The Amygdala By: Alinka, Harel, Vjosa
General Information;  Location <ul><li>General Location </li></ul><ul><li>1-inch-long structure </li></ul><ul><li>Group nu...
<ul><li>Parts of Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basolateral  Amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Amygdala </li></u...
General Information;  Function <ul><li>Feelings of lust, curiosity, fear </li></ul><ul><li>Part in storage of emotional me...
Study #1 <ul><li>Aim:  Determine the volume in the amygdala in a series of brains post-mortems </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure...
Study #2 <ul><li>Aim:  Examine neural activity in amygdala during episodes of mania.  </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure:  </li><...
Study #3 <ul><li>Aim:  Investigate what happens in the amygdala during and after phobia treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Proced...
Dysfunction  <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Autism  </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Post-traumatic stres...
Causes of Disfunction <ul><li>Damage by injury </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental problems </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter...
Sources <ul><li>(&quot;Brain.&quot; Reviewed by Robert L. Knobler.  Encyclopedia Americana . 2010. Grolier Online. 31 Mar....
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our psych

  1. 1. The Amygdala By: Alinka, Harel, Vjosa
  2. 2. General Information; Location <ul><li>General Location </li></ul><ul><li>1-inch-long structure </li></ul><ul><li>Group nuclei situated beneath the cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Beneath the surface of the temporal lobe </li></ul><ul><li>on the tip of the long hippocampus cord </li></ul><ul><li>Few inches from the ear </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Parts of Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basolateral Amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral Amygdala </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal Amygdala </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General Information; Function <ul><li>Feelings of lust, curiosity, fear </li></ul><ul><li>Part in storage of emotional memories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes & assigns emotional &quot;value&quot; to received sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through connection with the hypothalamus, it appears to have some mediating effect on the &quot;fight-or-flight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response that occurs when an individual is confronted with a dangerous situation </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Study #1 <ul><li>Aim: Determine the volume in the amygdala in a series of brains post-mortems </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amygdala volume was estimated using point-counting in both hemispheres of brains of 10 male and 8 female patients with schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had a comparison group of 9 male and 9 female post-mortems without neuropsychiatric disorder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: No significant reduction of amygdala found  </li></ul>
  6. 6. Study #2 <ul><li>Aim: Examine neural activity in amygdala during episodes of mania.  </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 manic participants & 9 healthy comparison subjects underwent fMRI while performing a neuropsychological paradigm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental Task: participants look at faces displaying affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control task: geometric forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal: Match them to one of two similar images presented at same time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: Manic participants had significantly increased activation in the left amygdala and reduced bilateral activation in the lateral orbit frontal cortex relative to the comparison participants. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Study #3 <ul><li>Aim: Investigate what happens in the amygdala during and after phobia treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examined brain activity of 18 people with social phobia as they spoke in front of a group using PET scans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 of the participants received 9 weeks of cognitive-behavioral therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 received Citalopram and 1/3 received no treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants were tested again, using the same public speaking task, at 9 weeks and again after one year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results: Activation in the amygdala and related cortical areas at 9 weeks could predict which people's symptoms would improve after one year </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dysfunction <ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Post-traumatic stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe epilepsy the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to recognize facial expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Other psychiatric disorders </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes of Disfunction <ul><li>Damage by injury </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental problems </li></ul><ul><li>Neurotransmitter imbalance </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sources <ul><li>(&quot;Brain.&quot; Reviewed by Robert L. Knobler.  Encyclopedia Americana . 2010. Grolier Online. 31 Mar. 2010 <http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0058500-00>. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.anxietyandstress.com/specificphobias.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://biopsychiatry.com/amygdala.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.sci.uidaho.edu/med532/amygdala.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.benbest.com/science/anatmind/anatmd9. html </li></ul><ul><li>http://annarivermount.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/citalopram.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.capersonalinjurycaselawnotes.com/uploads/image/PET%20scan.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://images.learningresources.com/images/products/en_us/detail/prod0912_dt.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.fz-juelich.de/inm/datapool/Antomicalimaging/04.jpg </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.liminalmusic.org/files/amygdala1.gif </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.efeld.com/fmscience/images/amygdala%20circuits.gif </li></ul>
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