Project formulation and management


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Project formulation and management

  1. 1. PROJECT FORMULATION AND MANAGEMENT Hari Prasad Kafle MPH, SHUATS (India) Lecturer (Public Health) Pokhara University
  2. 2. Project • A Project is a group of milestones or phases, activities or tasks that support an effort to accomplish something. • A project is a temporary endeavor (attempt) undertaken to produce a unique product or service or result.
  3. 3. Project • A collection of linked activities, carried out in an organized manner, with a clearly defined start point and end point to achieve some specific results desired to satisfy the needs of the organization at the current time.
  4. 4. Project • Small segment of business with clearly defined objective, resources and time. • A Projects has been terminated when objectives are achieved. • Projects can be large or small and take a short (usually) or long time (but certain) to complete.
  5. 5. Characteristics • A project has a unique purpose. • Temporary: terminated after certain time • Is developed using progressive elaboration: Specifications of the project are initially broad and then refined and more detailed as the project progresses.
  6. 6. Characteristics • Requires resources, often from various areas • Should have a primary customer or sponsor: The project sponsor usually provides the direction and funding for the project. • Involves uncertainty: Unclear objectives, difficult to estimate time to complete and cost, dependence on external factors
  7. 7. Program Vs Project • A program is a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way. • Project portfolio management involves organizing and managing projects. • Program managers play a key role in helping all projects and organizations succeed.
  8. 8. What is not a project? • Past activities that are repeated in exactly the same way on the periodic basis. • Activities with no clearly defined goals. • Activities which can be repeated or translated any where at any moment. • Ongoing (regular) organizational activities (e.g. board meeting)
  9. 9. Project Management • A dynamic process that utilizes the appropriate resources of the organization in a controlled and structured manner, to achieve some clearly defined objectives identified as needs. • It is always conducted within a defined set of constraints.
  10. 10. Project Management • Project Management is the application of skills, knowledge, tools and techniques to meet the needs and expectations of stakeholders for a project.
  11. 11. Project Management • Project management is the discipline of organizing and managing resources in such a way that the project is completed within defined scope, quality, time and cost. It should be unique and Temporary. • Project management is “the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”
  12. 12. Triple constraints of project management Quality Time CostScope
  13. 13. Triple constraint of project management • Project managers strive to meet the triple constraint by balancing project scope, time, and cost goals • However, quality is the quadruple constraint.
  14. 14. Importance of project management • Enables us to map out a course of action or work plan • Helps us to think systematically and thoroughly and logically. • Unique Task • Specific Objective • Variety of Resources • Time bound
  15. 15. Importance of project management • Activity based costing • Easy and early identification of Bottlenecks • Identification and addition of missing and new activities • Preempting unnecessary activity/expenditure • Assigning tasks • Reporting
  16. 16. Importance of project management • Better control of financial, physical, and human resources • Improved customer relations • Better internal coordination • Higher worker morale (less stress) • Satisfaction to stakeholders
  17. 17. Project Management Framework
  18. 18. Project Management Framework 1. Scope management 2. Time Management 3. Cost management 4. Quality management 5. HR Management 6. Communication Management 7. Risk Management 8. Procurement Management
  19. 19. Winners do not do different things, they just do same thing differently. Work smart not hard to be a successful project manager !!!
  21. 21. Project life cycle 1. Project Idea 2. Situation Analysis 6. Evaluation 3. Planning 5. Implementation 4. Financing
  22. 22. Project life cycle
  23. 23. Initiation phase • Also known as project idea phase. • The emergence of a project idea is the first stage of the project cycle. • A project idea may emerge as a result of a need, observation, consultation or inspiration.
  24. 24. Definition phase • Situation analysis is done to find out problems, their strengths, potential resources and opportunity to work an area. • Project goals, scope and project constraints are determined also project members and their roles are identified.
  25. 25. Planning phase Planning Systematically and rationally. Project documentation and proposal writing. Resource Planning and Work Breakdown. Project Schedule Development. Development of Quality Assurance Plan.
  26. 26. Implementation phase Execute project plan to accomplish project goals. Train human resources System Build. Staff hiring.
  27. 27. Deployment phase ※Also known as adoption, use or consumption phase. ※User Training ※Production Review ※ Maintain service quality.
  28. 28. Closing phase Also called as evaluation phase Evaluation of the outcomes and impacts. Contractual Closeout. Lessons Learned.
  29. 29. 29 Project cycle based on activity
  30. 30. Now project is completed successfully, Let’s celebrate !
  32. 32. PROJECT PROPOSAL  A project proposal is a detailed description of a series of activities aimed at solving a certain problem.
  33. 33. PROJECT PROPOSAL • The proposal should contain a detailed explanation of the:  Justification of the project (objectives);  Activities and implementation timeline;  Methodology; and  Human, material and financial resources required.
  34. 34. ELEMENTS OF A PROJECT PROPOSAL 1. Cover Sheet 2. Project Summary/ abstract 3. Introduction 4. Problem statement 5. Overview of Target Area (4 &5) 6. Project Detail: Goal, Objectives, Strategies and Activities
  35. 35. ELEMENTS OF A PROJECT PROPOSAL 6. Project Implementation Plan 7. Project Administration 8. Project Budget 9. References 10. Annexes
  36. 36. 1. COVER SHEET • Also known as title page/cover page. • Should be clear but not “cute”. • Do not waste time using fancy report covers and making expensive binding.
  37. 37. COVER SHEET • Title page Should contain:  Proposed Project title,  Organization that proposed the project,  Name of the donor agency,  Date of proposal preparation and submission,  Signatures of key people. Contd..
  38. 38. 2. PROJECT TITLE • Title should be clear. • Should reflect as a mini-abstract of project. • A good title should provide quick picture of the key ideas of project. • For example: – HIV/AIDS Prevention Project among Clients of Female Sex Workers in Pokhara Valley.
  39. 39. PROJECT TITLE • Western highway project in HIV/AIDS for transport worker and their partners. • Increasing access to care and treatment in HIV/AIDS among Migrant in Kaski. • Prevention of HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users in Kaski. Contd..
  40. 40. 3. SUMMARY/ ABSTRACT • Many readers lack the time needed to read the whole project proposal. • Therefore useful to insert a short project summary: an abstract. • For a small project the abstract may not be longer than 10 lines. • For Bigger projects often provide abstracts as long as two pages.
  41. 41. SUMMARY/ ABSTRACT • Briefly summarize why this project is necessary? • What is the problem and how does this project contribute to the solution?. • Briefly state the organization’s experience in implementing such a project. • Abstract/summary should be prepared at the end of the proposal documentation. Contd..
  42. 42. SUMMARY/ ABSTRACT •The abstract should include:  Problem statement;  Project’s objectives;  Implementing organizations;  Key project activities; and  Total project budget. Contd..
  43. 43. 4. CONTENTS PAGE • If the total project proposal is longer than 10 pages it is helpful to include a table of contents. • The contents page enables readers to quickly find relevant parts of the document. • It should contain the title and beginning page number of each section of the proposal.
  44. 44. 5. INTRODUCTION • Also called background information. • Introduces the project subject matter very briefly. • Issue to be covered and how solving the issue. • It introduces the organization briefly – its Vision, Mission and propose of organization. • Maximum 2 pages.
  45. 45. 6. PROBLEM STATEMENT • The problem statement provides a description of the specific problem the project is trying to solve. • The project proposal should point out why a certain issue is a problem for the community. • There should also be an explanation of the needs of the target group that appear as a direct consequence of the described problem.
  46. 46. 7.OVERVIEW OF TARGET AREA • Generally not more than 1-2 pages. • Based on the situation analysis. • Briefly describe the location and population group of the proposed program. • Discuss the primary characteristics of the target area in detail (i.e. morbidity & mortality rates, ethnicity, literacy, etc.) • Discuss how this area was chosen over others.
  47. 47. 7. PROJECT DETAIL • Include Project Goals, Objectives, strategy, Interventions and Critical Activities • Describe in about 1- 2 page. • Link the project’s goal, objectives, and interventions to the assessment findings or situational analysis
  48. 48. PROJECT DETAIL Contd..
  49. 49. HIERARCHY OF AIMS • Goal (Impact): the ultimate end of the program to which the specific project will contribute (to improve Adolescent Reproductive Health of City A) • Objectives/Purpose (Outcome/Effect): what the project is expected to achieve once it is completed within the allocated time (Reduction of teenage pregnancy by 20% in 3 years) Contd..
  50. 50. HIERARCHY OF AIMS • Outputs: products or deliverables of activities (trained peer counselors; clinical services provided) • Activities (Inputs; Process): actions to be undertaken and the resources available to produce the outputs (upgrading of clinics) Contd..
  51. 51. Goal ProjectActivity2 Project Objective 1 Project Objective 3Project Objective 2 ProjectActivity3Project Activity 1 Result 1.1 Result 1.2 Result 2.1 Result 2.2 Result 3.1 Result 3.1 Contd..
  52. 52. Goal: Improving the health status of community ProjectActivity2 • Construction of latrines in BB households • Establishment BB clinics • Health education to BB members of community Project Objective 1 Improving the water Supply from X to Y Project Objective .................. .......... ………………… Project Objective 2 Reducing the diarrhoeal disease from A to B Project Activity ………. ……….. ………. ………… Project Activity 1 •Construction of YY water supply source •Distribution of water supply to YY households Contd..
  53. 53. 8. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN • How Project will be implemented and what will be the time line for major critical activities and who will be responsible for each activities? • For example: Tentative Plan of Actions, Work schedule, Program model, Gantt chart etc.
  54. 54. Gantt Chart Activities to be under taken Respo nsible person Timeline to accomplish the determined Activities 2010 Month 1 Jan Month 2 Feb Month 3 Mar Month 4 Apr Staff selection PM XXXXXX XXXXXX Staff training TO XXXXXX XXXXXX Clinic established PM XXXXXX XXXXXX Service started MO XXXXXX XXXXXX Contd..
  55. 55. 9. PROJECT ADMINISTRATION • Key persons associated with the project/ staffing pattern. • Role and responsibility of the each person and their importance for the project. • Name, title, experience, and qualifications of each person.
  56. 56. PROJECT ADMINISTRATION • If new staffs are needed for project how they will be selected/hired? • If using a Steering Committee (Advisory Committee, Governing Board, etc.) to assist the project, how it will be organized? Contd..
  57. 57. 10. PROJECT BUDGET • Total budget for the entire project period. • Contribution from internal and external resources. • Detailed budget by each and every activities and cost types. • Potential funders and sources of income. • State currency and exchange rate on which your budget is based.
  58. 58. PROJECT BUDGET Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Personnel Person #1 Person #2 Subtotal Equipment Equip. # X Equip # Y Sub total Contd..
  59. 59. PROJECT BUDGET Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Supply Supply #1 Supply #2 Subtotal Communication Telephone Internet Sub total Contd..
  60. 60. PROJECT BUDGET Particulars Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Travel Fuel Vehicle rent Subtotal Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Sum total Contd..
  61. 61. 11. MONITORING AND EVALUATION PLAN • How project will be monitored and evaluated to ensure that the project is on track and that the results are being achieved. • Approximately in ½ to 1 page. • Establish the performance indicators. • Describe how and when the baseline, mid-term and final evaluations will be carried out.
  62. 62. MONITORING & EVALUATION PLAN • Describe information collection systems • Briefly describe information analysis, interpretation, publication and dissemination plan. • Briefly describe the qualifications of the personnel implementing the evaluation plan. Contd..
  63. 63. S.N . Activity Key indicator Base line Target Means of verificati on Frequenc y of Data Collection Important Assumpti on 1 ANC service 1st ANC Coverage 4th ANC Coverage IFA coverage TT2 coverage 40 % 25% 41% 55% 80% 50% 90% 95% Clinic report Monthly and Quarterly Communi ty support Coordinat ion with SHP/HP 2 INC service Institutional delivery Skill birth Attendance 16% 31% 70% 85% Clinic report Monthly and Quarterly ‘’ 3 PNC service PNC coverage Postnatal Vit. A coverage 19% NA 50% 100% Clinic report Monthly and Quarterly ‘’ 4 New Born Care Birth weight BCG Coverage NA 85% 85% 95% Clinic report Monthly and Quarterly ‘’
  64. 64. 12. COORDINATION • Only if applicable: If project is carried out in coordination with various organizations (~1-2 paragraphs). • Briefly describe the type and frequency of activities that will be undertaken to ensure coordination among the various local and international organizations working in the area.
  65. 65. 13. TRAINING PLAN • Only if applicable for the project. • Include a training plan in table format highlighting the learning objectives, training methods, key activities, key personnel, and audience.
  66. 66. 14. SUSTAINABILITY • Describe in about 1 paragraphs. • How key activities will continue after project funding ends. • Roles various actors, partners, and communities members expect to play in ensuring sustainability. • Other projects or similar project in different regions attesting sustainability.
  67. 67. 15. MAJOR CHALLENGES • Describe in about 1-2 paragraphs. • Summarize major challenges the project team expects to face and how they will be dealt with. • Internal, External, Political. Cultural etc.
  68. 68. 16. REFERENCE • Reference cited during project proposal formulation. • Reverent and scientific methods of reference writing. • Vancouver or Harvard style according to organizational policy
  69. 69. 17. APPENDICES • Include any relevant supporting documents in appendices that may have been too lengthy to include in the body of the proposal e.g. • Resumes of key personnel. • Summary of needs assessments. • Log frame or results framework.
  70. 70. APPENDICES • Organization Registration Certificate in District Administration • Affiliation Certificate of Social Welfare Council. • PAN Registration Certificates. • Tax Execration Certificate. • Audit Report of previous fiscal year. • Bank clearance. Contd..
  72. 72. PERT/CPM • Both CPM and PERT are project management techniques, which have been created out of the need of western industrial and military establishments to plan, schedule and control the large and complex projects.
  73. 73. PERT/CPM • PERT/CPM are some time also called as Network Analysis. • CPM/PERT are developed along two parallel streams, one industrial and the other military.
  74. 74. PROGRAMME EVALUATION REVIEW TECHNIQUE • PERT was developed primarily to simplify the planning and scheduling of large and complex projects. • PERT is a method to analyze the involved tasks in completing a given project, especially the time needed to complete each task, and identifying the minimum time needed to complete the total project.
  75. 75. PERT • Incorporates uncertainty by scheduling project activities. • An event-oriented technique rather than start- and completion-oriented, and is used more in projects where time, rather than cost, is the major factor.
  76. 76. PERT • PERT is valuable to manage where multiple tasks are going simultaneously to reduce the redundancy.
  78. 78. PROCESS OF PERT • Step I: Identification of Activities: Activities represents job that should be performed in order to complete the project. • Each activity takes some specific time under given condition.
  79. 79. Step I: Identification of activities • A PERT Event: is a point that marks the start or completion of one or more tasks. • It consumes no time, and uses no resources. • It marks the completion of one or more tasks.
  80. 80. Step I: Identification of activities • A PERT Activity: is the actual performance of a task. It consumes time, it requires resources and it can be understood as representing the time, effort, and resources required to move from one event to another.
  81. 81. Step II: Sequential Arrangement of Activities: • There is always technological sequence in various activities of a project. • Preceding and succeeding events should be located to bring the sequence.
  82. 82. Step II: Sequential Arrangement of Activities: • Preceding events are those which should be completed before a particular event can start. • Succeeding events are those that immediately follow another event.
  83. 83. Step III: Time estimation of activities:  Optimistic time (O):  Pessimistic time (P):  Most likely time (M):  Expected time (TE):
  84. 84. Step III: Time estimation of activities: • Optimistic Time (O): the minimum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds better than is normally expected. • Pessimistic Time (P): the maximum possible time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything goes wrong.
  85. 85. Step III: Time estimation of activities: • Most Likely Time (M): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal.
  86. 86. Step III: Time estimation of activities: • Expected Time (TE): the best estimate of the time required to accomplish a task, assuming everything proceeds as normal (the average time the task would require if the task were repeated on a number of occasions). • TE = (O + 4M + P) ÷ 6
  87. 87. Showing in Gantt Chart
  88. 88. STEP IV: Net Work Construction • All activities of programme are connected sequentially to form a network called as PERT Network.
  89. 89. STEP IV: Network Construction • A PERT chart has its events sequentially in 10s (10, 20, 30, etc.) to allow the later insertion of additional events. • Two consecutive events in a PERT chart are linked by activities, which are represented as arrows.
  90. 90. STEP IV: Network Construction • The events are presented in a logical sequence and no activity can commence until its immediately preceding event is completed. • The planner decides which milestones should be PERT events and also decides their “proper” sequence. • A PERT chart may have multiple pages with many sub-tasks
  91. 91. Network Construction Recruitment manpower Plan Training Ready for action, schedule & activity Plan implementat ion Tender for equipment Procurement & distribution Installation Results & Evaluation
  92. 92. STEP V: CRITICAL PATH • The next step is to determine the critical path. • Critical Path is the longest possible continuous pathway taken from the initial event to the terminal event. • The critical path is the path that takes the longest to complete.
  93. 93. CRITICAL PATH • To determine the path times, add the task durations for all available paths. • Any time delays along the critical path will delay the reaching of the terminal event by at least the same amount.
  94. 94. 10 30 20 50 40 70 60 80 90 CRITICAL PATH The duration of path ADFh is 7 working months. The duration of path ACEG is 9 working months. The duration of path BEG is 7.5 working Months. A=1m G=1m H=2m F=2m E=4.5m C=3.5m D=2m B=2m E=3.5m
  95. 95. CRITICAL PATH • The critical path is ACEG and the critical time is 9 working months. • It is important to note that there can be more than one critical path or that the critical path can change.
  96. 96. CRITICAL PATH • A critical path of a project can be shortening by:  Fast tracking: performing more activities in parallel, and/or  Crashing the critical path: shortening the durations of critical path activities by adding resources.
  97. 97. PERT: Advantages • PERT chart explicitly defines and makes visible dependencies. • PERT facilitates identification of the critical path and makes this visible.
  98. 98. PERT: Advantages • PERT facilitates identification of early start, late start, and dalaying for each activity, • PERT provides for potentially reduced project duration due to better understanding of dependencies leading to improved overlapping of activities and tasks where feasible.
  99. 99. Disadvantages • There can be potentially hundreds or thousands of activities and individual dependency relationships. • The network charts tend to be large and may requiring several pages to print and requiring special size paper.
  100. 100. Disadvantages • The lack of a timeframe on most PERT/CPM charts makes it harder to show status. • When PERT/CPM charts become unfamilier, they are no longer used to manage the project.
  101. 101. Thank You