EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TELEMETRIC FLOOD MONITORING
DEVICE
Presented to
The Faculty of Computer Engineering Department
Univer...
iii
Abstract
The study was entitled “Effectiveness of the Telemetric Flood Monitoring
Device”. The study aimed to choose t...
iv
Acknowledgement
This study was only made possible and the best result because the
proponents have entrusted the followi...
v
Table of Contents
Page
TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL SHEET ii
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES...
vi
REFERENCES 26
APPENDICES 30
CURRICULUM VITAE 40
vii
List of Tables
Tables Pages
1 The Average Values of Parameters Using the Floater
Design
17
2 The Average Values of Par...
viii
List of Figures
Figures Pages
1 Conceptual Framework 6
2 Image of the Floating Sensor Design 36
3 Image of the Ultras...
Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (2009)
and the Co...
2
Nevertheless, tropical storm “Ondoy” had its landfall in Central and
Southern Philippines (Ribaya, 2009).Then, according...
3
So the researchers, as students of the Computer Engineering Department
of the College of Engineering Education of the Un...
4
a.3. Transmitted Reading
b. Response time of the system
3. To determine the physical specifications of the designs, name...
5
Hypotheses
H01 : There is no significant difference in the actual, displayed
and transmitted values of the water level r...
6
of the river which may be a tool to establish the corresponding flow or
overflow due to flood.
Then, the dependent varia...
7
The study was limited accordingly to the tally of readings done in
number of trials. Then, the expected response time we...
8
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined accordingly to their function in the
study:
Effectiveness. This is a...
Chapter 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
There have been many studies conducted on how to reduce the risk of
flood to commun...
10
Furthermore, during the Sendong flash flood, Betonio (2012) of SunStar
Cagayan de Oro posted that the water level was a...
11
From setting goals and recording time, monthly monitoring the response
time is the basis for the compliance (Internatio...
12
When an object’s characteristics are measured (e.g. velocity of an
aircraft), the results are transmitted to a distant ...
13
flood monitoring device supports to establish the best device that suits every
clientele’s consciousness is important.
Chapter 3
METHODOLOGY
In conducting the experimental design, precision and accuracy of data
gathering and manipulation too...
15
Sample Size
There were twenty (20) trials in collecting the readings in water level
and the response time. The reading ...
16
the software received the data from the device, the time it entered the database
was the received time for the software...
Chapter 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
In this chapter, the results of the experimentations were presented. The
instrumentation...
18
gathered for every trial done and response time, respectively, for the said
design.
In table 2 is displayed the average...
19
Table 3
Physical Specifications of the Floater Design
Physical Specifications Quantity Unit
PVC Structure
Diameter 5 in...
20
Table 4
Physical Specifications of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design
Physical Specifications Quantity Unit
PVC Structure
Dia...
21
Table 5
The Costs to Develop the Designs
Design Development Cost
Floater Design ₱ 8399.25
Ultrasonic Sensor Design ₱ 76...
22
Table 6
Analysis of Variance on Water Level Readings using the Floater Design
Source of
Variation
df SS MS
F – value
Co...
23
were all dependent on the functionality of the Adruino and the GSM upheld in
the design.
Table 8 compares the t-test re...
Chapter 5
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This section answers the problems presented in this study through the
conclusions....
25
Recommendation
For the further studies, the proponents suggest the following
recommendations:
1) The testing on the res...
26
References
Abs-cbnNews.com. (2011, June 29).Davao City flash floods kill 17. Retrieved
on December 14, 2012, from http:...
27
Department of Science and Technology. (2012, December 28). Water Level
Monitoring System. Retrieved on December 28, 201...
28
Malig, J. (2011, December 20). ‘Sendong’ world’s deadliest storm for
2011.abs-cbnNEWS.com.Retrieved on December 23, 201...
29
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language.(4th
Ed.). (2000).
Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin Company.
The A...
Appendices
31
Table 9
Water Level Readings using the Floater Design
Trials
Readings (in inches)
Actual Displayed Transmitted
1 1 1 1
...
32
Table 10
Water Level Reading using the Ultrasonic Sensor Design
Trials
Readings (in inches)
Actual Displayed Transmitte...
33
Table 11
Response Time in Seconds of the Floater Design and the Sonar Design
Trials
Response Time (in seconds)
Floater ...
34
Table 12
Breakdown of Expenditures for the Infrared Sensor with Floater Design
Item Name Quantity Unit Unit Price Total...
35
Revits 120 Pcs ₱ 0.50 ₱ 60.00
Acrylic Glue 1 Pc ₱ 80.00 ₱ 80.00
Glass Sealant 1 Pc ₱ 170.00 ₱ 170.00
CPU Fan 1 Pc ₱ 50....
36
Figure 2. Image of the Floating Sensor Design:
(a) front view; and (b) back view
(a) (b)
9 Inches
5 Inches
12 Inches
12...
37
Figure 3. Image of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design
3 Inches
6 Inches
6 Inches
8.5 Feet
3 inches
38
Figure 4. Gantt Chart
Activities W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 W19
Orientation
Evaluat...
Curriculum Vitae
HAROLD A. CAPARIDA
Purok 8 801-1 Datu Bago Street, Bankerohan, Davao City, Philippines
haroldcaparida@ymail.com
(63) 909 –...
JHUN BRYAN V. CENABRE
Blk.6 Lot 12 Phase 2 Narra St. Awhag Village Bacaca, Davao City, Philippines
encryptonian@yahoo.com
...
RALDEY T. LAPE
Purok 14, Antonio O. Floirendo, Panabo City, Philippines
raldey_tecson@rocketmail.com
(63) 910 – 289 – 1329...
Effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device
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Effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device

  1. 1. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TELEMETRIC FLOOD MONITORING DEVICE Presented to The Faculty of Computer Engineering Department University of Mindanao In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering Harold A. Caparida Jhun Bryan V. Cenabre Raldey T. Lape September, 2013
  2. 2. iii Abstract The study was entitled “Effectiveness of the Telemetric Flood Monitoring Device”. The study aimed to choose the best telemetric flood monitoring device between the floating sensor design and the ultrasonic sensor design. Twenty trials were done to test the significant difference among the water level readings of each design and between the response times of the two designs. The results showed that the average water level readings, actual, displayed and transmitted, for the floating sensor the actual reading was seven and fifty-five hundredths inches while, for the ultrasonic sensor design was five and ninety hundredths inches. The displayed reading was nine inches, and the transmitted reading was ten and nine hundredths inches. The average response time for the floating sensor and ultrasonic sensor are seven and ninety hundredths seconds and twelve and sixty-seven hundredths seconds, respectively. The results proved the conclusions of this study.
  3. 3. iv Acknowledgement This study was only made possible and the best result because the proponents have entrusted the following with faith: The Almighty God for His divine providence, wisdom and grace showered upon the researchers. To Mr and Mrs Carlito Jr. B. Caparida, Mr and Mrs Esmeraldo T. Cenabre, and Mr and Mrs. Godofredo D. Lape for the financial assistance. To Engr. Maria Christina B. Condez, the adviser, for helping the researchers in their endeavours. To Engr. Randy E Angelia for the assistance in the data gathering of the study. To Engr. Esther Tan for her helpful advices as the research coordinator and her guidance on the statistical analysis and presentation of the results of the study. To the UM-FLOATS (University of Mindanao – Flood Alert Telemetric System) team for the hard work in developing the hardware and the software for the bases of the testing. H. A. C. J. B. V. C. R. T. L.
  4. 4. v Table of Contents Page TITLE PAGE i APPROVAL SHEET ii ABSTRACT iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Background of the Study 1 Statement of the Problem 3 Hypotheses 5 Conceptual/ Theoretical Framework 5 Scope and Limitation of the Study 6 Significance of the Study 7 Definition of Terms 8 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 9 3 METHODOLOGY 14 Research Design 14 Sampling Size 15 Research Procedure 15 Statistical Treatment 16 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 17 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 24
  5. 5. vi REFERENCES 26 APPENDICES 30 CURRICULUM VITAE 40
  6. 6. vii List of Tables Tables Pages 1 The Average Values of Parameters Using the Floater Design 17 2 The Average Values of Parameters Using the Ultrasonic Sensor 18 3 Physical Specifications of the Floater Design 19 4 Physical Specifications of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design 20 5 The Costs to Develop the Designs 21 6 Analysis of Variance on Water Level Readings using the Floater Design 22 7 Analysis of Variance on Water Level Readings using the Ultrasonic Design 22 8 t-test Result Comparing Floater Design and Ultrasonic Sensor Design on Response Time in Seconds 23 9 Water Level Readings using the Floater Design 31 10 Water Level Reading using the Ultrasonic Sensor Design 32 11 Response Time in Seconds of the Floater Design and the Sonar Design 33 12 Breakdown of Expenditures for the Infrared Sensor with Floater Design 34 13 Breakdown of Expenditures for the Ultrasonic Sensor (Sonar) Design 35 14 Proposed Budget 35
  7. 7. viii List of Figures Figures Pages 1 Conceptual Framework 6 2 Image of the Floating Sensor Design 36 3 Image of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design 37 4 Gantt Chart 38
  8. 8. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (2009) and the Collins English Dictionary (2003) defines “flood” as an overflowing of water onto land that is normally dry; as the state of the river that is at an abnormally high level, and as the rising of the tide from low to high water. Often times, it is described in accordance to its occurrence in which there is a temporary rise of the water level, or too much runoff from rain or snowmelt or by coastal storm surges or other tidal (“Flood”, The American Heritage® Science Dictionary, 2005). A post from BBC News UK (2012) states the town, Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire in Scotland, in which most streets are submerged to the waters and had mud and debris. Then, the flood, peaked to five meters high, that happened in Pakistan during the late of July 2010 devastated villages. Twenty percent of the country was still underwater even after weeks (Department of International Department [DFID], 2010). Moreover, in Bedfordshire On Sunday (2012) River Elwy in Britain breached its flood defenses and affected the 3,400 population.
  9. 9. 2 Nevertheless, tropical storm “Ondoy” had its landfall in Central and Southern Philippines (Ribaya, 2009).Then, according to Alave’s (2011) report in the Philippine Daily Inquirer, “Sendong” disaster was foretold three years ago wherein there are extreme weather events that would devastate Cagayan de Oro and Iligan due to massive flooding. Yet, Malig (2011) posted that Sendong’s floodwaters overwhelmed the funerals and morgues with the number of dead bodies retrieved from parts of Cagayan de Oro. Furthermore, the flash flood killed 17 people because of the heavy downpour that overflowed the Matina Pangi River, Davao, surrounded by 4 barangays, was posted in the 2nd update of the abs-cbnNEWS.com (2011). Also, the post from Loqal.ph by Garriga (2011) states that P150 million will be funded to the Department of Science and Technology (DoST) for the installation of around 1000 automatic water level sensors for the whole country in assisting potential flood detection. Yet, only four rivers in the Philippines are equipped with water level sensors since 1980’s based from DoST’s data. Over time, the rainy season has started to batter Mindanao and storm threats to hit the island. So the city government of Davao is acting to alarm residents with floods like what killed more than 30 people June of 2012 (Manlupig, 2012). Before 2012 ended, the Philippines was stormed by “Pablo” (international name Bopha). Mindanao was alarmed up to signal #3, yet, was lifted as the storm moves over Sulu and Palawan islands. The typhoon had affected more regions, especially those in low-lying and mountainous areas, and alerted with possible flash floods and landslides (Rappler.com, 2012).
  10. 10. 3 So the researchers, as students of the Computer Engineering Department of the College of Engineering Education of the University of Mindanao have attempted to develop a telemetric flood monitoring device. Apt, the proponents of this study will test the effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device. Statement of the Problem This study aimed to establish the best telemetric design for a flood monitoring device. Specifically, it tried to attain the following objectives: 1. To determine the average values using the following parameters for the floating sensor design: a. Water level: a.1. Actual Reading; a.2. Displayed Reading; and a.3. Transmitted Reading b. Response time of the system 2. To determine the average values using the following parameters for the ultrasonic sensor design: a. Water level: a.1. Actual Reading; a.2. Displayed Reading; and
  11. 11. 4 a.3. Transmitted Reading b. Response time of the system 3. To determine the physical specifications of the designs, namely: a. Floating Sensor; and b. Ultrasonic Sensor 4. To identify the cost to develop the designs, namely: a. Floating Sensor; and b. Ultrasonic Sensor 5. To determine if there exists a significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level reading for the floating sensor design. 6. To determine if there exists a significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level reading for the ultrasonic sensor design. 7. To determine if there exists a significant difference in the response time of the system for the floating sensor and the ultrasonic sensor designs.
  12. 12. 5 Hypotheses H01 : There is no significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level reading for the floating sensor design. H02 : There is no significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level reading for the ultrasonic sensor design. H03 : There is no significant difference in the response time of thesystem for the floating sensor and the ultrasonic sensor designs. Conceptual/ Theoretical Framework The independent variables of this study were the types of design, namely floating sensor and ultrasonic sensor. An Information and Communications Technology (ICT) project was developed and deployed flood gauging instruments in critical flood prone areas. The system used an ultrasonic sensor to accurately measure and determine the flood water level in real time. The sensor measures the rate of change of water level and sends the collected information to the server through a Short Message System (SMS) (Department of Science and Technology [DoST], 2012). Also, the Floater Sensor Network (2012) had a floater sensor demonstration to estimate the river flow and contaminant propagation in real time to make water maps showing the motion
  13. 13. 6 of the river which may be a tool to establish the corresponding flow or overflow due to flood. Then, the dependent variables were the tests of effectiveness in terms of water level reading and response time of each type of designs. According to Zheng’s (2012) study,monitoring flood using multi-source satellite sensors reliable early flood warning, real-time monitoring of flood development, and fast and accurate assessment to flood losses are needed to effectively design a flood monitoring system or device. Figure 1.The Conceptual Framework Scope and Limitation of the Study The researchers covered only the computations and statistical analysis of the gathered data from the tabulation of trials made. There was a limit of twenty (20) trials done. TYPES OF DESIGN 1) Floating Sensor 2) Ultrasonic Sensor EFFECTIVENESS a) Water Level Reading b) Response Time Independent Variable Dependent Variable
  14. 14. 7 The study was limited accordingly to the tally of readings done in number of trials. Then, the expected response time were gathered in terms of critical water level only. And there was a comparison and contrast between the specific physical components and actual cost in the construction of each device. Significance of the Study Flood has been one of the inevitable calamities in the world today. Knowing that 75 percent of the earth’s surface is water, an excess amount would devastate any low land areas. So, this study described the following as its target beneficiaries: Communities. Those that are situated in low-land areas and near the river banks where flood usually starts. They will attest the functionality of the selected device in case flood occurs. University of Mindanao. The institution where the preliminaries were tested and also as a victim of overflowed waters from the near Davao River. It will assist the institution on disseminating information as the host for the control server. Students. The human factors that most constitute the institutions and communities to give awareness and update on the flood occurrence. They will be informed as soon as the flood happens upon their subscription or being inside the institution.
  15. 15. 8 Definition of Terms The following terms are defined accordingly to their function in the study: Effectiveness. This is a test on how accurate, precise and reliable a device is. Telemetry. The transmission in which the source of data is very distant Flood monitoring device. An electronic device that identifies the water level of a location and response in times of critical point through telemetric system.
  16. 16. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE There have been many studies conducted on how to reduce the risk of flood to communities: individuals, properties and livelihood. In this section, researches and literatures are cited to support the following in the experimentation of the effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device. Water Level The Webster’s Dictionary (2005) defines water level or water mark as a mark indicating the height to which water has risen, especially the height of high tide or low tide. This rise of water level is most likely caused by heavy rainfall. Campbell Scientific Australia (2009) supplied a system in which water level is measured because most inland floods are the effect of heavy rainfall, often, a ground which is already saturated by previous rain events can be expected to be flooded. Moreover, critical water levels in localities, especially those that are recognized as flood prone areas, are monitored and recorded. In Bedfordshire, Great Britain, the River Elwy breached its flood defense and marked a flood height of 14 feet 3 inches (4.35 meters). This was more than 3 feet (1 meter) deeper than its record in November 2009 which was 11 feet 4 inches (3.47 meters) (Bedfordshire OnSunday, 2012).
  17. 17. 10 Furthermore, during the Sendong flash flood, Betonio (2012) of SunStar Cagayan de Oro posted that the water level was about nine to ten inches deep. Then, the heavy rain from tropical storm caused flood waters to rise one meter (3 feet) high in less than an hour. The rainwater was one month’s worth or so that reached levels much taller than an average Filipino (Hub, 2012). Even though inland floods devastate many settlers, the water level can also be monitored in seas and near shores. Rebaya (2009) posted that during Ondoy’s landfall, the sea conditions were rough with very big waves in heights of 3.7 to 4.5 meters. Response Time “Response time” is identified as the length of time taken by a system to respond to an instruction (Collins English Dictionary, 2009). Also, Macmillan Dictionary (2013) defines it as the amount of time that it takes to react to something. Then, a prudent step toward improving public safety services was having a response time goal (Kroboth, 2003). Also, based from Fitch (1993), in generating short response times to patience of medical emergencies, a good average response time for a service may indicate only the service places of its ambulance or response team in areas of highest demand. With this, a specified goal is based for percentile compliance. For example, within 10 minutes, 90 percent of the calls must be responded.
  18. 18. 11 From setting goals and recording time, monthly monitoring the response time is the basis for the compliance (International Association of Fire Fighters [IAFF], 1999). Kroboth (2003) added that an annual basis should be done to thoroughly review the response time goal compliance. He claimed that deficiencies should be identified and recommendation can be made to reduce the response time if operational changes are noted. Yet, basically, response is an act of responding, a reply or answer to a demand, or a reaction to a stimulus (Webster’s, 2005). So in concern of time, a good response has to be done in least time possible. Principles of Telemetry Telemetry, to Merriam-Webster Concise Encyclopedia (2013), is when remote or inaccessible instruments send data, then a receiving equipment measures, monitors, displays and records in a highly automated communication process. It is also the transmitting information to a central or host location after sensing and measuring that information at some remote location, based from Minnesota State University [MNSU] (2013). According to L-3 Communications Telemetry West [L-3] (2000), telemetry is the science of measuring quantities, transmitting the result to distant station, and interpreting, indicating, and/or recording the quantities measured. This principle saves time and money in travelling, flood warning (or forecasting) and know if the station is working correctly (Hycos.org, 2005).
  19. 19. 12 When an object’s characteristics are measured (e.g. velocity of an aircraft), the results are transmitted to a distant station where they are displayed, recorded and analyzed in the process of telemetry (L-3, 2000). In a telemetric system, there are exchanges happening between the central system, periodically triggered by all links by cyclical polling, and the operator that requests or transmits data to the central supervisory system upon the occurrence of an event, based from Schneider-electric.com (2013). Media of Telemetry According to L-3 (2000), “the transmission media of telemetry may be by air or space for satellite application, or copper wire and fiber cable for static ground environments like power generating plants”. Telemetry transmission can be typed as landline, cellphone, VHF or IHF radio, satellite receiving systems, or satellite phone (satphone) (Hycos.org, 2005). Transmission media may be wired or radio link, but it may be noted that optical, ultrasonic and laser beam links are also used for transmission of data (Murty, 2008). In Cobham (2012), an application to solar powered aircraft is conducted as a medium of transmitting power. Through the media of telemetry, an accurate and precise data can be expected from this study. Moreover, every time that a critical water level will be pointed out, an immediate response through SMS should be received from the server to its concerned clients. Hence, testing the effectiveness a telemetric
  20. 20. 13 flood monitoring device supports to establish the best device that suits every clientele’s consciousness is important.
  21. 21. Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY In conducting the experimental design, precision and accuracy of data gathering and manipulation took place. The research design, sample size, research procedure, and statistical treatments were concisely identified by the researchers in testing the effectiveness of a telemetric flood monitoring device. Research Design According to Taylor (2013), in experimental designs, the researchers do not exist as observers anymore but as experimenters that randomize trials and compare treatments. Thus, the researchers classified this study as an experimental research that identified the best and most suitable design for a telemetric flood monitoring device. This was an experimental research for the purpose of testing the effectiveness (with respect to the water level reading and response time records of the two types of design) – the floating sensor and ultrasonic sensor.
  22. 22. 15 Sample Size There were twenty (20) trials in collecting the readings in water level and the response time. The reading of the water level in each trial was done once; however, the response time was observed twice and the shorter time was recorded. Research Procedures The project tested the designs’ effectiveness as a telemetric flood monitoring device in terms of the readings of water level and the records of response time. The reading was tallied in three, namely Actual Reading, Displayed Reading and Transmitted Reading. The actual reading was based on the human intervention; hence, the actual height of the water was measured by the researcher. Then, the device had a liquefied crystal display (LCD) display or an indicator that presented or represented the reading of the circuitry – this was the displayed reading. Lastly, the control area or server computer gave the transmitted reading from the device through the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). This procedure was repeated for the 20-trial test of the floater design and the sonar design. The water was set with a critical level. Each device had an indicator that signaled the sending of data through the GSM. The indicator kept on blinking or lighting up until the data was successfully sent. When the indicator was turned off, the time was recorded as the sent time by the device. Meanwhile, as
  23. 23. 16 the software received the data from the device, the time it entered the database was the received time for the software. There were twenty repetitions done in gathering the data for the transmission time. After the tally of readings and time, the specific components used in each device were compared, and the actual cost in the manufacture of each design was identified for the alternative perspective of each development. Statistical Treatment The statistical treatment used in this study pointed out the significant differences of the independent variables. The following were the statistical tools noted in the manipulation of data: Mean. This was the average reading for water level and response time. T-test. This tested whether the difference in the response time of the two designs, floating and ultrasonic sensor, had significance. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in one-way factor. This was used to test the significant difference between the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level readings.
  24. 24. Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS In this chapter, the results of the experimentations were presented. The instrumentations and statistical references were also discussed. The researchers calculated the data gathered for further decision making on the hypothesis and for the effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device. In table 1 is presented the average values of parameters using the floater design. The water level readings are divided into three, namely: actual, displayed and transmitted readings. All of these average 121.50 inches. Also, the average response time of the said design is 24 seconds. Table 1 The Average Values of Parameters Using the Floater Design Parameters Averages a) Water Level Actual Reading 7.55 inches Displayed Reading 7,55 inches Transmitted Reading 7.55 inches b) Response Time 7.90 seconds The table above displays the similarities of average readings of the floater design and the average interval of messaging from the device to the server program. Table 9 and Table 11 of the Appendices tallies the data
  25. 25. 18 gathered for every trial done and response time, respectively, for the said design. In table 2 is displayed the average values of parameters using the ultrasonic sensor design. The average water level reading for actual, displayed and transmitted is all 87.50 inches. Meanwhile, 359 seconds is the mean response time of this design. Table 2 The Average Values of Parameters Using the Ultrasonic Sensor Parameters Averages a) Water Level Actual Reading 5.90 inches Displayed Reading 9.00 inches Transmitted Reading 10.09 inches b) Response Time 12.67 seconds In Table 2, the actual reading differs with the displayed reading because of the stability of the Arduino’s program which sent a different value. Because of this, the GSM of device disables to send the data to the server for eleven trials. Table 10 shows the data of these readings. Table 3 is the tabulation of the physical specifications of the floater design. The physical specifications of the device are identified. The quantity or number of these items and the unit used are also present in this table.
  26. 26. 19 Table 3 Physical Specifications of the Floater Design Physical Specifications Quantity Unit PVC Structure Diameter 5 inches Height 10 feet Panel Length 12 inches Width 12 inches Thickness 9 inches Sensor Infrared 1 piece The designers of the floater uses a PVC as a containment for the floater which has a U-trim that blocks and allows the connection of the infrared as the water inside rises. The panel holds the circuitry of the design as well as the GSM module for the data transmission. Figure 2 displays the image of this device. Table 4 is the enlistment of all the physical specifications of the ultrasonic sensor design. Physical specifications, quantity as well as its unit are tallied in this list.
  27. 27. 20 Table 4 Physical Specifications of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design Physical Specifications Quantity Unit PVC Structure Diameter 3 inches Height 8 feet Panel Length 6 inches Width 6 inches Thickness 3 inches Sensor Ultrasonic (sonar) 1 piece In using the ultrasonic sensor (sonar) for this design, its proponents programmed the Arduino in calibrating the readings. This Arduino is attached to the GSM which is inside the panel, placed at the top of the PVC. The sonar detects the change of water level because of the floater placed inside the tube. Figure 3 shows the image of the design. Table 5 is the cost development of each design — floater and ultrasonic sensor design. The cost in developing the floater design accumulated to 8,296 pesos and 50/100. And an amount of 8,480 pesos is the total costing for the ultrasonic sensor design.
  28. 28. 21 Table 5 The Costs to Develop the Designs Design Development Cost Floater Design ₱ 8399.25 Ultrasonic Sensor Design ₱ 7680.00 The costs or expense in developing and manufacturing each design shows the monetary requirements for its reproduction. In addition, according to the Department of Regional Development and Environment Executive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs Organization of American States (1991), infrared scanners, present in the floater design, may be used to monitor soil moisture and other desertification indicators, yet, having this needs more money and time allotment. In connection to this, based from the cost development of each designs, the floater is more costly than the ultrasonic sensor. Table 12 and Table 13 liquidates the breakdown of these sums. Table 6 shows the analysis of variance on the water level readings using the floater design. The computed f-value is zero (0). The tabular value for the degrees of freedom of 17 for the 0.05-level of significance is 3.59.
  29. 29. 22 Table 6 Analysis of Variance on Water Level Readings using the Floater Design Source of Variation df SS MS F – value Computed Tabular Between Groups 2 0 0 0 3.59 Within Group 17 162.45 9.55 α = 0.05 Total 19 162.45 Based on the calculation and manipulation of the gathered data, the results show that the water level readings of the floating sensor are similar. The f-value of their means results to zero. Table 7 is the analysis of variance on water level reading using the ultrasonic sensor design. Zero (0) is the computed f-value. On a level of significance of 0.05 and degrees of freedom of 17, the tabulated f-value is 3.59. Table 7 Analysis of Variance on Water Level Readings using the Ultrasonic Design Source of Variation df SS MS F – value Computed Tabular Between Groups 2 2.80 1.40 0.11 3.59 Within Group 17 202.57 12.08 α = 0.05 Total 19 205.37 In analyzing the f-value of the readings, the means have different values, yet, the computed f-value is lesser than the tabular f-value. Their differences
  30. 30. 23 were all dependent on the functionality of the Adruino and the GSM upheld in the design. Table 8 compares the t-test results between the floater design and the ultrasonic sensor design on the response time in seconds. Since the degree of freedom of the test is 24, the tabular t-value is 1.711 under the level of significance of 0.05. And the computed t-value resulted to 2.246. Table 8 t-test Result Comparing Floater Design and Ultrasonic Sensor Design on Response Time in Seconds Response Time in seconds of n Mean T – Value df Decision Computed Tabular Floater Design 20 7.90 1.097 1.711** 27 Accept Sonar Design 9 12.67 **p < 0.05 By testing the probability of difference of the response time of each design, the finding prove a lesser t-value for the computation than the tabulation. A decision of acceptance was made, since the result tells so.
  31. 31. Chapter 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This section answers the problems presented in this study through the conclusions. And the recommendations are also enumerated in this chapter. Conclusion The following are the conclusions of the researchers on testing the effectiveness of the telemetric flood monitoring device: 1) There is no significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level readings for the floating sensor design, thus, the null hypothesis is accepted. 2) There is no significant difference in the actual, displayed and transmitted values of the water level readings for the ultrasonic sensor design, thus, the null hypothesis is accepted. 3) There is no significant difference in the response time in the system of floating sensor design and the ultrasonic sensor design, thus, the null hypothesis is accepted.
  32. 32. 25 Recommendation For the further studies, the proponents suggest the following recommendations: 1) The testing on the response time on the messaging to multiple recipients; 2) The online application of the device’s status; and 3) The addition of more trials for a more precise and accurate data gathering.
  33. 33. 26 References Abs-cbnNews.com. (2011, June 29).Davao City flash floods kill 17. Retrieved on December 14, 2012, from http://beta.abs- cbnnews.com/nation/regions/06/29/11/flash-flood-hit-davao-city-kill-14. Alave, K. L. (2011, December 20). ‘Sendong’ disaster foretold 3 years ago. Philippine Daily Inquirer.Retrieved on December 23, 2012, from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/114171/sendong-disaster-foretold-3-years-ago. BBC News UK. (2012). More rain set to exacerbate flood disruption. Retrieved on December 23, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk- 20829807. Bedfordshire OnSunday. (2012, November 28). Flood devastation ‘heartbreaking’. Bedfordshire, Great Britain. Retrieved on January 4, 2012, from http://www.bedfordshire-news.co.uk/News/UK-and-world- news/Flood-devastation heartbreaking-0-3011734.xnf. Betonio, T. D. C. (2012, December 17). The great lessons a year after ‘Sendong”. SunStar Cagayan de Oro. Retrieved on January 13, 2013, from http://www.sunstar.com.ph/cagayan-de-oro/feature/2012/12/17/great- lessons-year-after-sendong-258739. Campbell Scientific Australia (2009, February 9). Flood warning systems. Retrieved on December 14, 2012, from http://www/industrysearch.com.au/Flood-warning -systems/f/2970/ Cobham (2012, November 29). Cobham provides telemetric link for revolutionary Solar Impulse aircraft. Cobham.com. Retrieved on January 13, 2013, from http://www.cobham.com/about-cobham/aerospace-and- security/about-us/tactical-communications-and-surveillance/media- centre/application-gallery/cobham-provides-telemetry-link-for- revolutionary-solar-impulse-aircraft.aspx. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged.(2003).HarperCollins Publishers. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged.(10th Ed.).(2009). HarperCollins Publishers. Department of International Development. (2010, August 18). UK Ministers see devastation. Retrieved on January4, 2013, from http://www.dfid.gov.uk/News/Press release/2010/UK-Ministers-see- devastation/.
  34. 34. 27 Department of Science and Technology. (2012, December 28). Water Level Monitoring System. Retrieved on December 28, 2012, from http://embedded.asti.dost.gov.ph/projects/water-level-monitoring-system/ Department of Regional Development and Environment Executive Secretariat for Economic and Social Affairs Organization of American States.(1991). Primer on Natural Hazard Management in Integrated Regional Development Planning.Retrieved on August 26, 2013 from http://www.oas.org/dsd/publications/Unit/oea66e/begin.htm#Contents. Fitch, J. J., et al. (1993).EMS Management. Carlsbad, CA: JEMS Communications. Floater Sensor Network. (2012, May 9). The Floater Sensor Network Project.Berkeley, CA. University of California Berkeley.Retrieved on January 8, 2013, from http://float.berkeley.edu/. Garriga, N. (2011, December 29). PAGASA gets P150M to buy flood sensors. Loqal.Retrieved on December 28, 2012, from http://loqal.ph/nation-and- world/2011/12/29/pagasa-gets-p150m-to-buy-flood-sensors/. Hub. (2012, June 6). Tropical Storm Sendong Devastates the Visayas and Mindanao. HubPages.com. Retrieved on January 13, 2013, from http://emievil.hubpages.com/hub/Tropical-Storm-Sendong-Devastates-the- Visayas-and-Mindanao. Hycos.org. (2005, April).Telemetry. Retrieved on January 8, 2013, from http://www.whycos.org/fck_editor/upload/File/Pacific- HYCOS/Surface_Waters/Telemetry_%20Apr05.pdf International Association of Fire Fighters. (1999). Response Time: An EMS system performance measure. In Emergency medical services – A guidebook for fire based systems. (p. 55-64). Washington D. C.: International Association of Fire Fighters AFL-CLO, CLC, Department of Emergency Medical Services. L-3 Communication Telemetry-West.(2000). Telemetry Tutorial. San Diego, CA: L-3 Communications. Macmillan Dictionary.(2013). Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved on January 13, 2013, from http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/response-time,
  35. 35. 28 Malig, J. (2011, December 20). ‘Sendong’ world’s deadliest storm for 2011.abs-cbnNEWS.com.Retrieved on December 23, 2012, from http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/nation/12/19/11/sendong-worlds-deadliest- storm-2011. Manlupig, K. (2012, June 13).Davao ready for possible flooding. Rappler.com. Retrieved on December 14, 2012, from http://www.rappler.com/nation/6930-davao-ready-for-possible-flooding. Merriam-Webster Concise Encyclopedia. (2013). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster, Incorporated. Minnesota State University. (2013). An Introduction to Telemetry. Mankato, MN. Retrieved on January 13, 2013, from http://mavdisk.mnsu.edu/alleng/communications/DataRadio/p_telemetry.pd f. Murty, D. V. S. (2008). Transducers and Instrumentation.(2nd Ed.). New Dehli, India: Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Rappler.com. (2012, December 5). ‘Pablo’ weakens, storm signal #3 lifted over Mindanao. Retrieved on January 5, 2013, from http://www.rappler.com/nation/17298-pablo-weakens,-storm-signal-3- lifted-over-mindanao. Ribaya, R. R. (2009, September 29). Ondoy’s flood worst in history PAGASA. Manila Bulletin.Retrieved on December 23, 2012, from http://www.mb.com.ph/articles/222277/ondoys-flood-worst-history- pagasa#.UN929eToQk0. Schneider-electric.com. (2013).Telemetry for water networks.Retrieved on January 8, 2013, from http://www2.schneider- electric.com/documents/support/white-papers/telemetry-for-water- networks.pdf. Taylor, D. (2013, April 4). Introduction to Research Methods: Session 1: Basis Study Design[PDF Document]. Retrieved on August 23, 2013 from http://www.austin.org.au/Assets/Files/Session%201%20- %20Research%20Design.pdf Tesiorna, B. O. (2011, June 29). Davao flood death toll now 25. SunStar Davao. Retrieved on December 23, 2012, from http://www.sunstar.com.ph/davao/local-news/2011/06/29/davao-flood- death-toll-now-25-163945.
  36. 36. 29 The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language.(4th Ed.). (2000). Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin Company. The American Heritage® Science Dictionary. (2005). Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin Company. Webster’s II Dictionary Student Edition.(3rd Ed.). (2005). Boston, MA: Houghton Miffin Company. Zheng, W. (2012, August 2). The flood monitoring information system framework based on multi-source satellite remote sensing data. 2012 International Conference on System Science and Engineering (ICSSE). 306 – 309. doi: 10.1109/ICSSE.2012.6257196.
  37. 37. Appendices
  38. 38. 31 Table 9 Water Level Readings using the Floater Design Trials Readings (in inches) Actual Displayed Transmitted 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 12 12 12 17 8 8 8 18 10 10 10 19 1 1 1 20 0 0 0 N 20 20 20 Sum 151 151 151 Mean 7.55 7.55 7.55
  39. 39. 32 Table 10 Water Level Reading using the Ultrasonic Sensor Design Trials Readings (in inches) Actual Displayed Transmitted 1 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 6 5 26* 26* 7 5 5 5 8 6 25* 25* 9 6 6 6 10 7 7 7 11 8 8 not received** 12 9 9 not received** 13 8 8 not received** 14 7 7 not received** 15 6 6 not received** 16 7 7 not received** 17 7 7 not received** 18 8 8 not received** 19 9 9 not received** 20 9 31* 31* N 20 20 11 Sum 118 180 111 Mean 5.90 9.00 10.09 Note: *the device happens to send a different data, even though the water level did not change **when the indicator of the device signals that the data has been sent, yet the server did not receive any data
  40. 40. 33 Table 11 Response Time in Seconds of the Floater Design and the Sonar Design Trials Response Time (in seconds) Floater Design Sonar Design X1 (X1)2 X2 (X2)2 1 4 16 9 81 2 4 16 12 144 3 5 25 14 196 4 9 81 16 256 5 10 100 12 144 6 6 36 bug* 7 5 25 13 169 8 20 400 7 49 9 4 16 15 225 10 8 64 16 256 11 4 16 not received** 12 8 64 not received** 13 11 121 not received** 14 4 16 not received** 15 5 25 not received** 16 4 16 not received** 17 10 100 not received** 18 18 324 not received** 19 8 64 not received** 20 11 121 bug* N 20 9 Sum 158 1646 114 1520 Mean 7.90 82.30 12.67 168.89 Note: *the device happens to send a different data, even though the water level did not change **when the indicator of the device signals that the data has been sent, yet the server did not receive any data
  41. 41. 34 Table 12 Breakdown of Expenditures for the Infrared Sensor with Floater Design Item Name Quantity Unit Unit Price Total Cost 40-Pin Socket 4 Pcs ₱ 10.00 ₱ 40.00 PIC16f877A 2 Pcs ₱ 250.00 ₱ 500.00 GSM Module Sim 900D 1 Pc ₱ 2225.00 ₱ 2225.00 LED Assorted 30 Pcs ₱ 2.00 ₱ 60.00 Header Connector 1 Set ₱ 45.00 ₱ 45.00 AC/DC Adapter 5V/1.5A 1 Pc ₱ 210.00 ₱ 210.00 AC/DC Adapter 5V/800mA 3 Pcs ₱ 50.00 ₱ 150.00 USB Cable 3 Pcs ₱ 50.00 ₱ 150.00 Socket with Plug 6 Pcs ₱ 20.00 ₱ 120.00 5-Pin Cable Connector 2 Pcs ₱ 20.00 ₱ 40.00 Crystal Oscillator 4MHz 4 Pcs ₱ 38.00 ₱ 152.00 Ceramic Capacitor 8 Pcs ₱ 1.00 ₱ 8.00 Resistor Assorted 58 Pcs ₱ 0.50 ₱ 29.00 PCB Board 5x4 2 Pc ₱ 20.00 ₱ 40.00 PCB Board 2x7 2 Pc ₱ 17.50 ₱ 35.00 Coin Slot Sensor 6 pcs ₱ 50.00 ₱ 300.00 PCB Spacer 16 pcs ₱ 1.00 ₱ 16.00 Bolts and Nuts 60 pcs ₱ 1.50 ₱ 90.00 RJ-45 Jack 4 pcs ₱ 40.00 ₱ 160.00 RJ-45 4 pcs ₱ 8.00 ₱ 32.00 UTP Cable CAT5 6 meter ₱ 20.00 ₱ 120.00 Etching Solution 1 bottle ₱ 25.00 ₱ 25.00 Masking Tape 2 Pc ₱ 31.50 ₱ 63.00 Sticker (Numeric Label) 2 Ft ₱ 30.00 ₱ 60.00 PCB Layout Print 1 sheet ₱ 45.00 ₱ 45.00 Acrylic Spray Paint (Black) 1 Can ₱ 100.00 ₱ 100.00 Acrylic Spray Paint (Silver) 3 Can ₱ 120.00 ₱ 360.00 Sand Paper 1 sheet ₱ 50.00 ₱ 50.00 Acrylic Spray Paint (Yellow) 1 Can ₱ 120.00 ₱ 120.00 PVC Pipe S-1000 1 length ₱ 628.25 ₱ 628.25 PVC Coupling 3 Pcs ₱ 55.00 ₱ 165.00 Clean-Out with Plug 1 Pc ₱ 70.00 ₱ 70.00 PVC Tee 1 Pc ₱ 70.00 ₱ 70.00 U-Clip Aluminum Rod 10 Ft ₱ 10.00 ₱ 100.00 Plastic Floater 1 Pc ₱ 70.00 ₱ 70.00 Acrylic Board (12in x 12in x 3mm) 4 sheets ₱ 100.00 ₱ 400.00 Acrylic Board (12in x 12in x 1.5mm) 1 sheet ₱ 100.00 ₱ 100.00 Angular Aluminum Rod 21 Ft ₱ 10.00 ₱ 210.00
  42. 42. 35 Revits 120 Pcs ₱ 0.50 ₱ 60.00 Acrylic Glue 1 Pc ₱ 80.00 ₱ 80.00 Glass Sealant 1 Pc ₱ 170.00 ₱ 170.00 CPU Fan 1 Pc ₱ 50.00 ₱ 50.00 Extension Plug 1 Pc ₱ 70.00 ₱ 70.00 Door Lock 1 Pc ₱ 11.00 ₱ 11.00 Battery 1 Pc ₱ 800.00 ₱ 800.00 TOTAL COST ₱ 8399.25 Table 13 Breakdown of Expenditures for the Ultrasonic Sensor (Sonar) Design Item Name Quantity Unit Unit Price Total Cost DC Adapter 2 Pc ₱ 260.00 ₱ 520.00 GSM Module Sims 900D 1 Pc ₱ 2225.00 ₱ 2225.00 GizDuinoATmega 644 Ultrasonic Sensor US-100 1 1 Pc pc ₱ ₱ 760.00 325.00 ₱ ₱ 760.00 325.00 Acrylic Glass 4 Pcs ₱ 110.00 ₱ 440.00 Drainage PVC Pipe 10 Ft ₱ 15.00 ₱ 150.00 U Clip 1 length ₱ 110.00 ₱ 110.00 Delivery Cost (Manila) 4 shipping ₱ 250.00 ₱ 1000.00 GSM Prepaid Load 1 Card ₱ 1000.00 ₱ 1000.00 Xiameter Silicon Sealant 1 Pc ₱ 150.00 ₱ 150.00 Miscellaneous 1 expense ₱ 1800.00 ₱ 1000.00 TOTAL COST ₱ 7680.00 Table 14 Proposed Budget Quantity Unit Description Unit Price Amount 1 ream A4 Paper 225.00 225.00 4 bottle Printer Ink 100.00 400.00 Miscellaneous 1000.00 5 TOTAL 1625.00
  43. 43. 36 Figure 2. Image of the Floating Sensor Design: (a) front view; and (b) back view (a) (b) 9 Inches 5 Inches 12 Inches 12 Inches 10 Feet 12 Inches 10 Feet 9 Inches 12 Inches
  44. 44. 37 Figure 3. Image of the Ultrasonic Sensor Design 3 Inches 6 Inches 6 Inches 8.5 Feet 3 inches
  45. 45. 38 Figure 4. Gantt Chart Activities W1 W2 W3 W4 W5 W6 W7 W8 W9 W10 W11 W12 W13 W14 W15 W16 W17 W18 W19 Orientation Evaluation of Documents Evaluation of Datasheets Survey for Geographic Significance Collect of Data Evaluation of Cost Evaluate of Physical Components Statistical Analysis Preparation for Final Defense Final Defense of Proposal Revision of Papers Submit Final Papers
  46. 46. Curriculum Vitae
  47. 47. HAROLD A. CAPARIDA Purok 8 801-1 Datu Bago Street, Bankerohan, Davao City, Philippines haroldcaparida@ymail.com (63) 909 – 364 – 0595 “’Google' is not a synonym for 'research'.” JOB EXPERIENCE Position: On-the-Job Trainee (Inet Department) Company Name: DctecH Micro Services, Incorporated Address: Ponciano Reyes Street, Davao City Inclusion: April 4 – May 17, 2013 (256 Hours) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Bachelor Degree: University of Mindanao, Matina, Davao City Program: BS Computer Engineering (2008-2013) Secondary: Daniel R. Aguinaldo National High School Elementary: Magallanes Elementary School PROJECTS: (from recent to previous) Titles Academic Year Effectiveness of the Telemetric Flood Monitoring Device (Project Design) 2013-2014 Household Electricity Coin-slot Prepayment System (Input-Output System) 2013-2014 Enhancement of Encrypted Door (Microprocessors) 2012-2013 Automated Waste Sorter (Advanced Logic Circuits) 2011-2012 Encrypted Door (Assembly Language) 2010-2011 Parking Lot System (Logic Circuits) 2010-2011
  48. 48. JHUN BRYAN V. CENABRE Blk.6 Lot 12 Phase 2 Narra St. Awhag Village Bacaca, Davao City, Philippines encryptonian@yahoo.com (63) 909 – 909 – 9185 “It takes half your life before you discover life is a do-it-yourself project.” JOB EXPERIENCE Position: On-the-Job Trainee (EDP Department) Company Name: Davao City Water District Address: Km. 5, J.P. Laurel Ave. Davao City, Philippines Inclusion: April 16 – May 22, 2013 (248 Hours) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Bachelor Degree: University of Mindanao, Matina, Davao City Program: BS Computer Engineering (2007-2013) Secondary: Davao City National High School Elementary: San Roque Central Elementary School PROJECTS: (from recent to previous) Titles Academic Year Effectiveness of the Telemetric Flood Monitoring Device (Project Design) 2013-2014 Household Electricity Coin-slot Prepayment System (Input-Output System) 2013-2014 Flood Monitoring System (Microprocessor) 2012-2013 Online Faculty Subject Loading System (Software Eng’g) 2012-2013 Automated Parking Space System (Advance Logic Circuits) 2011-2012 Crowd Limiter System (Assembly Language) 2010-2011
  49. 49. RALDEY T. LAPE Purok 14, Antonio O. Floirendo, Panabo City, Philippines raldey_tecson@rocketmail.com (63) 910 – 289 – 1329 “Imagine, think, act, and perceive.” JOB EXPERIENCE Position: On-the-Job Trainee (Technical Operations Dept.) Company Name: PLDT – PhilCom Address: Km. 31, National Highway, Gredu, Panabo City Inclusion: April 8 – May 24, 2013 (255 Hours) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Bachelor Degree: University of Mindanao, Matina, Davao City Program: BS Computer Engineering (2008-2013) Secondary: Zion Christian School of Tanglaw, Inc. Elementary: Zion Christian School of Tanglaw, Inc. PROJECTS: (from recent to previous) Titles Academic Year Effectiveness of the Telemetric Flood Monitoring Device (Project Design) 2013-2014 Household Electricity Coin-slot Prepayment System (Input-Output System) 2013-2014 Flood Monitoring System (Microprocessor) 2012 - 2013 Automatic Power Switch for Laboratory Safety and Conservation of Energy (Advance Logic Circuits) 2012 - 2013 Wind Direction Detection (Assembly Language) 2011 - 2012

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