Magna Carta• The Magna Carta was written in England in 1215.• It limited the rule of the monarchies by shifting power to the new government: Parliament.• It is a form of “rule of law” because no one is above Parliament.
Glorious Revolution• Took place in Englishtown, England• King William III became king• The Magna Carta changed the power of the kings forever.
English Bill of Rights• Written in 1689• It limited the power of the monarchs. It also limited British colonization.
The Enlightenment• Also called the Age of Reason.• It was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that mobilized the power of reason to reform society and advance knowledge.• It was important because it promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuse in the church and state.
Charles-Louis Montesquieu• He is from Gironde, France.• He is most famous for his articulations of the separation of powers.
John Locke• 1632-1704• He was from Somerset, England.• Natural Rights are universal, self-evident laws that aren’t contingent upon laws, customs, beliefs or any culture or government.
Jean Jacques Rousseau• 1712-1778• Born in the Republic of Geneva.• The Social Contract is a cornerstone in political/social thought.
Thomas Jefferson• He was from Shadwell,Virginia.• He is famous for writing the Declaration of Independence.• He changed “property” to “pursuit of happiness” because it was meant to represent a public happiness.