. The rockers were essentially from the working class and despised any fashion. They each had the same hairstyle, shaggy with a bit of slick to it. Highway cafes are the hangout of the Rockers for the greasy foods and jukeboxes. Riding motorcycles was of the upmost importance, so they kept away from drugs and alcohol. The motorcycles were also modified or "souped up" in order to be in top racing form. Every Rocker had a ‘Triumph’ or a ‘Norton’, a brand of motorcycle.
  •  
  • What Influences Consumer Behavior? 16-
  • Perception
  • Perception
        • Adding meaning to raw sensations
    16- Figure 2.1
  • 16-
  • Sensory Thresholds
    • ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
    • The minimum amount of stimulation that can be detected on a sensory channel
    • DIFFERENTIAL THRESHOLD
    • The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between 2 stimuli.
    16-
  • 16-
  • 16- Many ads use hidden messages. Can you find the hidden message in this company logo?
  • 16- Decision-Making Process
  • Decision-making Process 16- Figure 9.1 (Abridged) Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Product Choice Outcomes Richard realizes that he dislikes his B&W TV Richard surfs Web to learn about TVs Richard chooses a TV with an appealing feature Richard compares models on reputation and features Richard brings home and enjoys his TV
  • 16- Figure 6.5 Successive Sets Involved in Consumer Decision Making
  • Decision Rules
    • Compensatory
    • Noncompensatory: shortcuts via basic standards
      • Lexicographic rule
      • Conjunctive rule
    16-
    • COMPENSATORY RULE:
    • Expectancy-Value Model
    • Consumer evaluates product
    • Combine brand beliefs - importance
    • Weights attached to each attribute
    • Allow “balance-out”
    • Total perceived value
    • = (weights x beliefs) of all attributes
    16-
  • 16- ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  • 16- IBM = 0.4(8) + 0.3(9) + 0.2(6) + 0.1(9) = 8.0 APPLE = 0.4(7) + 0.3(7) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(7) = 7.2 DELL = 0.4(10) + 0.3(4) + 0.2(3) + 0.1(2) = 6.0 TOSHIBA = 0.4(5) + 0.3(3) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(5) = 5.0 Brand chosen =
  • 16- IBM = 0.4(8) + 0.3(9) + 0.2(6) + 0.1(9) = 8.0 APPLE = 0.4(7) + 0.3(7) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(7) = 7.2 DELL = 0.4(10) + 0.3(4) + 0.2(3) + 0.1(2) = 6.0 TOSHIBA = 0.4(5) + 0.3(3) + 0.2(8) + 0.1(5) = 5.0 Brand chosen = IBM - Highest score of 8.0
    • NON-COMPENSATORY MODELS OF CONSUMER CHOICE
    • Positive & negative attributes may not net out
    • Attributes evaluated in isolation
    16-
    • Lexicographic heuristic:
    • Best brand on perceived most important attribute
    • Brand Chosen = ?
    16- ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
    • Lexicographic heuristic:
    • Best brand on perceived most important attribute
    • Brand Chosen = Dell
    16- ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 7 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
    • Conjunctive heuristic:
    • minimum for each attribute - choose brand meets minimum for all
    • Brand Chosen = ?
    16- ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 8 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
    • Conjunctive heuristic:
    • minimum for each attribute - choose brand meets minimum for all
    • Brand Chosen = Apple
    16- ATTRIBUTE MEMORY CAPACITY GRAPHICS CAPABILITY SIZE & WEIGHT PRICE PEMBERAT 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 IBM 8 9 6 9 APPLE 7 7 7 8 DELL 10 4 3 2 TOSHIBA 5 3 8 5 Each attributes is rated from 0 to 10, where 10 represents the highest level on that attribute. Minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute = 7
  • Heuristics: Mental Shortcuts
    • Mental rules-of-thumb that lead to a speedy decision
      • Examples: higher price = higher quality, buying the same brand your mother bought
    • Can lead to bad decisions due to flawed assumptions (especially with unusually named brands)
    16-
  • Inertia: The Lazy Customer
    • Many buy the same brand every time
      • We buy out of habit because it requires less effort
      • Little/no underlying commitment here
        • Brand switching frequently occurs (cheaper price, original brand out-of-stock, point-of-purchase displays)
    16-
  • 16- How Customers Use & Dispose of Products
  • 16- Business Market - Organizational Buying Behavior
  • Organizational vs. Consumer Decision Making
    • Organizational buying is different…
      • Involves many people
      • Precise, technical specifications (require a lot of product knowledge)
      • Past experience and careful weighing of alternatives (impulse buying is rare)
      • Decisions are often risky (to one’s career)
      • Substantial dollar volume
      • More emphasis on personal selling
    16-