School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
Lodging – hotel, resort, b&b
Healthcare – hospital, clinic
Transportation – airlines, bus, railways, taxi
Education – univ...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
8
Tangibility SpectrumTangibility Spectrum
Tangible
Dominant
Intangible
Dominant
Salt
Soft Drinks
Detergents
Automobiles
C...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
10
INTANGIBILITY:
SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS
 Use tangible clues/physical evidence
 Utilize personal sources of information
 C...
11
12
13
14
Awards: Pangkor Laut Resort
"Marina Bay Pangkor Laut Estates Listed in Best 101 Hotels in the World" by
Tatler Travel G...
15
16
Pretty Woman:
Julia Roberts gets a taste
of the high-life:
Regent Beverly
Wilshire,
9500 Wilshire Boulevard,
Beverly Hi...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
24
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
01/29/15
Product
Price
Place
Promotion
PeoplePeople
ProcessProcess
Physical EvidencePhysical Evidence
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
School of Business Management
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
_____________________________________________________________...
39
Internal
Marketing
Interactive Marketing
External
Marketing
Company
(Management)
CustomersEmployees
“enabling the
promi...
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Cd6813 services

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Cd6813 services

  1. 1. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  2. 2. Lodging – hotel, resort, b&b Healthcare – hospital, clinic Transportation – airlines, bus, railways, taxi Education – university, college, kindergarten Entertainment – cineplex, disco, themepark Food & Beverage – restaurant, café, pub Financial – bank, insurance, investment MRO – workshop, service centre, cleaning Telecommunication – telecom, internet Legal – lawyer firm Training/Consultancy – consulting, advertising, training Social – escort, tourist guide, security firm School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  3. 3. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  4. 4. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ V A L U E - A D D E D  Performances  Actions
  5. 5. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  6. 6. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  7. 7. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Services cannot be seen, felt, tasted or touched before they are purchased.
  8. 8. 8 Tangibility SpectrumTangibility Spectrum Tangible Dominant Intangible Dominant Salt Soft Drinks Detergents Automobiles Cosmetics Advertising Agencies Airlines Investment Management Consulting Teaching Fast-food Outlets Fast-food Outlets            
  9. 9. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Mktg Implications: Difficult to describe Difficult to measure Q Cannot be stored Cannot be easily patented
  10. 10. 10 INTANGIBILITY: SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS  Use tangible clues/physical evidence  Utilize personal sources of information  Create a strong organizational image School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia ___________________________________________________________________________________
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14 Awards: Pangkor Laut Resort "Marina Bay Pangkor Laut Estates Listed in Best 101 Hotels in the World" by Tatler Travel Guide U.K. (2006) "20 Most Fabulous Spa Retreats in the World" by Australian Gourmet Traveller Magazine (2005) "Spa of Malaysia"and"Best Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) - Influenced Spa" Spa Asia Crystal Awards - Spa Asia Magazine (2005) 'World's Top 25 Spas 2005' by The Sunday Telegraph, U.K. Senses Wellness Award - "Best Beach Resort" by Senses Wellness Guide, Germany (2005) "Top Ten Spa Retreats - Overseas" byConde Nast Traveller U.K. - Readers' Spa Awards (2005) "Top Ten Best Overseas Resort" by Luxury Travel & Style Magazine, Australia - The Gold List 2005 Five Star Diamond Award by The American Academy of Hospitality Sciences (2002, 2003, 2004 & 2005)
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16 Pretty Woman: Julia Roberts gets a taste of the high-life: Regent Beverly Wilshire, 9500 Wilshire Boulevard, Beverly Hills
  17. 17. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  18. 18. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ No two services will be precisely alike Services are heterogeneous across: time, organizations, and people
  19. 19. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Heterogeneity No two services will be precisely alike - Produced and influenced by humans - No two persons are precisely alike - Even the same person may differ in his performance from day to day (hour to hour)
  20. 20. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Mktg Implication: Standardization and quality control are difficult to achieve
  21. 21. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Suggested Solution: • Effective training of staffs • Good standard practice & procedures (P&P) • Good HRM
  22. 22. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  23. 23. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Services are produced and consumed simultaneously
  24. 24. 24
  25. 25. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Interactions “Service provider-Customer”– Customer is present while the service is being produced Interactions “Customer-Customer”– Customers interact with each other during the service production process
  26. 26. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Mktg Implications: Mass production is difficult Service provider is part of the product itself and as essential ingredient in the service experience for the consumer Quality depends on interactions between: - customer – service provider - customer – customer •
  27. 27. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Suggested Solutions: Focus on the training and selection of public contact personnel Develop strategies to manage consumers - separate waiting areas (workshop), minimized interaction SP-C - by appointment (clinic),minimized interaction C-C Develop multi-site locations
  28. 28. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________
  29. 29. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Services cannot be saved, resold or returned. - a seat on an airplane - an hour of a lawyer’s time - badly haircut
  30. 30. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Mktg Implications: It is difficult to synchronize supply and demand with services - because service cannot be inventoried for future use Service cannot be returned and resold
  31. 31. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ Suggested Solutions: • Good mktg communication strategies • Good pricing strategies
  32. 32. 01/29/15 Product Price Place Promotion PeoplePeople ProcessProcess Physical EvidencePhysical Evidence
  33. 33. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ All human actors who play a part in service delivery and thus influence the buyer’s perceptions; namely the firm’s personnel, the customer, and other customers in the service environment.
  34. 34. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ All human actors who play a part in service delivery and thus influence the buyer’s perceptions; namely the firm’s personnel, the customer, and other customers in the service environment. • Employees • The customer • Other customers
  35. 35. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ The environment in which the service is delivered and where the firm and customer interact, and any tangible components that facilitate performance or communication of the service.
  36. 36. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ The environment in which the service is delivered and where the firm and customer interact, and any tangible components that facilitate performance or communication of the service. • Facility design • Equipment • Signage • Employee dress • Others – buss. cards, brochures etc.
  37. 37. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ The actual procedures, mechanism, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered – the service delivery and operating systems.
  38. 38. School of Business Management Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia _______________________________________________________________________________________ The actual procedures, mechanism, and flow of activities by which the service is delivered – the service delivery and operating systems. • Flow of activities • Number of steps • Customer involvement
  39. 39. 39 Internal Marketing Interactive Marketing External Marketing Company (Management) CustomersEmployees “enabling the promise” “delivering the promise” “making the promise” Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner, Christian Gronroos, and Philip Kotler
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