Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity

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  • 1. Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity Andreas Gros 29 October 2008
  • 2. Interactions in the evolution of dispersal distance and emigration propensity 1. Introduction • Thesis overview • Important factors 2. Detailed view on (a) Local adaptations (b) Sex-biased dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. Introduction - Dispersal Why study dispersal? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 5. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User eco-photography CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 6. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User Imbaker CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 7. Introduction - Dispersal Image: c User crustmania CC-License: CC-BY-NC-ND 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 8. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 9. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 10. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 11. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 12. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 13. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 14. Introduction - Work overview Work overview: • With Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies • dispersal under distance dependent costs • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs • sex-biased dispersal under asymmetric competition • With Ulf Dieckmann (IIASA, Laxenburg) • Evolution of dispersal kernels • With Martin Wegmann (Uni Wurzburg) ¨ • Analysis of patch irreplacibility Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 15. Introduction - Dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 16. Introduction - Dispersal Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the permanent movement an individual makes from its birth site to the place where it reproduces or would have reproduced had it survived and found a mate.” (Howard,1960) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 17. Introduction - Dispersal Actively moving organisms “Dispersal is the permanent movement an individual makes from its birth site to the place where it reproduces or would have reproduced had it survived and found a mate.” (Howard,1960) Sessile organisms “Dispersal includes all mechanisms leading to the displacement of offspring away from the position of the mother.” (Hovestadt, 2005) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 18. Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal • Costs: • Dispersal mortality • Investment in dispersal mechanism instead of fertility • Time spent on dispersal Image: c User spinedoc18 CC-License: CC-BY-NC 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 19. Introduction - Costs and benefits of dispersal • Costs: • Benefits: • Dispersal mortality • Avoidance of • Investment in (kin-)competition dispersal mechanism • Avoidance of instead fertility inbreeding depression • Time spent on • Avoidance of bad dispersal conditions Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 20. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 21. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays be- cause of demographic benefits Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 22. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Does dispersal still pay? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 23. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays • because you can compete with non-siblings Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 24. Introduction - Driving factor Kin-competition • Dispersal pays • because you can compete with non-siblings • and your relatives have the chance to rear more offspring Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 25. Thesis chapters Detailed view on two chapters of my thesis: • Evolution of • local adaptations in dispersal strategies (Gros et. al, 2006)1 • sex-biased dispersal under sex-specific dispersal costs (Gros et. al, 2008) 2 1 Gros, A., Poehtke, H.J., Hovestadt, T., 2006. Oikos 114: 544-552 2 Gros, A., Hovestadt, T., Poehtke, H.J., 2008. Ecological Modelling 219: 226-233 Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 26. Local adaptations
  • 27. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 28. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 29. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 30. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 31. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border • dispersal destroys local adaptation Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 32. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies 4 factors play a role: • increase in costs towards the border • decrease in competition towards the border • dispersal destroys local adaptation • kin-competition drives dispersal Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 33. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies The questions: • Do we find local adaptation? • If yes, under which conditions can local adaptation evolve? Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 34. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: annual clonal plants on an island Image: c User Aaron Escobar 2008 CC-BY via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 35. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 36. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 37. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 38. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 39. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 40. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How far to disperse one’s offspring on an island? X Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 41. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How do the corresponding phenotypes look like? Image: c User Roger Smith 2006 CC-BY-NC-ND via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 42. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • How do the corresponding phenotypes look like? dispersal kernel 1.0 mean distance = 1 mean distance = 2 0.8 probability density 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 distance Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 43. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • Resulting seed density Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 44. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: plants on an island • The model: A1 A2 A3 A4 Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 45. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies • The system: plants on an island Different dispersal functions: kernel prob. density traits Global (G) Gp Nearest Neighbour (NN) Gp Neg. Exp. (NE) Gd Neg. Exp.+ (NE+) G d , Gp Skewed (S) Gd Skewed+ (S+) G d , Gp Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 46. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 47. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 48. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 49. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 island (patch) size is most important determinant for dispersal distance 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 50. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Results 6 big patch (radius 150) small patch (radius 25) mean dispersal distance 5 A1 A2 A3 A4 4 minimum patch size necessary for local adaptation 3 2 1 A1 A2 A3 A4 center rim area number Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 51. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 52. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 53. Evolution of local adaptations in dispersal strategies Summary • Island size strongly influences dispersal distances • Local adaptations evolve only above a certain habitat size • Below that size the cost-benefit profile of dispersal is too weak and local adaptation is completely destroyed by dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 54. Sex-biased dispersal
  • 55. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 56. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Image: c User nkenji 2007 CC-BY-NC-ND via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 57. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) Image: c User mecocrus 2006 CC-BY-NC-SA via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 58. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding • Sex-biased dispersal 1. female-biased (often in birds) 2. male-biased (often in mammals) It is unclear • under which circumstances sex-biased dispersal evolves, and • which factors determine exactly which gender becomes more dispersive 3 3 Image: c User mecocrus 2006 CC-BY-NC-SA via Flickr Kokko, H. & Jennions, M. D., 2008. Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. J. Evol. Biol. 21, 919-948. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 59. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 60. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 61. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 62. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff ... or costs Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 63. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Explanations for sex-biased dispersal: • avoidance of inbreeding depression • differences in competition about reproductive resources • differences in dispersal payoff ... or costs Differences in dispersal costs are an obvious reason for biased dispersal, but can they explain big sex-biases in dispersal propensity – especially when the cost differences are small? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 64. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 65. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 66. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world • N breeding territories per patch • annual, sexually reproducing species • monogamous pairs • pairs with territory get an N=10 equal number of offspring • individuals have two loci: dm , df Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 67. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding The model • patch-matrix world • N breeding territories per patch • annual, sexually reproducing species • monogamous pairs c c • pairs with territory get an N=10 equal number of offspring • individuals have two loci: c c dm , df • dispersal mortality c • disperser pick patch randomly Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 68. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 69. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 70. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Rb > c Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 71. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: Rb > c R−c ∗ R−c2 if R > c ⇒d = 0 if R ≤ c Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 72. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding Given the costs c, how many sib- lings should disperse? • Kin-selection theory states: 1.0 c = 0.4 Rb > c 0.8 dispersal probability d 0.6 R−c ∗ R−c2 if R > c ⇒d = 0.4 0 if R ≤ c 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 relatedness R Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 73. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does it look like for sex- specific costs? Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 74. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does it look like for sex- specific costs? R−cf R−c2 if R > cf d∗ f = f 0 if R ≤ cf R−cm R−c2 if R > cm d∗ m = m 0 if R ≤ cm Image: c User Andrew Pescod CC-BY-NC-SA 2006 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 75. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 76. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 77. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 78. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 79. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 a b c 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 80. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does a difference in dispersal mortality influence dispersal? Results from the numerical model difference = 2 % difference = 5 % difference = 10 % 0.5 0.5 0.5 Small differences in dispersal mortality can cause big a b c differences in evolving dispersal propensities. 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 N = 10 df , dm 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 c c c Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 81. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 82. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 83. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal > female dispersal male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 female dispersal > male dispersal 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 84. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? high inbreeding > c, no difference 1.0 0.8 male dispersal > female dispersal male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 female dispersal > male dispersal 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 85. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = 0.6, c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 86. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 87. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 male dispersal 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 88. Evolution of sex-biased dispersal: the role of sex-specific dispersal costs, demographic stochasticity, and inbreeding How does the evolutionary outcome depend on inbreeding-depression? inbreeding = c = 0.4, difference = 10 % 1.0 0.8 Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity, especially in combination with male dispersal 0.6 inbreeding depression 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 female dispersal Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 89. Summary Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 90. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 91. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. • In combination with inbreeding depression the dispersal bias increases. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 92. Summary • Small cost differences in dispersal can explain big biases in dispersal propensity. • In combination with inbreeding depression the dispersal bias increases. • Local adaptations to habitat conditions are only possible, if the habitat is big enough. Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 93. Outlook Questions for future research Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 94. Outlook Image: c User Ron Layters CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2008 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 95. Outlook Image: c User Kevin Saff CC-License: CC-BY-SA 2005 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 96. Outlook • There’s now not only heterogeneity in space, but increasingly also in time. Image: c User Kevin Saff CC-License: CC-BY-SA 2005 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 97. Outlook • What are the rates of change of habitat conditions in space and time that species can adapt to? • What are the predictions for changes in dispersal strategies? • Do we need to develop dedicated protection strategies for genders? Image: c User cliff1066 CC-License: CC-BY 2008 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 98. Thank you to Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 99. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 100. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 101. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 102. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 103. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members • all the people that I forgot to mention Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 104. Thank you to • Thomas Hovestadt and Hans Joachim Poethke • all people from the Field Station • my partner Pleuni Pennings • all family members • all the people that I forgot to mention • the DFG for financial support (DFG PO 244/3-1) Image: c User TerenceKearns.com CC-License: CC-BY-NC-SA 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 105. Thank you Thank you for your attention! Image: c User Elron6900 CC-License: CC-BY-NC 2007 via Flickr Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 106. Questions? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008
  • 107. Questions? Questions? Andreas Gros 29.10.2008