Psych Amygdala Presentation
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Psych Amygdala Presentation Psych Amygdala Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • The Amygdala By: Alinka, Harel, Vjosa
  • General Information; Location
    • General Location
    • 1-inch-long structure
    • Group nuclei situated beneath the cortex
    • Beneath the surface of the temporal lobe
    • on the tip of the long hippocampus cord
    • Few inches from the ear
    • Parts of Amygdala
      • Basolateral Amygdala
      • Central Amygdala
      • Ventral Amygdala
      • Dorsal Amygdala
  • General Information; Function
    • Feelings of lust, curiosity, fear
    • Part in storage of emotional memories
      • Processes & assigns emotional "value" to received sensory input
      • Through connection with the hypothalamus, it appears to have some mediating effect on the "fight-or-flight”
      • Response that occurs when an individual is confronted with a dangerous situation
  • Study #1
    • Aim: Determine the volume in the amygdala in a series of brains post-mortems
    • Procedure:
      • Amygdala volume was estimated using point-counting in both hemispheres of brains of 10 male and 8 female patients with schizophrenia
      • Had a comparison group of 9 male and 9 female post-mortems without neuropsychiatric disorder
    • Results: No significant reduction of amygdala found 
  • Study #2
    • Aim: Examine neural activity in amygdala during episodes of mania. 
    • Procedure:
      • 9 manic participants & 9 healthy comparison subjects underwent fMRI while performing a neuropsychological paradigm
      • Experimental Task: participants look at faces displaying affection
      • Control task: geometric forms
      • Goal: Match them to one of two similar images presented at same time
    • Results: Manic participants had significantly increased activation in the left amygdala and reduced bilateral activation in the lateral orbit frontal cortex relative to the comparison participants.
  • Study #3
    • Aim: Investigate what happens in the amygdala during and after phobia treatment
    • Procedure:
      • Examined brain activity of 18 people with social phobia as they spoke in front of a group using PET scans
      • 1/3 of the participants received 9 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy
      • 1/3 received Citalopram and 1/3 received no treatment.
      • Participants were tested again, using the same public speaking task, at 9 weeks and again after one year.
    • Results: Activation in the amygdala and related cortical areas at 9 weeks could predict which people's symptoms would improve after one year
  • Dysfunction
    • Anxiety
    • Autism
    • Depression
    • Post-traumatic stress disorder
    • Phobias
    • Temporal lobe epilepsy the brain
    • Inability to recognize facial expressions
    • Memory
    • Mood
    • Other psychiatric disorders
  • Causes of Disfunction
    • Damage by injury
    • Developmental problems
    • Neurotransmitter imbalance
    • Binge drinking
  • Bibliography of Studies:
    • Study #1:
      • Chance, S. A., Esiri, M. M., & Crow, T. J. (2002). Amygdala Volume in      Schizophrenia: Post-mortem Study and Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging      Findings . Abstract retrieved from bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/reprint/180/4/      331.pdf
    • Study #2:
      • Altschuler, L., M.D., Mazziotta, J., M.D., Ph.D., Firestine, A., B.A.,      Bartzokis, G., M.D., Mintz, J., Ph.D., & Bookheimer, S., Ph.D. (2005,      June). Increased Amygdala Activation During Mania: A Functional Magnetic      Resonance Imaging Study. Abstract retrieved from UCLA, American Psychiatric      Association, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System website:       http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/162/6/1211
    • Study #3:
      • Furmark, T., Ph.D., & Fredrikson, M., PhD. (2005, July). Figuring out Phobias .      Abstract retrieved from American Psychological Association website:       http://www.anxietyandstress.com/specificphobias.html
  • Sources
    • (&quot;Brain.&quot; Reviewed by Robert L. Knobler.  Encyclopedia Americana . 2010. Grolier Online. 31 Mar. 2010 <http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0058500-00>.
    • http://www.anxietyandstress.com/specificphobias.html
    • http://biopsychiatry.com/amygdala.htm
    • http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/med532/amygdala.htm
    • http://www.benbest.com/science/anatmind/anatmd9.html
    • http://annarivermount.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/citalopram.jpg
    • http://www.capersonalinjurycaselawnotes.com/uploads/image/PET%20scan.jpg
    • http://images.learningresources.com/images/products/en_us/detail/prod0912_dt.jpg
    • http://www.fz-juelich.de/inm/datapool/Antomicalimaging/04.jpg
    • http://www.liminalmusic.org/files/amygdala1.gif
    • http://www.efeld.com/fmscience/images/amygdala%20circuits.gif