Power point presentation onpolitical philosophers of francebyHarsh kumar arya9th -a
WHO IS A PHILOSOPHER ?:• WHO IS A PHILOSOPHER ? Philosophers weremen and women who met to discuss society andpolitics, and solutions to social problems. Theyspread new ideas, and a majority of them werewriters. The French philosophers of theEnlightenment Era didnt play an active role in theevents of the revolution, but their ideas inspiredthe revolutionary movement. The mainphilosophers wereVoltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, John Locke andMontesquieu .
•THE MAINPHILOSOPHERS WHOGAVE A NEW DIRECTIONTO THE FRENCHREVOLUTION.
• MONTESQUIEU Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et deMontesquieu generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a Frenchsocial commentator and political thinker who lived duringthe Enlightenment. Montesquieu remained the most important politicalphilosopher of the French Revolution.• Montesquieu proposed the idea that a monarch should not operate withabsolute power, but limits (e.g. a constitution, parliamentary bodies).There should be a separation of powers. Montesquieus most influentialwork divided French society into three: legislative (they make thelaws), executive (they enforce the law) and judicial (the court system).These should be separate from and dependent upon each other so thatthe influence of any one power would not be able to exceed that of theother two, either singly or in combination. This was a radical idea becauseit completely eliminated the three Estates structure of the FrenchMonarchy.•
• ROUSSEAU Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer, andcomposer of 18th-century Romanticism of French expression. His politicalphilosophy influenced the French Revolution. Rousseau was a successfulcomposer of music. He wrote seven operas as well as music in otherforms, and he made contributions to music as a theorist.•• During the period of the French Revolution, Rousseau was the mostpopular of the philosophers among members of the Jacobin Club.Rousseau believed in the natural goodness of man, this idea appealed tomany people, including some of the people instrumental in the eventsleading to the French Revolution, such as the oath at the Tennis Court. Theconcepts of the Social Contract had the greatest influence onrevolutionary France, especially ideas on equality and the general will. TheSocial Contract did not seek to end slavery, although the arguments putforward against absolutist monarchy could also be used in favour ofabolishing slavery.
• JOHN LOCKE :• JOHN LOCKE John Locke widely known as the Father of Classical Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the mostinfluential of Enlightenment thinkers.Lockes theory of the natural rights ofman to life, liberty and property gained popularity among masses. He wasregarded as the great theorist of modern freedom.•• Lockes most important work of political philosophy was the Two Treatiseson Government . John Locke argued that : The power of the king (or anygovernment) is derived from the people, who contract to obey their rulersin exchange for law and security. Individuals have a natural right to holdproperty, and this can never be taken from them without their ownconsent. If a ruler exceeds the terms of the contract that empowers him orseizes property without consent, the people can resist and depose him.•