A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]

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A Perspective of Research in Contemporary HRM [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Jain University, August 19, 2012 Dr. Harry CD harrycd2011@gmail.com Research Interests include Globally distributed teams / Virtual teams Behavioral patterns of distributed teams Software teams (WGX, TMX, LMX) Cross culture
  2. 2. Part 1- Research in contemporary HRMPart 2-Theory building in HRM ResearchPart 3- Critical terms in HRM research Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  3. 3. Information on Technology Companies Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012 Name of Total Employees Geographical Overall Organization revenue FY strength locations number of 2010 (In offices USD-Billion) (Countries) TCS 8.26 198000 42 200 Infosys 6.35 133560 30 63 Wipro 6.0 100000 70 100 HCL 5.9 80000 31 60 Technologies IBM 100 426751 170 ___ Gap Gemini --- 110000 40 136 Ness 0.5 6900 18 36 Source: Harry CD, 2012, OCB of distributed teams: A study on the mediating effect of organizational justice in software organizations
  4. 4. Electronics Countries OperatingCompanies inFlextronics 30Sony 183Canon 44LG 40Samsung 100Automobile Countries OperatingCompanies inFord 70GM 157Toyota 28Benz & BMW 35 & 150 respectively Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  5. 5. The Latest Trends in Business “Unless you are networking, you will soon be not working” Dr Denis WaitleySocial media –the obvious choiceGlobal reachOutsource anythingNo business is a bad businessA bigger role for governmentManagement as a scienceShifting consumption patternsAsia risingIndustries taking new shapeInnovation marching onPrice stability in question Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  6. 6. Macro and Micro context of Contemporary HRM Dynamically changing global scenario Belief in people processes has superseded other organizational processes Changing from borrowed to indigenized Administrator to strategist and change agent Increase technology driven jobs while low skilled jobs decrease Highest global mobility- helps global alignment Centralized to distributed approach World at your feet tendency People are no more just resources Process on sensitivity to sensitivity on processes Hiring through social media Localized compensation HR policies based on trust, openness, equity and consensus Better working conditions – Fun place to work Encourage zeal, initiative, innovation and entrepreneurship; make people feel like winners Sensitivity to relationships-Internal and external Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of Equitably reward and integrate aspirations with corporate goals. research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  7. 7. Organizations in every domain all over the world areconfronted with growing complexity due to changingforms of organization.Apart from relationships with competitors, customers,and suppliers becoming more complicated andinvolved, internally, many companies have complexprocesses, diverse business units, matrix structures anda diverse employee base as organizations becomeglobally distributed. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  8. 8. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective ofresearch in contemporary HRM",2012
  9. 9. Perception of organizational complexity is related to theirprocess of understanding and appreciating the changingforms of organization.High-Performance Organizations (HPO) such as GE,Becton Dickinson, Campbell Soup, IBM, and ASDA etc.,has systematically developed their research capabilities(RC) over time.Successful Indian multinational organizations such asInfosys, Wipro, Cognizant and TCS has worked on theirpeople processes, competency building, performancemanagement, compensation systems based on inputsobtained from their initiative or outsourced research.of Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  10. 10. Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where From’ and‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 92-103. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  11. 11. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective ofresearch in contemporary HRM",2012
  12. 12. There are five core areas where optimizing the use of research outcome in anorganization can provide additional value and ammunition for fightingcompetition.Structure and designResearch capabilities can play an integral role in eliminating redundancy orunnecessary layers in an organizational structure by streamlining processes,minimizing management layers, facilitating communication and improvingmonitoring. Continuous research can help create more agile and flexibleorganizational structures.Specific experience of roles, interaction and exchanges, treatments, benefits,culture, communication and brand status of an organization provide sufficientspace for research. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  13. 13. For example: • Backward and forward integration • Merger and acquisition • Collaborations and joint ventures • Outsourcing and in sourcing • Virtual and open source approaches • Grouping and regrouping of businesses • Private or public participation • Single or multiple products and services • Collocated or distributed location • Size and depth of the business Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  14. 14. Processes and policiesOrganizations are continually looking at ways to make their processes more competitive,effective and efficient.HRM processes include • Employment and engagement • Performance management • Competency building • Learning and development • HR auditing, assessment centers and Balanced score card • High performance culture • Career progression and succession • Deployment and redeployment • Rehabilitation • Local, national and global HRM practices • Culture sensitivity • Innovative people practices • Compensation and benefits • Attraction and retention etc.,Stakeholders dynamically compare and ascertain their worth Harry CD -"A perspectivedetermine Dr. instantly and of research in contemporary HRM",procedure for an effective move ahead. 2012
  15. 15. People practicesOrganizations can also optimize people resources by investing in researchcapabilities. With the right people, technology and processes, companies canreduce the number of people needed to achieve the same desired businessresults. • Domestic versus overseas assignments, transfers and deputations • Exchange within and between teams • Interaction between collocated and distributed teams • Gaps in beliefs and practices between core and non-core teams • Differential treatment in work location • Differential treatment between expatriates and domestic employees Cultural gaps and related problems • Work life balance • Inter dependence between employees Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  16. 16. • Knowledge transfer and sharing• Role efficacy experiences• Rewards and recognitions related behaviours• Perceived organizational support• In-role and extra role behaviour (ERB or OCB)• Organizational retaliatory behaviour (ORB)• Justice Perceptions• Decision participation• Employee ambassadorship• Withdrawal symptoms and organizational problems• Organizational politic• Differential treatment between contract / consultants versus direct employees• Relationship between employees and customers / clients, between one unit to other units• Performance assessment – Domestic and onsite Harry CD -"A perspective of Dr.• Cross culture experiences research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  17. 17. Innovative HR practicesContemporary research has been concentrating on HR transformation Developing business acumen Giving importance to EQ and SQ Human capital Intellectual capital Changing Trends in the area of Training and Development Transforming training delivery mechanisms Assessment centres Localization of culture HR branding Emotional / psychological approach Competency and capability developemnt Change management Balanced score card Career progression and succession plan Stay interview Flexi working Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of High performance culture research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  18. 18. International management / HR alignment Globally distributed team Cross culture Expatriates and in-patriates Virtual teams Contract resource management Global compensation Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  19. 19. Part 2 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  20. 20. HRM is concerned with people practices, thus theinteraction and exchange in organizations mostly focuson how such interaction and exchange happens thenwhy it happens.A data driven analytical approach provides an in depthunderstanding of every people related phenomenaacross organization and offers means for reducing theintensity of challenges. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  21. 21. Theory is described as “a coherent description,explanation and representation of observed orexperienced phenomena” (Gioia & Pitre, 1990, p. 587).Theory building is the ongoing process of producing,confirming, applying, and adapting theory (Lynham,2000b).Theory is required to be of practical value (Kaplan, 1964;Lynham, 2000b; Mott, 1996; Swanson, 1997, 1999; Van deVen, 1989) Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  22. 22. Challenge and usefulnessOne of the challenges of theory-building research in applieddisciplines is making the logic used to build the theoryexplicit and accessible to the user of the developedtheory.• Theory building contributes to the existing body of knowledge• Help bridge the gap between research and practice• Provides growth and maturity to the discipline Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  23. 23. False assumptions of theory building includethe following: (Susan A. Lynham, 2002)• that theory is disconnected and removed from practice,• that the process of theory construction happens in isolation of the real world,• that those who engage in theory building or development are not the same as those who engage in practice or in the real world, and• that usefulness and application are optional outcomes of theory. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  24. 24. Theory building is described as “the purposeful process or recurringcycle by which coherent descriptions, explanations, andrepresentations of observed or experienced phenomena aregenerated, verified, and refined” (Lynham, 2000b, p. 161)Theory building include• Systematically collecting and interpreting new data• Defining gaps and problems• Identifying responses to new problems• Define practical problems• Evaluating solutions• Discerning priorities• Identifying new research directions• Developing common language• Defining boundaries• Sharing the findings and Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  25. 25. The theory building processThe building of theory occurs in two major stages- Thedescriptive stage and the normative stage.Within each of these stages, theory builders process throughthree steps: Observation, categorization and association.Good theory and theory building should also reflect twoimportant qualities: rigor and relevance (Marsick, 1990a),or what are also termed validity and utility (Van de Ven,1989). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  26. 26. Building the research process Deduction Process Induction Process Statements of association (Models) Categorization based on Anomaly attributes of phenomena (Frameworks & Typologies) Observe, Describe and Measure phenomena (Constructs) Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  27. 27. The first is one of a research-to-theory strategy,whereas the second is one of a theory-to-researchstrategy (Reynolds, 1971).The research-to-theory strategy, also termed theresearch-then-theory strategy, is related to “derivingthe laws of nature from a careful examination of allthe available data” (Reynolds, 1971, p. 140). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  28. 28. As described by Reynolds (1971), the essences of this research-to-theory strategy are as follows:1. Select a phenomenon and list all the characteristics of the phenomenon2. measure all the characteristics of the phenomenon in a variety ofsituations (as many as possible)3. analyze the resulting data carefully and determine if there are anysystematic patterns among the data “worthy” of further attention, and4. once significant patterns have been found in the data, formalization ofthese patterns as theoretical statements constitutes the laws of nature(axioms, in Bacon’s terminology). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  29. 29. The second strategy for building theory is that of theory toresearch, or what Reynolds (1971) called the “theory-then-research strategy”Reynolds highlighted the essences of thistheory-building strategy as follows:1. Develop an explicit theory in either axiomatic or process descriptionform;2. select a statement generated by the theory for comparison with theresults of empirical research;3. design a research project to “test” the chosen statement’scorrespondence with empirical research;4. if the statement derived from the theory does not correspond with theresearch results, make appropriate changes in the theory or the researchdesign and continue with the research; and5. if the statement from the theory corresponds with the results of theresearch, select further statements for testing or attempt to determine thelimitations of the theory. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  30. 30. A useful way of conceptualizing the research method forapplied theory building is as a recursive system of fivedistinct phases:• conceptual development,• operationalization,• application,• confirmation or disconfirmation, and• continuous refinement and development (of the theory). Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  31. 31. Popular TheoriesEquity TheoryMotivational theory of Abraham Maslow, 1954Theory X and Theory Y were developed by a managementprofessor Douglas McGregor at MIT Sloan School ofManagement in the 1960s.Chris Argyris (1957)- worker-structure conflict theoryFrederick Herzberg (1959)-Two factor theory (Hygiene andmotivational factors)Douglas McGregor (1960)- Theory of management, Theory Xand Theory YArgyris & Schön (1974, 1996)- Model I and Model IIRole efficacy –Self efficacy theories- Uday Pareek, 1980Co-creation model - Jason Colquitt, 2007Sense-making and breaking-Roberson, 2008 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  32. 32. Part 3 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  33. 33. Macro and micro context in HRMThe environment furnishes the macro context and the organization isthe micro unit.The external environment is comprised of those factors which affect anorganizations human resources from outside the organization.Important among them are: economic, social, political, governmental,legal, technological, traditional and cultural; customers otherorganizations and trade unions in other organizations. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  34. 34. Differentiate between deduction and inductionIn deduction, we deduce generalization from universal toparticular but in induction we arrive at universalgeneralizations from particular facts. Therefore, sometimesdeduction is thought to be opposite to induction.In inductive reasoning, you try to get a result based on atheory. Deductive reasoning you work backwards you havethe result and you try to come up with the reasoningbehind it. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  35. 35. Quantitative Research ConfirmsQuantitative research looks at the general case and movestoward the specific. This deductive approach to researchconsiders a potential cause of something and hopes toverify its effect.Qualitative Research ConfirmsQualitative research begins with the specific and movestoward the general. The data collecting process inqualitative research is personal, field-based, and iterativeor circular. As data are collected and organized duringanalysis, patterns emerge. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  36. 36. Nonprobability and Probability SamplingNonprobability sampling does not involve random selectionButProbability sampling doesEmpirical and ConceptualEmpirical and conceptual are two different approaches ofresearch.• While empirical is dependent upon observation andexperimentation, and produces verifiable results, it is mostly usedin scientific studies• On the other hand, conceptual analysis is a popular method ofresearch in social sciences, and philosophy and psychology. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  37. 37. The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction Mediating effects allow researchers to understand underlying complex relationships whereby the effect of an independent variable is transmitted to a dependent variable through a third variable (Baron and Kenny(1986) a moderator is a qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between an independent or predictor variable and a dependent or criterion variable.Theorists and researchers should be aware of the importance of not using theterms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, bothconceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderatorsperspective of Dr. Harry CD -"A and mediators research in contemporary HRM",differ 2012
  38. 38. Validity and Reliability.Essentially, validity entails the question, “does yourmeasurement process, assessment, or project actuallymeasure what you intend it to measure?”.The related topic of reliability addresses whether repeatedmeasurements or assessments provide a consistent resultgiven the same initial circumstances. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  39. 39. Aims and ObjectivesAims are actually goals which we set for ourselves butobjectives are the measures which we undertake toachieve our aimsMethods and MethodologyResearch methods involve conduct of experiments, tests, surveysand the like. On the other hand research methodology involvesthe learning of the various techniques that can be used in theconduct of research and in the conduct of tests, experiments, surveys and critical studies. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  40. 40. A doctoral dissertation is a serious piece of research uponwhich you will spend months or years of your life.Strangers cannot select topics for you without knowingsomething about your interests and experiences.You should not settle for a topic selected by strangers butshould be reading extensively and meeting with youradviser at the university in order to determine a topic thatwill be sufficiently original and rigorous to meet theuniversitys requirements while at the same time feasiblefor you to pursue. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  41. 41. References:1. Chatterjee, S. R. (2007). Human Resource Management in India: ‘Where From’ and ‘Where To?’, Research and Practice in Human Resource Management, 15(2), 92-103.2. Gioia, D. A., & Pitre, E. (1990). Multiparadigm perspective on theory building. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 584-602.3. Reynolds, P. D. (1971). A primer in theory construction. New York: Macmillan4. Reuben M. Baron and David A. Kenny, 1986, Journal of Penality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51, No. 6, 1173-11825. Susan A. Lynham, 2002, Advances in Developing Human Resources ; 4; 2216. Van de Ven, A. H. (1989). Nothing is quite so practical as a good theory. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 486-489. Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012
  42. 42. Wish you a successful doctoral Journey Contacts: harrycd2011@gmail.com +91 9845713736 Dr. Harry CD -"A perspective of research in contemporary HRM", 2012

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