Which of the following servers are non-authoritative servers that contain frequently requested domain names and IP addresses associated with each domain name?
Pre-assessment Questions (Contd.)
Which of the following options defines the amount of time for which other DNS servers and applications are allowed to cache the records?
If the frequency of DNS data changes is low, you need to ___________ the SOA TTL intervals.
Pre-assessment Questions (Contd.)
Consider the following statements:
Statement A: Refresh defines the time period for which a DNS server waits before querying its source to attempt renewal of the zone.
Statement B: Retry defines the time period after which a primary server attempts a zone transfer after having an unsuccessful zone replication.
Which of the following is correct about the above statements?
Statement A is False and Statement B is True .
Statement A is True and Statement B is Fal se.
Both, Statement A and Statement B are True.
Both, Statement A and Statement B are False .
Solutions to Pre-assessment
b. dnscmd <server name> /config /localnetpriority 0
b. Statement A is True and Statement B is False
You need to plan for a method to resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses because DNS servers alone cannot address the name resolution needs of a network that consists of Windows 2003 servers and pre-Windows 2000 clients.
You can select any one of the following methods for name resolution:
Automatic name resolution
Planning WINS (Contd.)
Involve sending the same message simultaneously to all clients on a network.
Used when the size of the network is small and sufficient network bandwidth is available.
Require large amount of network bandwidth because the same message is sent to all clients on the network.
Cannot be used in subnetted networks because broadcasts cannot pass through routers.
Maintains a text database of NetBIOS names and the corresponding IP addresses.
Used for small subnetted networks with a bandwidth limitation.
Used in a non-DHCP environment to manually resolve NetBIOS names.
Requires considerable maintenance effort.
Planning WINS (Contd.)
Automatic name resolution:
Dynamically resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses in a routed environment.
Uses a WINS server to maintain a database that maps NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
Used for large networks with multiple broadcast domains.
Used in a dynamic IP network that requires regular updates of NetBIOS name-to-IP address entries.
Used in a network where some clients and servers use applications based on NetBIOS names.
Planning the Number of WINS Servers
While planning the number of WINS servers, you need to consider the following factors:
Name resolution requirements of clients
Planning for WINS Replication and Fault Tolerance
You need to plan for WINS replication if:
You have to implement more than one WINS server on a network.
You have to increase WINS service availability by providing additional fault tolerance.
You need to consider the following factors while planning for WINS replication:
Infrastructure of the network
Number of additional servers
Availability of WINS service
Selection of replication partner:
Push only replication
Pull only replication
Planning for WINS Replication and Fault Tolerance (Contd.)
You need to plan for fault tolerance so that the WINS service of the network does not disrupt when:
a WINS server fails
the clients are not able to access the WINS server
You can achieve effective fault tolerance using the following guidelines:
A secondary WINS server should be configured on the network.
Secondary WINS servers should be located on remote subnets.
The power grid on which the secondary WINS servers are placed should be preferably different from that of the primary WINS server.
Practice- Creating a WINS Plan
The customer care outlets attached with the existing branch offices at Denver and New York use NetBIOS names. This is because the network setup in the existing customer care outlets is in a mixed mode that consists of the Windows 2000 and Windows 98 operating systems. Most of the applications used by customer care outlets use NetBIOS name resolution. You need to plan the WINS server implementation for customer care outlets of the new branches in Geneva, Paris, and Virginia. The number of employees in each customer care outlet is between 25 and 50.
Practice-Creating a WINS Plan (Contd.)
Select a NetBIOS name resolution option
Determine the number of WINS servers required
Select a WINS replication strategy
Select a WINS fault tolerance strategy
You need to monitor WINS to detect problems that hamper the performance of the WINS servers, and to identify the requirements for optimizing WINS server performance.
The performance of WINS depends on the following types of traffic generated by the WINS service:
Name registration requests
Name refresh requests
Name release requests
Name query requests
Monitoring WINS Server Performance
To monitor WINS server performance, collect the following three types of performance data:
WINS server performance
Examining Replication Parameters
Modify the following replication settings if you identify a problem while monitoring WINS server performance:
Optimizing WINS Servers and Services
You can optimize WINS by reducing the load on WINS servers and by upgrading the WINS servers.
To reduce the load on WINS servers:
Add more WINS servers
Place servers strategically
Balance WINS client load
Use burst-mode client registrations
To upgrade WINS servers:
Add more CPUs
Provide sufficient RAM
Provide high-performance disks
Use high-bandwidth network cards
Optimizing WINS Replication
Plan the replication schedules in such a way that you can achieve convergence goals with minimum replication traffic.
To reduce the replication traffic:
Plan a partner replication schedule
Plan persistent connections
Plan replication during non-peak hours of operation
Decrease amount of resource sharing
Timely Replication of WINS Database
To ensure timely replication of WINS database:
Decrease response time and replication time
Replace WINS server
Enhance availability in the WINS design by implementing Windows Clustering
Optimizing WINS Using Client Renewal Technique Level of consistency between WINS and the network decreases Client registration activity and workload on the network increases Renewal of client names with WINS increases Decreased Level of consistency between WINS data and the network increases Client registration activity and workload on the WINS server decreases Renewal of client names with WINS decreases Increased Impact Client Renew Interval Action
Practice- Optimizing WINS Traffic
The customer care outlet of the head office has implemented WINS. However, you have noticed a tremendous increase in the WINS traffic. To determine the increase in WINS traffic, you examined performance logs. These logs indicate that the client renewal traffic is very high. To counter this problem, you need to plan an optimization strategy.
Practice- Optimizing WINS Traffic (Contd.)
Increase the client renew interval of clients from default 6 days to 10 days or more. This will decrease the client renewal traffic and workload on the WINS server.
In this lesson, you learned that:
You can resolve NetBIOS names using broadcasts, LMHOSTS file, or automatic name resolution.
While planning the number of WINS servers, you need to consider the network environment, network topology, network traffic, redundancy, name resolution requirements of clients, and WINS availability.
You need to plan for WINS replication if you have to implement more than one WINS server on your network, or increase WINS service availability by providing additional fault tolerance.
While planning for WINS replication, you need to consider factors, such as infrastructure of the network, number of additional servers, availability of WINS service, selection of replication partner, and convergence time.
You need to plan for fault tolerance so that when a WINS server fails or when the clients are not able to access it, the WINS service of the network does not get disrupted.
You should monitor WINS to detect problems that hamper the performance of the WINS servers, and to identify the requirements for optimizing WINS server performance.
To monitor WINS server performance, you need to collect n etwork performance, server performance, and WINS server performance data.
You can optimize WINS by reducing the load on the WINS servers and by upgrading the WINS servers.
You can optimize replication between WINS servers by controlling replication traffic and ensuring timely replication of WINS database.
You can optimize the performance of the WINS server by increasing or decreasing client renew interval.