The Power Keg of Europe• World War I began in the Balkans.• It began because the Serbians killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand.• Franz Ferdinand was Archduke of Austria, and Royal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia.• The ﬁrst two countries involved in the war were Serbia and Austria.
Allies vs. Central Powers• The Allies included: Russia, Great Britain, France, Italy (switched sides) and the U.S.A.• The Central Powers included: Germany, Ottoman Empire and Italy (switched sides).
The Schlieffen Plan• France and Britain’s idea.• Objective was to encourage cooperation against the threat of Germany.
Total War• Total war is when someone mobilizes all available resources and population.• Stalemate is when two sides are equally matched and make no moves.• Trench warfare is when soldiers are stationary, and ﬁght for many months in trenches.
Key Battles of WWI• The 1st Marne: Germany, Great Britain and France fought at the Marne River near Paris. The Allies won. Important because it set the stage for four years of trench warfare on the Western Front.• The Second Marne: France, U.S., *Italy, Britain and Germany fought at the Marne. Allies won again. Important because it was the turning point of the war on the Western Front.
Key Battles Cont.• Gallipoli: France, Britain, U.S., India, Newfoundland, Ottoman Empire, Germany, Australia, Austria-Hungary, New Zealand, French West Africa fought at Gallipoli Peninsula, Ottoman Empire. Ottomans won. Laid grounds for Turkish War of Independence, Republic of Turkey, and birth of national consciousness in Australia and New Zealand.
Key Battles Cont.• Somme: U.K., France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Newfoundland and Germany fought at the Somme River. No one won, but the results were favored towards the Allies. One of the bloodiest battles ever recorded.• Verdun: France and Germany fought at Verdun sur Meuse in France. The French won. Longest and one of the most devastating battles in WWI and the history of warfare.
Bolshevik Revolution• Took place on November 7-8, 1917.• It was a political revolution and a part of the Russian Revolution of 1917.• It created Soviet Russia, ended the Russian Provisional Govt., Russian Republic and dual power, and it began the Russian Civil War.
U.S. Entry Into The War• Obligation to help Europeans against Germans, submarines sank.• Woodrow Wilson was president.• 1917 we entered the war.