A development of a coin slot prepayment system for household electricity
DEVELOPMENT OF A COIN SLOT PREPAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY A Technical Research Presented to The Faculty of Computer Engineering Department University of Mindanao In Partial Fulfillment ofthe Requirement for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Computer Engineering Joebert S. Arquiola Ismael M. Dampac Dijie S. Osnan August, 2012
APPROVAL SHEET This technical research entitled “DEVELOPMENT OF A COINSLOT PREPAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOUSEHOLDELECTRICITY”prepared and submitted by JoebertArquiola, IsmaelDampac, and DijieOsnanhas been examined, accepted and is herebyendorsed. Engr. Rolieven P. Cañizares,MEP Thesis Adviser PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the committee on oral examination. Engr. Randy T. Angelia, CpE Chairperson Engr. Esther Consuelo Tan, MEPEngr. Lynneth C. Sorronda,PECE Member Member Accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree ofBachelor of Science in Computer Engineering. Engr. Charlito L. Cañesares Dean, College of Engineering University of Mindanao
Abstract The purpose of the study was to develop prepayment system electricityby coin slot machine and notifies the daily usage of electricity. In addition, thisstudy provides paperless so the end users may pay as much as they want aslong as they have a positive balance and also this prepayment system will beparticularly implemented in a boarding house.I. Introduction Electricity is most needed and become more important becauseeverything in our world today depends on having the power to keep themrunning and electricity services are essential for meeting all the basic humanneeds. This study provides the customer with convenient method of paying forthe electricity, particularly for those on low incomes or who find it difficult topay the electric bill as a whole. The study would provide the customerconvenient method to pay their electricity bill, especially those on low incomesor to those who find it difficult to pay the electric bill as a whole.Nowadays, anumber of apartments werestill implementing a mastered-metered form ofbilling in which allocation of the payment is divided number of apartmentunits. With this kind of setup, all consumers pay an exactly the same amountregardless of the consumer’s income, capability to pay and level ofconsumption, With then coin slot payment system, there will be no arrears to
collect and the tenant can control their budget for they can manage the use ofelectricity according to their needs. According to Robins (2010), more than half of all low-income familieswith a mortgage have struggled to pay their electricity. Between 9 per cent and11 per cent of households in the middle-income groups were similarlystruggling to pay their electricity bills. It was also found that low-incomehouseholds were more likely to seek help from their power supplier, as werehouseholds with three or more occupants, since they used more electricity andthus faced higher bills, or were renting or faced larger proportionate mortgagerepayments. The tribunal’s chief executive, Jim Cox, said it was clear low-income households with financial commitments such as a mortgage werefinding it hard to keep up. House Deputy Speaker Lorenzo Tañada said that the Philippines nowholds the unenviable record of having the highest cost of electricity in Asia,beating Japan, Singapore and its more developed neighbors. In addition, atP8.14 per kilowatt-hour, the price of electricity in the country is now thehighest in Asia that is why millions of Filipinos have been suffering fromspiralling costs of electricity and 14 million Filipino families have noelectricity in their homes (Diaz, 2011). According to Davao Light and Power Company (2011), the newdistribution rates were being approved by the Energy Regulatory Commissionand covering the period July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. For residentialcustomers the average increase is P0.1942 per kWhr. The impact to a
residential customer whose monthly usage is 175 kWhr is an increase in itstotal distribution charges of P33.99/month. Including the effect of VAT andfranchise tax, the increase will be P0.2192 per kWhr or P38.37/month. The proponents proposed to provide a convenient method of payingelectricity bill with budgeted amount of money. By the coin slot machine, thetenant will not be more attentive in collecting monthly bills.II. Objectives of the Study This research study aimed to design and develop a coin slot prepaymentsystem for household electricity. Specifically, the study was addressed: 1. To perform a function test 2. To present the cost of developing the systemIII. Significance of the Study Paying electricity bills every month can produce a problem especially tothose who have low income. In addition, some other community especially inthe squatters’ areas, most of the people who rented and lived there were justusing neighbourhoods’ mainline because they cannot afford to have their ownmainline. The development of a coin slot prepayment system for householdelectricity was intended only to those who cannot afford the monthly electricitybills as well as to those who used electricity when they need.IV. Target Beneficiaries / Clients This study benefited mostly the following:
End User.The output of this study helped them to avail electricity withrespect to their needs. Tenant. The coin slot prepayment system in household electricity couldcollect anytime the owner wants.V. Review of Related Literature This section presents different studies related to this applied research.Circuit Breaker Circuit breakers are a vital part of home safety. A basic understanding ofhow a circuit breaker works will help you troubleshoot any electric problemsand help you determine when it’s time to call an expert (Pickett, 2012). According to Harris (2011), the circuit breaker is an absolutely essentialdevice in the modern world, and one of the most important safety mechanismsin your home. Whenever electrical wiring in a building has too much currentflowing through it, these simple machines cut the power until somebody can fixthe problem. Without circuit breaker (or alternative, fuses), householdelectricity would be impractical because of the potential for fires and thiswould be result from simple wiring problems and equipment failures.Electricity Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomenaresulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include manyeasily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and theflow of electrical current in an electrical wire. In addition, electricity
compasses less familiar concepts such as the electromagnetic field andelectromagnetic induction (Bird, 2007). Henderson (2012) said that a commercial power company chargeshouseholds for the energy supplied on a monthly basis. The bill for the servicestypically states the amount of energy consumed during the month in unitsof kWhr. This unit is a power unit multiplied by a time unit is a unit of energy.A household typically pays the bill on the basis of the number of kWhr ofelectrical energy consumed during the month. Thus, the task of determining thecost of using a specific appliance for a specified period of time is quitestraightforward. The power must first be determined and converted to kW. Thispower must then be multiplied by the usage time in hours to obtain the energyconsumed in units of kWhr. Finally, this energy amount must be multiplied bythe cost of electricity on a currency/kWhr basis in order to determine the cost ina particular currency.Infrared Sensor Circuit According to Infrared (IR) Sensor (2012), this circuit is one of the mostbasic and popular sensor modules. In electronics, this sensor is analogous tohuman’s visionary senses which can be used to detect an obstacle which is oneof its common applications. In robotics, a group of such modules are used sothat a robot can follow a line pattern. IR sensor circuitis a circuit that includes use of electronic devices thatemit or receive through the detection of radiation to experience some aspects ofthe environment. Infrared (IR) sensor device normally used to detect the
temperature or the heat of an object and also the movement. When the sensor isonly intended to measure the level of infrared radiation only, not the other way,then it is usually called a Passive Infrared (PIR) sensor. Basically, that every object has or emits some form of thermal radiation.Radiation is invisible to our eyes, but usually this is in the infrared spectrum.For this reason,IR sensor circuitis required, which can receive and interpretradiation can be detected in the spectrum (The Basic of IR Sensor Circuit,2012).Peripheral Interface Controller According to Vysakh (2011), Peripheral Interface Controllers (PIC) isone of the advanced microcontrollers developed by microchip technologies.These microcontrollers are widely used in modern electronics applications. APIC controller integrates all type of advanced interfacing ports and memorymodules. These controllers are more advanced than normal microcontroller likeINTEL 8051. The first PIC chip was announced in 1975 (PIC1650). As likenormal microcontroller, the PIC chip also combines a microprocessor unitcalled CPU and is integrated with various types of memory modules (RAM,ROM, EEPROM, etc.), I/O ports, timers/counters, communication ports, etc. PIC is the IC which was developed to control peripherals devices,alleviating the load from the main CPU. Compared to a human being, the brainis the main CPU and the PIC is equivalent to the nervous system (What isPIC?, 2012).Prepaid System
According to Burns (2010), consumers of electricity these days nowhave the option on having their electricity put on prepaid or post-paid plans.Prepaid plan on electricity is where consumers deposit first or pay in advanceto be able to use electricity while post-paid plan is when a consumer pays forhis or her electricity after using it. For them to use more electricity they can justsimply load their accounts again and by loading their accounts regularly, theyalso eliminate the possibility of being disconnected from the electric company. An electric meter that has the capability to load the purchased energy, todisplay real time information on how the load is being consumed, and to give awarning that the load is close to zero providing positive buffer beforeelectricity is automatically disconnected. All prepaid meters should have anaverage accuracy of as close as possible to the condition of zero error beforethey are placed in service. Also, an electric service using a prepaid meteringsystem designed to allow a residential customer to purchase credit and then useelectricity until such time as the credit is exhausted (Republic Act No. 9136,2008).Relay A relay is a switch that is electrically controlled. A device can enablelarge signal from a smaller signal, it is like passing signals between two ormore different electronic circuit. This device is incorporated with aelectromagnet and 3 small metals. One of the small metals is movable andnormally pulled by a spring to connect on one of the 2 other metals. If theelectromagnet is saturated with a signal current the magnet will now pull the
moving metal and overpowering the spring, wherein the movable metal willchange it contact to the other metal from its normal contact state (Daintith,2004).Wattmeter The wattmeter is an instrument for measuring the electric power (or thesupply rate of electrical energy) in watts of any given circuit. The instrumentwhich measures electrical energy in watt hours (electricity meter or energyanalyzer) is essentially a wattmeter which accumulates or averages readings;many such instruments measure and can display many parameters and can beused where a wattmeter is needed: volts, ampere, apparent instantaneouspower, actual power, power factor, energy in kWh over a period of time, and acost of electricity were being consumed (Chisholm, 1991). Watt meters are often designed around dynamometer meter movements,which employs both voltage and current coils move a needle. In generalconstruction, the instrument resembles a Siemens electrodynamometer(Wattmeter design, 2009).VI. Scope and Delimitations This study focused in the way of paying electricity bills through coinslot machine. In this system, the proponents used peripheral interface controlleras a brain system, wattmeter for reading the electricity and circuit breaker for aconnection between the device and electricity provider. The installation ofdevice is in the mainline together with the connection of each room, a coin slotmachineand LCD.
The testing of the device will be done using three rooms only. Also, adrop of coins per transaction is limited to 12 drops. The value of one kilowatt-hour in standard counting of wattmeter is more or less 600 revolutions of itsdisc and the price of one kilowatt-hour is based from the Davao Lightcompany. However, the proponents lessen the 600 revolutions into 10revolutions equal to 1 kilowatt-hourfor demonstration purposes only. Below 1kilowatt-hour, the system will automatically disconnect the correspondingroom.VII. Methods Presented in this section are the process, diagrams, sketch, and theoverall design of the device. The block diagram describes the whole process of the device. As youturn on the device the PIC will perform the program. It will be the one tocontrol the circuit that will automatically connect or disconnect the main linesconnection to every room. The menu for the rooms, balance of wattage, and thedropped coins will be displayed in the LCD as also being controlled by thePIC. The sensors that are attach to every room electric meter will be the onewho will count the number of revolutions and send it automatically in the mainPIC and will communicate to the other PIC so that the system will know whento cut the connection.
Input Process Output KEY LCD BUTTON SENSOR PIC16F84A RELAY [ROOM1] [ROOM1] PIC16F877A SENSOR PIC16F84A RELAY [ROOM1] [ROOM2] SENSOR RELAY [ROOM1] PIC16F84A [ROOM3] Figure 1. Block Diagram of the SystemVIII. Findings of the Study In this section presents the results of the study Item Description Qty. Unit Unit Price Amount 2n222 30 Pieces P4.50 P135 2X16 LCD 1 Piece P350 P350 3mm Transparent Acrylic 1 Foot P180 P180 4 Gang 2-Pin Connector 1 Piece P78 P78 4MHz Crystal Oscillator 4 Pieces P40 P160 Angled Aluminum 12 Feet P230 P230 Bolt & Screw 30 Pieces P1 P30 Bosny Spray Paint 1 Piece P75 P75 Boysen Flat Wall Paint White 1 Piece P175 P175 Boysen Quick Dry Paint Black 1 Piece P90 P90
Breaker 20 Ampere 1 Piece P270 P270 Bulb 3 Pieces P30 P90 Buttons 5 Pieces P15 P75 Capacitor 100uf 10 Pieces P2 P20 Capacitor 22pf 10 Pieces P1 P10X. ReferencesBird, J. (2007).Electrical and electronic principles and technology (3rded.),Newnes, ISBN0-978-8556-6Burns, G. (2010). Prepaid and postpaid system for electricity. Retrieved on June 7, 2012, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Prepaid-and-Postpaid- System-for-Electricity&id=5396087Chisholm, H. (1911). In Encyclopedia Britannica (vol. 29, pp. 202).Huntingdon: Cambridge University Press.Daintith, J. (2004). A dictionary of computing. Retrieved on December
17, 2011, from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O11-relay.htmlDavao light implements new distribution rates. (2011). Retrieved on January 15, 2012, from http://www.davaolight.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article& catid=76%3Ajuly11&id=1085%3Adavao-light-implements-new- distribution-rates&Itemid=116Diaz, J. (2011). Phl power cost now highest in asia. Retrieved on January 14, 2012, from http://www.philstar.com/Article.aspx?publicationSubCategoryId=66&article Id=710471Harris, T. (2011).How circuit breakers work.Retrieved on January 15, 2012,fromhttp://electronics.howstuffworks.com/circuit-breaker.htmHenderson, T. (2012).Electricity: Electric Circuits. Retrieved on May 27, 2012, from http://www.physicsclassroom.com/calcpad/circuitsInfrared (ir) sensor. (2012). Retrieved on May 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.engineersgarage.com/electronic-circuit/infrared-ir-sensorPickett, M. (2012).Understanding circuit breakers. Retrieved on January 15, 2012, from http://www.servicemagic.com/article.show.Understanding- Circuit-Breakeers.14264.htmlRepublic Act No. 9136. (2008). Rules for prepaid retail electric service using a prepaid metering system. Retrieved on June 1, 2012, from http://www.erc.gov.ph/pdf/Draft%20Revised%20Rules%20for%20prepaid %20service%2011.11.08.pdfRobins, B. (2010). Low-income families, especially home buyers, struggle topay power bills. Retrieved on January 14, 2012, fromhttp://www.smh.com.au/lifestyle/life/lowincome-families-especially-homebuyers-struggle-to-pay-power-bills-20101216-18zqr.htmlThe basic of ir sensor circuit. (2012). Retrieved on May 28, 2012, fromhttp://www.hqew.net/circuit-diagram/IR-Sensor-Circuit_5884.htmlVysakh.(2011). Peripheral interface controller (pic). Retrieved on May 27, 2012, from http://www.circuitstoday.com/peripheral-interface-controller-picWattmeter design. (2011). Retrieved on December 19, 2011, fromhttp://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_1/chpt_8/11.htmlWhat is pic? (2012). Retrieved on January 14, 2012, from