Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory Manual

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Energy Conversion Engineering laboratory manual prepared by Hareesha N G, Asst. Prof., Dept of Aerospace, DSCE, Bangalore, for BE Students under VTU. Sub code:10AEL57

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Energy Conversion Engineering Laboratory Manual

  1. 1. DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ENERGY CONVERSION ENGINEERING LABORATORY MANUAL Sub Code: 10AEL58 2015-2016 COMPILED BY : HAREESHA N G Asst. Professor Dept of Aeronautical Engg DSCE, Bangalore-78
  2. 2. i TABLE OF CONTENTS S.N. PARTICULARS Page No. 1 Vision and mission statement of Institution and Department ii 2 Syllabus as per University iii 3 List of Experiments in Part-A and Part-B iv 4 Course Objectives and Course Outcomes v 5 Experiment No. 1: Abel‟s Flash Point Apparatus 1 6 Experiment No. 2: Pensky Marten‟s Flash Point Apparatus 4 7 Experiment No. 3: Junkers Gas Calorimeter 7 8 Experiment No.4 : Boys Gas Calorimeter 10 9 Experiment No. 5: Redwood Viscometer 13 10 Experiment No. 6: Saybolt Viscometer 17 11 Experiment No. 7: TORSION VISCOMETER 21 12 Experiment No. 8: Port Timing Diagrm 24 13 Experiment No. 9: Valve Timing Diagram (Vtd) 26 14 Experiment No. 10: Use Of Analog Planimeter 29 15 Experiment 11: 2-Stroke Single Cylinder Air Cooled Petrol Engine 34 16 Experiment 12: 4-Stroke Single Cylinder Diesel Engine 39 17 Experiment 13:4 Stroke Petrol Engine 46 18 Experiment 14: Variable Compression Ratio, 4 Stroke Petrol Engine 52 19 Experiment 15: Multi Cylinder Petrol Engine Test Rig 58 20 Viva Questions 65
  3. 3. ii DAYANANDA SAGAR INSTITUTIONS VISION To be a centre of excellence in education, research & training and to produce human resource of exceptional leadership quality to serve national needs. MISSION To achieve our objectives in an environment that enhances creativity, innovation and scholarly pursuits within the stated values. DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEEERING VISION To develop the department as one of the finest, competitive with International Standards in the field of Aerospace Engineering to provide human resource of high technical caliber and excellent leadership qualities to serve the national needs. MISSION To provide the best teaching, learning and research environment so as to achieve a Centre of Excellence in Aerospace Engineering and to produce quality and innovative, readily employable professionals with ethics and human values, capable of adopting to the challenges of the technologically transforming world.
  4. 4. iii SYLLABUS AS PER VTU ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY Subject Code : 10AEL58 IA Marks: 25 No. of Lecture Hrs/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total no. of Lecture Hrs : 42 Exam Marks: 50 PART - A (INDIVIDUAL EXPERIMENTS) 1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Abel Pensky and Pensky Martins Apparatus. 2) Determination of Caloric value of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels. 3) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods, Saybolts and Torsion Viscometers. 4) Valve, Timing/port opening diagram of an I.C. engine (4 stroke/ 2stroke). 5) Use of planimeter. 21 Hours PART - B (GROUP EXPERIMENTS) Performance Tests on I.C. Engines, Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP, heat balance sheet for a) Four stroke Diesel Engine b) Four stroke Petrol Engine c) Multi-cylinder Diesel/Petrol Engine, (Morse test) d) Two stroke Petrol Engine e) Variable Compression Ratio I.C. Engine 21 Hours
  5. 5. iv LIST OF EXPERIMENTS PART-A 1) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of diesel using Abel Pensky Apparatus 2) Determination of Flash point and Fire point of lubricating oil using Pensky Martins Apparatus 3) Determination of Caloric value of gaseous fuel using JUNKER’S gas Calorimeter 4) Determination of Caloric value of gaseous fuel using BOYS gas Calorimeter 5) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Redwoods Viscometer 6) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Saybolts Viscometer 7) Determination of Viscosity of lubricating oil using Torsion Viscometer 8) Port opening diagram of 2 stroke petrol engine 9) Valve Timing diagram of 4 stroke Diesel Engine 10) Use of Digital/Analog Plani-meter PART-B 11) Performance Test on Two stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC and to prepare heat balance sheet 12) Performance Test on Four stroke Diesel Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet. 13) Performance Test on Four stroke Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC and to prepare heat balance sheet 14) Performance Test on Variable Compression Ratio, 4S Petrol Engine. Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet 15) Performance Test on Multi-cylinder Petrol Engine (Morse test). Calculations of IP, BP, Thermal efficiencies, SFC, FP and to prepare heat balance sheet
  6. 6. v ENERGY CONVERSION LABORATORY COURSE OBJECTIVES: 1) To familiarize with the flash point, fire point, viscosity of lubricating oils and other liquid fuels. 2) To study the behavior of lubricating oil and other liquid fuels and to plot response curves. 3) To understand calorific value of fuels and to determine the calorific value of fuels of different forms. 4) To study IC engine parts and opening and closing of valves/ports of an IC engine and to draw the valve timing/port opening diagram. 5) To understand the use of planimeter and use the planimeter to measure irregular area. 6) To conduct the performance test on different IC engines and to draw performance curves and heat balance sheet. COURSE OUTCOMES: After completion of this course, students will be able to: 1) Operate instruments and measurement systems to measure BP, FP , IP, AF ratio etc. 2) Write reports describing experimental setups, data collection, data analysis and data presentation. 3) Calculate the output power and input power of an IC engine and find the efficiency of the engine. 4) Predict flash point, fire point, viscosity of given lubricating oil and to predict the suitable operating temperature. 5) Estimate the calorific value given fuel and compare the different fuels based on their calorific values.
  7. 7. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 1 Experiment No. 1: ABEL’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS AIM: To determine the flash point of kerosene by Abel‟s flash point apparatus. APPARATUS: Abel‟s flash point apparatus, Thermometers. THEORY: Flash point: The flash point is the lowest temperature, to which a lubricant must be heated before its vapor, when mixed with air, will ignite but not continue to burn. Fire point: The fire point is the temperature at which lubricant combustion will be sustained. The flash and fire points are useful in determining a lubricant‟s volatility and fire resistance. The flash point can be used to determine the transportation and storage temperature requirements for lubricants. Lubricant producers can also use the flash point to detect potential product contamination. A lubricant exhibiting a flash point significantly lower than normal will be suspected of contamination with a volatile product. Products with a flash point less than 38o C (100o F) will usually require special precautions for safe handling. The fire point for a lubricant is usually 8 to 10 percent above the flash point. The flash point and fire point should not be confused with the auto-ignition temperature of a lubricant, which is the temperature at which a lubricant will ignite spontaneously without an external ignition source. Outline of the methods: The sample is placed in the cup of the Abel apparatus and heated at a prescribed rate. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals and the flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at which application of the test flame will cause the vapour above the sample to ignite with a distinct flash inside the cup. DESCRIPTION: The Abel‟s flash point apparatus is mainly used to determine the flash point of fuel oils flashing between 22 0 C to 49 0 C. It consists of a sealed water bath with a provision of an air chamber to hold the oil cup and circulate cold water for below ambient determination and an external heater for above ambient determinations. The oil cup is provided with a lid and sliding ports for the introduction of test flame. Within the oil cup a circular marking to
  8. 8. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 2 indicate the level of oil to be taken for the test. The whole arrangement is mounted on a cylindrical enclosed stand. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: B A D S C T T w E ABELS FLASH POINT APPARATUS 1 2 3 4 5 6 PARTS NAME 1. THERMOMETERES 2. STIRRER 3. TESTING FLUID 4. COPPER JAR 5. WATER BATH 6. ELECTRICAL COIL Fig.1: Experimental setup of Abel’s Flash point apparatus PROCEDURE: 1) Clean the oil cup with any solvent and wipe it dry. 2) Fill water into the water jacket to its full level and insert into the cylindrical stand. 3) Pour water into the air chamber, which surrounds the oil cup to a depth of 38 mm. 4) Pour fuel oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the circular mark and place the oil cup into the air chamber of the water bath. 5) Close it with the lid having sliding ports. 6) Insert the water and oil thermometers in their respective holders. 7) Keep the entire set up on a heater and heat the water at a very slow rate. 8) Maintain a low flame on the wick and apply the flame to the oil surface by sliding the port at every 20 rise in temperature of the oil under test. 9) Record the temperature at which the first flash occurs and report as flash point. 10) To determine the flash point of fuel oils below room temperature, circulate cold water in the water bath to at least 15 0 C below the expected flash point of the fuel oil sample and follow steps 8 & 9.
  9. 9. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 3 OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN Type of oil Used: S.N. Temperature Observation (Yes or No) Flash Point Fire Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULTS: The flash point of given oil is = o C The fire point of given oil is = o C
  10. 10. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 4 Experiment No. 2: PENSKY MARTEN’S FLASH POINT APPARATUS AIM: To determine the flash point of Diesel by Pensky Marten‟s apparatus. APPARATUS: Pensky Marten‟s apparatus, thermometers. THEORY: In the Pensky-Marten‟s closed cup flash point test, a brass test cup is filled with a test specimen and fitted with a cover. The sample is heated and stirred at specified rates depending on what it is that's being tested. An ignition source is directed into the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring until a flash that spreads throughout the inside of the cup is seen. The corresponding temperature is its flash point. Pensky-Martens closed cup is sealed with a lid through which the ignition source can be introduced periodically. The vapour above the liquid is assumed to be in reasonable equilibrium with the liquid. Closed cup testers give lower values for the flash point (typically 5-10 K) and are a better approximation to the temperature at which the vapour pressure reaches the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL). Outline of Method: the sample is heated in a test cup at a slow and constant rate with continuous stirring. A small test flame is directed into the cup at regular intervals with simultaneous interruption of stirring. The flash point is taken as the lowest temperature at which the application of the test flame causes the vapour above the sample to ignite momentarily. DESCRIPTION: This apparatus is used to determine the flash point of fuel oils and lubricating oils. Flashing above 49 0 C. It consists of an oil cup with a circular marking for oil level indication. A lid to cover the oil cup with sliding shutters with ports, oil stirring mechanism and dipping wick holder, cast iron oil cup holder (air bath), electric heater with control.
  11. 11. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 5 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Fig.2: Pensky Martens apparatus PROCEDURE: 1) Install the apparatus on a table near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps single-phase power source. Keep the electrical heater on the table. Position the oil cup holder (air bath) on the heater. Insert the oil cup into the bath and position it. 2) Pour oil to be tested into the oil cup up to the mark. 3) Close the lid. 4) Connect the heater to the electrical power source and heat the oil at a slow steady rate of 20 C /min with the help of the regulator. Keep stirring the oil with the stirring mechanism. 5) Maintain a small flame on the wick. 6) Introduce the flame to the oil surface by operating the circular handle, which makes the maintained flame to dip into the oil cup by opening the shutter. This is done at every half minute, only after the sample oil reaches 150 to 17 0 C before the expected flash point. 7) Record the temperature at which first flash occurs and report as flash point of the sample oil. 8) To stop the experiment, switch of the heater and allow it to cool.
  12. 12. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 6 OBSERVATION AND TABULAR COLUMN: Type of oil Used: S.N. Temperature Observation (Yes or No) Flash Point Fire Point 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULTS: The flash point of given oil is = o C The fire point of given oil is = o C
  13. 13. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 7 Experiment No. 3: JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER AIM: To determine calorific value of gaseous fuel by Junkers gas calorimeter APPARATUS: Junkers gas calorimeter, Gas geyser, LPG Gas EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 1 2 3 4 5 67 8 9 10 11 12 JUNKERS GAS CALORIMETER PARTS NAME 1. THERMOMETERS 2. COOLING WATER OUTLET 3. EQUALIZING CHAMBER 4. COPPER CHIMMNEY 5. CONDENSATE 6. PRESSURE REGULATOR 7. GAS METER 8. GASEOUS FUEL THERMOMETER 9. MANOMETER 10. BURNER 11. WATER 12. COOLING WATER INLET Fig.3: Experimental setup of junker’s gas calorimeter DESCRIPTION: The apparatus mainly consists of a cylindrical shell with copper coil arranged in two pass configurations with water inlet and outlet to circulate through the copper coil, a pressure regulator, a wet type gas flow meter & a gas Bunsen burner, temperature sensors for measuring inlet, outlet water temperature, and for flue gas temperature, a 2000ml measuring jar. Determination of calorific value (heat value) of combustible gases is essential to assess the amount of heat given away by the gas while burning a known amount of gas to heat a known amount of fluid (water) in a closed chamber.
  14. 14. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 8 PROCEDURE: 1. Install the equipment on a flat rigid platform near an uninterrupted continuous water source of ½” size and a drain pipe. 2. Connect the gas source to the pressure regulator, gas flow meter and the burner respectively in series 3. Insert the thermometer / temperature sensors, into their respective places to measure water inlet and outlet temperatures and a thermometer to measure the flue gas temperature at the flue gas outlet 4. Start the water flow through the calorimeter at a study constant flow rate and allow it to drain through over flow. 5. Start the gas flow slowly and light the burner out side the calorimeter 6. Regulate the flow of gas at a steady rate to any designed flow (Volume) 7. Insert the burner into the calorimeter and allow the out let water temperature to attain a steady state 8. Swing the out let to a 1000 ml jar and start. The stop watch simultaneously, record the initial gas flow meter reading at the same time 9. Note down the time taken to fill 1000ml and at the same time the final gas flow reading recorded by the gas flow meter 10. Tabulate all the reading and calculate the calorific valve of the gas under test 11. Repeat the experiment by varying the water flow rate or gas flow for different conditions. 12. After the experiment is over stop the gas flow, water flow, and drain the water from the calorimeter, keep the equipment clean & dry. OBSERVATIONS: Time taken to collect 1 liter of water = _________ sec Volume of gas burnt Vg = ______________ liters
  15. 15. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 9 TABULAR COLUMN: S. N Volume of water collected in liter (Vw) Volume of gas Burnt in liter (Vg) Water inlet Temperature T1 o C Water outlet Temperature T2 o C Change in Temp of water ΔT= (T2-T1) Cv of gas KCal/kg 1 1 2 1 CALCULATION: gg www gas V TCPV CV      Where Vg = Volume of gas burnt in liters Vw = Volume of water collected in liter Density of water w = 1000 Kg/m3 Density of gas g = 0.22 Kg/m3 Specific heat of water= Cpw = 1 K Cal/kg K RESULT: Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is = K Cal/Kg
  16. 16. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 10 Experiment No.4 BOYS GAS CALORIMETER AIM: To determine the calorific value of gaseous fuel by Boy‟s Gas Calorimeter. APPARATUS: Gas calorimeter, gas cylinder (small), digital weighing balance, Rotameter, control valves, pipe connections and Temperature indicator with Thermocouples (RTD). Fig.4: Experimental setup of Boys gas calorimeter DISCRIPTION: This calorimeter is intended for the purpose of determining, the “Calorific Value of Gaseous Fuel”, experimentally. The method is based on heat transfer from burning the known quantity of gaseous fuel for heating the known quantity of water that circulates in a copper coil heat exchanger. With the assumption that the heat absorbed by the circulating water is equal to the heat released from the gaseous fuel, is accurate enough for calculation of calorific value. The gaseous fuel from the cylinder, which is kept on a weighing scale passes through the pipe connected to the burner of the calorimeter with a control valve. Water connection from a water source of 15-mm tap size is connected to the calorimeter through a Rotameter to circulate through the calorimeter. Temperature measurement is made on a digital temperature Indicator with RTD sensors located at inlet and outlet water connections. Weight of gas burnt is directly indicated by the digital weighing scale in Kg. Amount of water flowing through the calorimeter is indicated by the Rotameter in LPM. The Digital temperature indicator indicates the inlet and outlet water temperature.
  17. 17. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 11 PROCEDURE: 1) Install the equipment near a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps, Single-phase power source (power socket) and an un interrupted water source of 15 mm tap size. 2) Keep the gas cylinder on the weighing scale, connect the rubber tube with regulator to gas cylinder and calorimeter. Keep the regulator closed. 3) Connect the un interrupted water source to the inlet of the Rotameter through control valve with a suitable flexible hose and the out let to drain. 4) Switch “on” the electrical main switch as well as the digital balance switch. Now the digital balance indicates some reading. Tare the cylinder weight to “zero”. 5) Open the gas control valve, allow water into the calorimeter by opening Rotameter control valve, as the water starts flowing into the calorimeter ignition takes place automatically and starts burning. Adjust the water flow rate to any desired value by operating the Rota meter control valve and allow the calorimeter to stabilize. 6) Note down the readings indicated by the digital balance, Rota meter and temperature indicator (inlet & outlet). 7) Repeat the experiment by changing the flow rate of water. 8) Tabulate the readings and calculate the calorific value of the gaseous fuel. NOTE: Density of water (ρ) = 1gm/cc 1 liter of water = 1kg of water TABULAR COLUMN: Sl. No. Water flow Rate Weight of gas in Kg Difference w=w2-w1 inKg Timeforw Kg(t)in sec Gasflow (Wf)Kg/sec Water Temperature Calorific Value Cv Kgcal / kgTin 0 C Tout 0 C T 0 CLPM LPS Kg/sec (Ww) Initial (w1) Final (w2) 1. 2.5 2. 2.0 3. 1.5 4. 1.0 5. 0.5
  18. 18. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 12 CALCULATION: 1) Water flow rate in Liters per Second (LPS) = LPM/60 2) Water flow rate in Kg/S (Ww)= LPS;Since 1 liter = 1kg of water 3) Gas flow rate in Kg/S (Wf) = Ww/t 4) Change in water temperature in o C ΔT = Tout - Tin 5) The calorific value of gaseous fuel in K Cal/Kg f ww v W TCpW C   Where, Ww = Weight of water flowing through Calorimeter in Kg/sec (1 Kg=1 lit water) Cpw = Specific heat of water = 1 Kcal / Kg 0 C T = Difference between water inlet and outlet temperature Wf = Weight of Gaseous fuel burnt in Kg/sec RESULTS: Calorific value of given gaseous fuel is = K Cal/Kg
  19. 19. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 13 Experiment No. 5: REDWOOD VISCOMETER AIM: To determine the viscosity of diesel using redwood viscometer at different temperatures. APPARATUS: Redwood Viscometer, 50ml Receiving flask, thermometers and stopwatch DESCRIPTION OF THE APPARATUS: Redwood viscometer Consists of a cylindrical oil cup furnished with a gauge point, agate / metallic Orifice jet at the bottom having a concave depression from inside to facilitate a ball with stiff wire to act as a valve to start or stop oil flow. The outer side of the orifice jet is convex, so that the oil under test does not creep over the lower face of the oil cup. The oil cup is surrounded by a water bath with a circular electrical immersion heater and a stirring device. Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temp. & oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask of 50ml marking, to measure 50 ml of oil flow against time. The water bath with oil cup is supported on a tripod stand with leveling screws. PROCEDURE: 1) Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread. 2) Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it. 3) Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion 4) Keep the ball (valve) in position and pour clean filtered oil sample (use strainer not coarser than BS 100 mesh) to be tested into the oil cup up to the gauge point and cover it with the lid. 5) Take a clean dry 50ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it. 6) Lift the ball (valve) and simultaneously start a stop watch and allow the oil into the receiving flask. 7) Adjust the receiving flask (50ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface. 8) Wait till the oil level touches the 50 ml mark stop the watch and record the time in sec. 9) Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient. Plot the relevant graphs
  20. 20. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 14 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Fig.5: Experimental Setup of Redwood viscometer NOTE: For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Redwood Viscometer, connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8. OBSERVATIONS: 1. Type of oil used: 2. Initial Weight of the measuring jar (w1): ___________ gms
  21. 21. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 15 TABULATION: S. N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Time for collecting 50 ml. of oil in sec (t ) Wt. of the measuring jar (w1) + 50CC of oil (W2) in gms Density of oil ρ in kg/m3 Kinematic Viscosity (γ) m2 /s Dynamic Viscosity (μ) N S/m2 CALCULATIONS: 1) 6 10,cos         t B tAityisKinematicV  in m2 /s A and B are instrument constants. The value of A = 0.264 and B = 190, when t = 40 to 85 seconds B = 0.247 and B = 65, when t = 85 to 2000 seconds 2) Density of the given oil,   312 10 50    ww  in Kg/m3 3) Absolute Viscosity, µ = ν * ρ in Pa.S or N S/m2 Note: 1 centistoke = 1x10-6 m2 /s; 1 stoke = 1cm2 /sec (Kinematic Viscosity) 1 poise = 0.1N S/m2 (Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity) Plot the following graphs Temp Abs Visc Temp Kine Visc
  22. 22. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 16 RESULTS: 1) Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3 2) Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2 /S 3) Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m2 CONCLUSION: Kinematic and absolute viscosities were determined and relevant graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.
  23. 23. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 17 Experiment No. 6: SAYBOLT VISCOMETER AIM: To determine viscosity of the given oil using Say Bolt Viscometer at different temperatures expressed in terms of Saybolt seconds. APPARATUS: Say Bolt Viscometer, 60ml receiving flask, thermometers & stopwatch. SAYBOLT VISCOMETER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PARTS NAME 1. THERMOMETERES 2. TEMPERATURE REGULATOR 3. CONTROL BOX 4. HEAT 5. STIRRER 6. WATER BATH 7. OIL BEING TESTED Fig. 6: Experimental Setup of Saybolt viscometer DESCRIPTION: The apparatus mainly consists of a standard cylindrical oil cup surrounded with a water bath with an immersion heater and a stirring device. The apparatus is supplied with two S.S. Orifice jets namely Universal jet & Furol jet, which can be fitted at the bottom of the oil cup as per our requirement. A rubber cork stopper arrangement is provided also at the bottom to facilitate start and stop the oil flow from the Viscometer. Two thermometers are provided to measure water bath temperature and oil temperature under test. A round flat-bottomed flask with a 60-ml marking on the neck is provided to measure 60 ml of oil flow against time. The oil cup with the water bath is supported on a stand with levelly screws.
  24. 24. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 18 PROCEDURE: 1. Clean the oil cup with a solvent preferably C.T.C (Carbon Tetra chloride) and wipe it dry thoroughly with a paper napkins or a soft cloth (do not use cotton waste) and the orifice jet with a fine thread. 2. Keep the water bath with oil cup on the tripod stand and level it. 3. Pour water into the water bath up to 15 to 20mm below the top portion. 4. Close the Orifice opening from bottom with the rubber cork provided. Pour oil to be tested into the strainer by keeping the strainer on the oil cup until the oil fills up in the oil cup as well as in side well. Withdraw the excess oil in the side well and position the thermometers in water bath and oil cup. 5. Take a clean dry 60ml flask and place it under the orifice jet of the oil cup and center it. 6. Pull the rubber cork open and simultaneously start a stopwatch and allow the oil into the receiving flask. 7. Adjust the receiving flask (60ml) in such a way that the oil string coming out of the jet strikes the neck of the flask to avoid foaming (formation of air bubbles) on the oil surface. 8. Wait till the oil level touches the 60 ml mark, stop the watch and record the time in sec. 9. Repeat the experiment at different temperatures above ambient. 10. Use specific nozzle suitable for lubricant or oil. NOTE: For conducting experiment at different temperatures above ambient on Saybolt Viscometer, connect the heater of the water bath to a 230V, 50Hz, 5amps power source through a dimmer stat. Heat the water to any desired temperature while continuously stirring the water with the stirring device and occasionally the oil sample with the thermometer. Once the temperature of the oil reaches the required temperature follow steps 6, 7 and 8. OBSERVATIONS: Type of oil used: ___________________ Initial Weight of the measuring jar (W1): ___________ gms
  25. 25. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 19 TABULAR COLUMN: S.N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Time for collecting 60CC of oil in sec (t) Wt. of the measuring jar (W1) + 60CC of oil (W2) in gms Density of oil ρ in kg/m3 Kinematic Viscosity γ m2 /s Dynamic Viscosity μ in N S/m2 1 2 3 4 5 CALCULATIONS: 1) 6 10,cos         t B tAityisKinematicV  in m2 /s A and B are instrument constants. The value of A = 0.264 and B = 190, when t = 40 to 85 seconds B = 0.247 and B = 65, when t = 85 to 2000 seconds 2) Density of the given oil,   312 10 60    ww  in Kg/m3 3) Absolute Viscosity, µ = ν * ρ in Pa.S or N S/m2 Note: 1 centistoke = 1x10-6 m2 /s; 1 stoke = 1cm2 /sec (Kinematic Viscosity) 2 poise = 0.1N S/m2 (Pa. S) (Absolute viscosity) Plot the following graphs Temp Abs Visc Temp Kine Visc
  26. 26. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 20 RESULTS: 4) Mass density of given oil is _________________Kg/m3 5) Kinematic viscosity of given oil is _____________ m2 /S 6) Absolute viscosity of given oil is _______________ N S/m2 CONCLUSION: Kinematic and absolute viscosities were determined and relevant graphs were drawn. Viscosity varies with temperature and has negative exponential trend.
  27. 27. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 21 Experiment No. 7: TORSION VISCOMETER AIM: To determine the viscosity of given oil using torsion viscometer APPARATUS: Torsion Viscometer, sample oil & thermometer DESCRIPTION: The torsion viscometer consists of a flywheel with a pointer suspended in horizontal position by means of a torsion wire. The wire is fixed to the torsion head at the top. Adopters are used to adjust the length of the wire. Surrounding the flywheel, there is a circular scale graduated in degrees. A Cylinder is attached to the flywheel. The instrument is supported on a tripod with leveling screws. The apparatus consists of a device to hold a solid cylinder and a flywheel by means of a Torsion wire with end connectors. A release pin is provided to hold the flywheel in horizontal position. The flywheel is, surrounded by a graduated scale in degrees (0 0 to 360 0 ). A pointer is attached to the flywheel to indicate the angular movement of the flywheel. Oil cup to hold the oil under test; PROCEDURE: 1) Install the apparatus on a plain flat table and level it with leveling screws. 2) Insert the torsion wire with end connectors into the tube vertically downwards with the top end connector of the wire fixed to a stationary head 3) Insert the bottom end connector of the wire into the top portion of the flywheel and secure it. 4) Fix the solid cylinder to the bottom portion of the flywheel. 5) Pour clean filtered oil to be tested into the oil cup up to about 5mm to 10mm below the top of the oil cup and place it on the platform provided and properly position it. 6) Slightly lift the top stationery head so that the flywheel along with torsion wire is free to rotate horizontally and position the pointer of the flywheel exactly in front of the release pin.
  28. 28. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 22 7) Adjust the pointer of the flywheel to zero degree by turning the stationary head either way with absolutely no torsion in the wire and tighten the stationary head. 8) Lift the oil cup along with the platform in such a way that, the solid cylinder under the flywheel completely immersed in the oil under test. 9) Manually give one full rotation to the flywheel (00 to 00 ) and secure it in the release pin. 10) Now the apparatus is ready for the test 11) Slowly pull the release pin back without disturbing the set up. 12) The flywheel starts rotating and completes one full rotation (00 to 00 ) and moves beyond zero purely by virtue of its momentum. This angler movement beyond zero (over swing) is recorded and the viscosity of the oil under test in Redwood seconds is obtained from the graph provided. 13) To conduct the experiment above ambient, the oil is heated in a separate container to above 50 C to 70 C beyond the desired oil temperature and follow steps 5 to l2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TORSION VISCOMETER PARTS NAME 1. TORSION HEAD 2. TORSION WIRE 3. POINTER 4. OIL 5. OIL CUP 6. CYLINDER 7. LEVEL SCREW 8. RELEASE PIN 9. GRADUATED SCALE 10. FLY WHEEL Fig.7: Experimental setup of Torsion viscometer
  29. 29. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 23 OBSERVATIONS: Type of oil used: ___________________ TABULATION: S.N Temp. of the oil in 0 C Angular rotation on the disk in degrees Corresponding redwoods seconds from graph GRAPH: Plot the graph of temperature verses redwood seconds RESULTS: Kinematic viscosity of given oil in terms of redwood seconds is ____________
  30. 30. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 24 Experiment No. 8: PORT TIMING DIAGRM (Cut section petrol engine) AIM: To draw port timing diagram for a given 2stroke petrol engine. APPARATUS: Cut section of 2 stroke petrol engine THEORY: In this type of engines, ports which take charge of air and fuel mixture and removes exhaust from the cylinder itself, by virtue of position of piston. When piston moves inside the cylinder it closes & opens ports. In two stroke engines one revolution of crank shaft completes one cycle. Figure shows the timing diagram for a two-stroke cycle engine. It consists of a circle upon which are marked the angular positions of the various cycle events. The diagram is for a vertical engine; for a horizontal engine the diagram would appear on its side. With the two- stroke cycle the inlet and exhaust ports open and close at equal angles on either side of the BDC position. This is because the piston in this type of engine is also the inlet and exhaust valve, so port opening and closing will occur at equal angles on either side of the dead centre position. Angles shown are representative only. Fig.8: Cut section of two stroke Petrol engine INLET PORT: Through which mixture of fuel and air enters the crank casing. EXHAUST PORT: Through which the burnet (exhaust) gas exits TRANFER PORT: Through which air and fuel mixture enters the cylinder head
  31. 31. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 25 Fig.9: Typical Port Timing diagram of 2 Stroke petrol Engine PROCEDURE: 1. Fix a reference pointer on the body of the engine near the flywheel, Identify the ports. 2. Find out the direction of rotation of the crank shaft. 3. Mark the TDC position and BDC position on the flywheel. 4. Mark the opening and closings of the inlet, Exhaust and Transfer ports. 5. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston 6. Name the events IPO , IPC, EPO, EPC. OBSERVATION & RESULTS: SI. No. Event Position of the crank Angular position from the nearest dead center 1 IPO 2 IPC 3 EPO 4 EPC Where IPO = Inlet Port Open IPC = Inlet port close EPO = Exhaust port Open EPC = Exhaust Post Close RESULT: Draw the port timing diagram neatly on a graph sheet.
  32. 32. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 26 Experiment No. 9: VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM (VTD) (4 stroke diesel engine) AIM: To draw valve timing diagram for given engine and calculate different periods. APPARATUS: Cut section of 4 stroke Diesel engine THEORY: In a four stroke engine opening and closing of valves and fuel injection do not take place exactly at the end of dead centre positions. The valves open slightly earlier and close after that respective dead centre position .The fuel injection also occurs prior to the full compression ie before the piston reaches the dead centre position. Both the valve operates at some degree on either side in terms of crank angle from dead centre position. When an intake valve opens before top dead center and the exhaust valve opens before bottom dead center, it is called lead. When an intake valve closes after bottom dead center, and the exhaust valve closes after top dead center, it is called lag. On the exhaust stroke, the intake and exhaust valve are open at the same time for a few degrees around top dead center. This is called valve overlap. Fig.10: 4-stroke gasoline engines C – crankshaft. E – exhaust camshaft. I – inlet camshaft. P – piston. R – connecting rod. S – spark plug. V – valves. red: exhaust, blue: intake. W – cooling water jacket.
  33. 33. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 27 Fig.11: Theoretical VTD (4S Otto cycle engine) Fig.12: Actual VTD (4S Otto cycle engine) Fig.13: Actual VTD ( 4S Diesel engine) PROCEDURE: 1. Rotate flywheel freely by hand, fix a reference point on the body of the engine near the flywheel 2. Now while rotating, observe piston at TDC (Top dead centre) and mark with chalk on flywheel with reference to the point 3. Similarly by rotating, mark the position of bottom dead center (BDC). It is to be observed that it takes to rotation of flywheel to complete one cycle of operation. (one cycle is suction , compression, power & exhaust strokes) 4. Now identify inlet and exhaust valves. 5. Find out direction of rotation of flywheel (crank shaft) 6. Bring flywheel to TDC position (pointer).
  34. 34. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 28 7. Go on rotating flywheel slowly and observe position (functioning) of both the valves. 8. Now observe when inlet valves opens mark it on flywheel (inlet valve open – (IVO) 9. Slowly rotate flywheel, and observe when inlet valve closes –( IVC.) 10. Rotate further observe when exhaust valve opens (EVO ) 11. Rotate further & observe when exhaust valve closes (EVC). 12. Using the protractor fixed on the flywheel, find out the angular position of the piston 13. Name the events IVO, IVC, EVO, EVC, 14. Then draw spiral diagram with data in marking on flywheel. TABULAR COLUMN: S.No Event Position of Crank Actual Angular position of the crank wrt nearest dead center 1 IVO 2 IVO 3 FIVO 4 FIVC 5 EVO 6 EVC Position of crank: BTDC – Before top dead centre ABDC – After bottom dead centre BBDC – Before bottom dead centre ATDC – After top dead centre FIVO – Fuel Injection Valve open FIVC – Fuel Injection Valve close RESULT: Plot the Valve Timing Diagram on graph sheet and show Angle of overlap Angle of overlap =
  35. 35. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 29 Experiment No. 10: USE OF ANALOG PLANIMETER AIM: To determine the area of the regular and irregular plane surfaces and to calculate Percentage error in the measurement. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Digital or Analog planimeter, drawing board with sheet, scale, etc. THEORY: For regular surface area can be obtained by calculation, but for irregular surface it is very difficult to calculate area, which can be obtained by integrating the area. The integration of the area is complicated, to overcome this difficulty; a mechanical device called planimeter is used. Planimeter is a form of integrator which converts graphical area into numerical values. planimeter consists of two arms hinged at a point. One arm is a pivot arm and the other arm is the tracing arm. The tracing arm is moved along the boundary of the plane area whose area is to be determined. The planimeter mainly consists of: 1. Tracing arm with main scale, vernier scale, Rotating disc and rotating drum with vernier scale. 2. Pivot arm with a ball point at one end and a cylindrical weight with pin at the other end. 3. Magnifying lens. Fig.14: Analog Planimeter
  36. 36. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 30 PROCEDURE: 1. Keep the drawing board on a plain table. 2. Fix the drawing sheet containing the regular or irregular shape of drawing (With the help of drawing board pins.) of which the surface area is to be determined. 3. Take out the Planimeter (Tracing arm and pivot arm) from the box and place it on the drawing board. 4. Set the main scale of the tracing arm to the specified set point with the vernier scale “zero” coincide with the main scale setting (use magnifying lens if required) 5. Place the tracing arm horizontally with the tracing point on the periphery of the drawing whose surface area to be determined. 6. Fix the pivot arm approximately perpendicular to the tracing arm, by inserting the ball point into its appropriate position on the tracing arm and press the pin on the other side of the pivot arm against the board in position. 7. Roughly move the tracing arm along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise direction to ascertain free and easy movement of the tracing arm and bring back to the starting point. 8. Now carefully rotate the scale drum manually by thumb so that rotating disc indicates “zero”, and the “zero” of the drum scale coincide with “zero” of the its Vernier scale “zero” . 9. Ascertain that the tracing point is on the periphery of the drawing 10. Now slowly move the tracing pin along the periphery of the drawing in clock wise direction without miss lifting the tracing pin or moving away from the line of the drawing and come back to the starting point. 11. Carefully record the reading indicated by the rotating disc as well as the drum scale with the vernier scale and declare the area in appropriate units.
  37. 37. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 31 TABULATION: S.N Shape of the figure Actual area (Cm2 ) Measured area (Cm2 ) % Error 1 40 40 2 40 35 3 R 20 4 --- 100 areaActual area)Measured-area(Actual errorPercentage  RESULT: Area of the irregular surface is ____________ cm2
  38. 38. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 32 SECTIONISED AUTOMOBILE MPFI ENGINE MODEL (only Demonstration) AIM: To demonstrate the working of an Automobile 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, inline, water cooled MPFI maruti engine DESCRIPTION: The model of sectioned engine assembly of Maruti is been made out of original Maruti MPFI engine assembly for demonstration. The Maruti engine assembly is: In line, Four cylinder, 4 stroke petrol engine with 1000 cc cylinder capacity. The Engine is fitted here with maximum parts and accessories of the engine like four cylinders, the cylinder block, Cylinder heads, valve ports, piston, Connecting rod, inlet and Exhaust manifolds, Water pump, oil pump, oil sump, Alternator, Ignition coil, oxygen sensor, coolant sensor, Temperature sensor, cmp sensor etc to clearly demonstrate the internal constructional details . The entire system will be suitably painted with different colors ( duco paint), all the hardwares and gears will be electroplated. Different colour codes are been provided for different parts and accessories for easy identification. The colour code is as listed below. 1. The colour for Air is Blue (suction) 2. The colour for Exhaust smoke is P.O Red 3. The colour for Oil sump is Yellow 4. The colour for water pump is light Blue 5. The colour for Cut portion is Signal Red The engine assembly is coupled to a reduction gear unit through the flywheel of the engine assembly, which is then coupled to a single phase AC motor, so that by running the electric motor the entire function of the engine can be easily observed.
  39. 39. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 33 Fig.15: Cut section of a 4 stroke, 4 cylinder engine OPERATION: 1. The plug has to be connected to a 15 amps 230V AC socket 2. Once the engine model is switched ON, the movement of the pistons, opening of the valves, rotation of the water pump, oil pump etc can be observed. So that the working of the different parts and accessories can be demonstrated. CAUTION: 1. Keep hands off the engine model while it is running as all the moving parts are cut exposed and the risk of getting hurt is more 2. Use Teaching sticks to demonstrate while the model is switched ON and running.
  40. 40. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 34 Experiment 11: 2-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER AIR COOLED PETROL ENGINE AIM: To conduct performance test on 2 stroke, single cylinder petrol engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 2 stroke, single cylinder petrol engine test rig, Stop watch. THEORY: Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. PROCEDURE: 1. Check the petrol in the petrol tank and keep the gear lever in neutral position. Start the engine by using kick start. Choose the top gear and set the engine speed to 650 rpm, make it constant by using the accelerator. 2. Apply load on the engine by operating the electrical loading switches of the alternator in steps. Use accelerator to engine speed to 650rpm, allow some time so that speed stabilizes. 3. Keep the speed constant and note down the following: a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption. b. Voltmeter and ammeter readings c. Monometer reading d. Speed of the engine e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas 4. Repeat the experiment for different loads 5. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency.
  41. 41. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 35 6. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP , SFC V/S BP , ηbth V/S BP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 1 - Temperature Indicator 2 - Generator Current 3 - Engine Speed indicator 4- Monometer 5- Pipette 6 - Fuel Tank 7 - Temperature Channel Selector 8 - Generator Voltage 9 - Ignition On 10 - Air Tank 11 - Mains 12- Electrical Loading Switches 13- Console Switch 14- Petrol Engine 15- Coupling 16- A.C. Generator 17- Heating Coil 2 Stroke, Petrol Engine Fig.16: Experimental setup of 2 stroke, petrol engine SPECIFICATIONS: Bore (D) = 57mm Stroke (L) = 57mm Orifice diameter (d) = 25mm Compression ratio = 7.4 : 1 Cylinder capacity = 150CC OBSERVATIONS: Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 KJ/kg Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2 Petrol density, ρp : 750 Kg/m3
  42. 42. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 36 TABULAR COLUMN: S.N. Speed in RPM Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Manometer reading (hm) in mm Temperature in o C Voltmeter Reading (V) Volts Ammeter Reading (I) Ampere Inlet air Ta Exhaust Air (Tg)h1 h2 hm 1 2 3 4 5 FORMULAE USED: secinnconsumptiofueloffor10cctakentimet kg/m750petrolofρwhere kg/sin t ρ10ccinconsumedfuel mconsumedfueltheofMass1. 3 p p 6 f      densityis Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 6060fm in Kg/Hr kg/minPa/RTaairofdensity mtrsinreadingmanometerh /4)d(orificetheofareaA 0.62C /minmin2ghAC60intakeairofvolumeactualaVwhere kg/mininVmsuppliedairofMass2. 3 a a 2 o d 3 aoda aaa          is g = 9.81 m/s2 air watermanometer a h h    in meters of air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in meters ρwater = 1000Kg/m3 a a air RT p  Where air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kgo K Ta = Room temperature
  43. 43. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 37 To calculate air , use the following relation )273(287 1001325.1 5 a air T   in Kg/m3 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = g IV   1000 in KW Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading ηg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.75 m m RatioFuel-Air4 f a  kJ/kginfueltheofvalvuecalorifictheisVC kg/sinsuppliedfuelofmasstheismwhere kWinVCmQinputHeat5. f f  6. (SFC)nconsumptiofuelSpecific Hr-kg/kWin BP 3600mf   engine.theofboreandstroketheareDandLmin/4DAewher /minminNALmeSwept voluVsupplyairlTheoratica 100 VsupplyairlTheoratica Vsuppliedairofvolactual efficiencyVolumetric7 22 3 th th act vol      Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3 /min 100 QinputHeat BP efficiencythermalBrake8 bth  HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in % Heat supplied by the fuel a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried by exhaust gases = mg * Cpg (Tg-Ta) mg= ma+ mf c)Heat unaccountable 1-(a+b) Total input Total output Specific heat of air = Cpg = 1.005KJ/Kgo C ma = Mass of air supplied in Kg/s mf = mass of fuel supplied in Kg/s
  44. 44. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 38 RESULT SHEET S.N. Mass of fuel supplied (mf) in Kg/s Mass of air supplied(ma) in Kg/s Air- Fuel Ratio BHP in KW SFC in Kg/KW Hr Heat input in KW Brake thermal efficiency Volumetric efficiency 1 2 3 4 5 CONCLUSION: Two stroke petrol engine performance was conducted and heat balance sheet worked out and relevant graphs were drawn.
  45. 45. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 39 Experiment 12: 4-STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE (Four Stroke, Single Cylinder, Water Cooled, Mechanical Loading) AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine four stroke, single cylinder, water cooled, mechanical loading, diesel engine and to draw the Heat balance sheet and to obtain PV diagram at No load and Max load, and plot the performance plots APPARATUS REQUIRED: 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine test rig, Stop watch, interfacing of the engine with computer to obtain the PV diagram with pressure sensor mounted in the cylinder. THEORY: Heat engine is a device which converts heat energy into mechanical work. Engine performance is an indication of the degree of success with which it is doing its assigned job, i.e. the conversion of the chemical energy in to the useful work. The degree of success is compared on the basis of 1) specific fuel consumption 2) brake mean effective pressure 3) specific power output 4) Specific weight etc. The engine performance can be obtained by running the engine at constant speed for variable load by adjusting the throttle. In this experiment engine is mechanically loaded and experiment is carried out. The test rig consists of 4S diesel engine connected to rope brake dynamometer with exhaust calorimeter. It has a provision to measure transient pressure, through a cylinder mounted pressure sensor, having a water cooling system, to avoid over of heating pressure sensor. The pressure signal is fed to a computer through an interface unit in the control panel for generating pressure volume (PV) curve to evaluate work done employing a plani meter, subsequently. PROCEDURE: 1. Check the diesel in the diesel tank and keep the lever in neutral position. 2. Ensure the water supply to the pressure sensor, engine cooling head and exhaust calorimeter.
  46. 46. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 40 4 Stroke, Diesel Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 - Manometer 2 - Engine Speed indicator 3 - Pipette 4 - Fuel Tank 5 - Temperature channel selector 6 - Mains ON 7 - Console switch 8 - Air tank 9 - Engine 10 - Coupling 11 -Rope brake dynamometer 12 - Computer Fig.17: Experimental setup of 4 stroke, Diesel Engine 3. Start the engine by operating the decompression lever and cranking the crank shaft. 4. Apply the load on the brake drum by rotating the wheel of the spring balance 5. Allow the fuel to flow through the burette. 6. Note down the a. Time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption. b. The load on the engine c. Monometer reading d. Speed of the engine e. Temperature of inlet air and exhaust gas f. Water meter of the exhaust calorimeter. 7. Repeat the experiment for different loads 8. Tabulate the readings and calculate the brake power, indicated power, heat input, air-fuel ratio, specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency.
  47. 47. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 41 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP 10. To obtain the PV diagram, a) Turn on the computer, open the interfacing software. b) Take PV diagram and Pθ diagrams individually. c) Take the print out after taking the soft data on a pen drive, if needed. SPECIFICATION OF THE ENGINE: Make: Kirloskar Rated power output: 5HP, 1500rpm Bore: 80mm Stroke: 110mm Compression ratio: 16.5:1 Cylinder capacity: 553 cc OBSERVATION: Radius of the brake drum: 190mm Diameter of the orifice: 15 mm Calorific value of diesel: 43000KJ/Kg Density of Diesel: 850Kg/m3 Orifice meter constant: 0.62 Water meter reading: __________ in Kg/s Diameter of the rope: ___________ mm TABULAR COLUMN: S. N. Engine Speed in rpm Spring Balance reading in Kg (F) Time taken for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in seconds Manometer reading (hm) Temperature readings F1 F2 (F1˜F2) h1 h2 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 1 2 3 4 5
  48. 48. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 42 Air inlet temperature (T1) Engine cooling head water inlet temperature (T2) Engine cooling head water outlet temperature (T3) Calorimeter water outlet temperature (T4) Exhaust gas inlet Temperature (T5) Exhaust gas outlet temperature (T6) FORMULAE USED: secinnconsumptiofueloffor10cctakentimet kg/m850dieselofρwhere kg/sin t ρ10ccinconsumedfuel mconsumedfueltheofMass1. 3 d d 6 f      densityis kg/minPa/RTaairofdensity mtrsinreadingmanometerh /4)d(orificetheofareaA 0.6C /minmin2ghAC60intakeairofvolumeactualaVwhere kg/mininVmsuppliedairofMass2. 3 a a 2 o d 3 aoda aaa          is g = 9.81 m/s2 air watermanometer a h h    in meters of air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in meters ρwater = 1000Kg/m3 a a air RT p  Where air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kgo K Ta = Room temperature To calculate air use the following relation )273(287 1001325.1 5 a air T   in Kg/m3
  49. 49. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 43 RPMinrdynamometetheofspeedtheisN metersindrumbraketheofradiusaisR kgsinreadingbalancespringareF2&F1 Nin9.81F2)-(F1drumbrakeon theactingloadnetaFwhere kWin 100060 )(2 (BP)powerBrake3.     is NRF BPV/SmgraphthefromobtainedpowerfrictionaltheisFPwhere FPBP(IP)PowerIndicated4 f  m m RatioFuel-Air5 f a  kJ/kginfueltheofvalvuecalorifictheisVC kg/sinsuppliedfuelofmasstheismwhere kWinVCmQinputHeat6 f f  7. Specific fuel consumption based on BP, SFC= BP 3600mf  in Kg/KW-Hr Specific fuel consumption based on IP, SFC = IP 3600mf  in Kg/KW-Hr 100 VsupplyairlTheoratica Vsuppliedairofvolactual efficiencyVolumetric8 th act vol  engine.theofboreandstroketheareDandLmin/4DAewher /minminN/2ALmeSwept voluVsupplyairlTheoratica 22 3 th   100 IP BP EfficiencyMechanical9 
  50. 50. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 44 100 QinputHeat BP efficiencythermalBrake10 bth  100 QinputHeat IP efficiencythermalIndicated11 ith  RESULT SHEET: Mass of air supply ma in kg/sec Mass of fuel supply mf in kg/sec BP in kW Air – Fuel ratio ISFC in kg/kW- hr BSFC in kg/kW-hr Heat input in kW Vol Eff ηvol Mech Eff ηmech Thermal efficiency ηith ηbth HEAT BALANCE SHEET: .tempgasExhaust&RoomT&T K-kJ/kg1.005gasexhaustofheatspecific mmkg/secinGasofrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(TmGasesExhaustby thecarriedHeat4 water.ofinlet temp&letoutT&T K-kJ/kg4.18waterheatofspecific kg/secinrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(Tmwatercoolingby thecarriedHeat3 KWnBPBPofequivalentHeat2 KWinVCmQinputHeat1 61 fag 16g 23 w 23w f        Cpg Cpg Cpw Cpw i 5. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW
  51. 51. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 45 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in % 1) By combustion of fuel 2) Heat equivalent to BP 3) Heat carried by the cooling water 4) Heat carried by exhaust gases 5) Heat lost by frictional power 6) Heat unaccountable 1-(2+3+4+5) Total input Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) PV diagram and Pressure vs crank angle diagrams were obtained. 4) Performance plots were drawn.
  52. 52. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 46 Experiment 13: 4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG (Four Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled, with Electrical Dynamometer) AIM: To Conduct Performance Test on the given engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and draw performance curves APPARATUS REQUIRED: Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank, Temperature Sensors. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 4 Stroke, Petrol Engine 200WX10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 - Fuse 2- Temperature Channel selector 3 - Ampere meter 4 - Volt meter 5 - Manometer 6 - Burette 7 - Fuel tank 8 - Fan and Load Bank 9 - Mains 10 - RPM indicator 11- Fan and load Switches 12 - Air tank 13 - Engine start 14- Engine Stop 15 - Console Switch 16 - Petrol Engine 17 - Coupling 18 - Alternaotr Fig.18: Experimental setup Of 4 strokes, Petrol Engine
  53. 53. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 47 PROCEDURE: 8. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the manometer limbs 9. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel (petrol) in the fuel tank 10. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start‟) 11. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators glow 12. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation) 13. Switch „on‟ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective readings 14. Start the engine by pushing the push button starter and release after the engine gets started 15. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm indicated on the digital rpm indicator 16. Switch „on‟ the heat dissipating fan on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for loading 17. Record the following readings on no load condition. Voltmeter reading, Ammeter reading Rpm indicator reading, (not essential in this case) Manometer reading, time taken for 10 cc of fuel consumption (To record fuel consumption against time close the fuel line valve on the right hand side of the burette and simultaneously start the stop watch and record the time until 10 cc of fuel is consumed) and temperatures T1 & T2 18. Switch „on‟ first two switches and allow the engine to stabilize, Record all the readings 19. Continue loading the engine by switching „on‟ the load switches in pairs in steps (two switches per step) up to full load and record all the readings at each step,, as indicated in step 20. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to no load condition 21. Push the engine “off” push button and hold it unit the engine completely stops 22. Close all the three fuel valves in the fuel line.
  54. 54. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 48 23. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (η Bth) and air fuel ratio (A/F) 24. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP , SFC V/S BP , ηbth V/S BP SPECIFICATIONS: ENGINE Make : VILLIERS Compression ratio : 4.67:1 Cylinder bore : 70 mm Stroke length : 66.7 mm Displacement : 256 CC ALTERNATOR Rating : 2 KVA Speed : 2800-3000 rpm Voltage : 220 V AC Efficiency : 70% Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm Air Tank : Made from MS, 300 x 300 x 300 cm Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia Thermocouple : Fe- K (J type) OBSERVATIONS: Cylinder bore, D : 70 mm Stroke length, L : 66.7 mm Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2 Petrol density, ρp : 750 Kg/m3 Specific heat of air, Cpg : 1.005KJ/Kgo C
  55. 55. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 49 TABULAR COLUMN: S.N. Speed in RPM Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Manometer reading (hm) in mm Temperature in o C Voltmeter Reading (V) Volts Ammeter Reading (I) Ampere Inlet air Ta Exhaust Air (Tg)h1 h2 hm 1 2 3 4 5 FORMULAE USED: secinnconsumptiofueloffor10cctakentimet kg/m750petrolofρwhere kg/sin t ρ10ccinconsumedfuel mconsumedfueltheofMass1. 3 p p 6 f      densityis Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 6060fm in Kg/Hr kg/minPa/RTaairofdensity mtrsinreadingmanometerh /4)d(orificetheofareaA 0.62C /minmin2ghAC60intakeairofvolumeactualaVwhere kg/mininVmsuppliedairofMass2. 3 a a 2 o d 3 aoda aaa          is g = 9.81 m/s2 air watermanometer a h h    in meters of air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in meters a a air RT p  Where air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kgo K Ta = Room temperature
  56. 56. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 50 To calculate air use the following relation )273(287 1001325.1 5 a air T   in Kg/m3 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = g IV   1000 in KW Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading ηg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.70 m m RatioFuel-Air4 f a  kJ/kginfueltheofvalvuecalorifictheisVC kg/sinsuppliedfuelofmasstheismwhere kWinVCmQinputHeat5. f f  6. Specific fuel consumption, SFC Hr-kg/kWin BP 3600mf   100 VsupplyairlTheoratica Vsuppliedairofvolactual efficiencyVolumetric7 th act vol  engine.theofboreandstroketheareDandLmin/4DAewher /minminN/2ALmeSwept voluVsupplyairlTheoratica 22 3 th   Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3 /min 100 QinputHeat BP efficiencythermalBrake8 bth  RESULT SHEET S.N. Mass of fuel supplied (mf) in Kg/s Mass of air supplied(ma) in Kg/s Air- Fuel Ratio BHP in KW SFC in Kg/KW Hr Heat input in KW Brake thermal efficiency Volumetric efficiency 1 2 3 4 5
  57. 57. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 51 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: .tempgasExhaust&RoomT&T K-kJ/kg1.005gasexhaustofheatspecific mmkg/secinGasofrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(TmGasesExhaustby thecarriedHeat3 KWnBPBPofequivalentHeat2 KWinVCmQinputHeat1 ga fag agg f      Cpg Cpg i HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in % Heat supplied by the fuel a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried by exhaust gases = mg * Cpg (Tg-Ta) mg= ma+ mf c)Heat unaccountable 1-(a+b) Total input Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder diesel engine was carried out. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn.
  58. 58. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 52 Experiment 14: VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO, 4 STROKE PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG (Four Stroke, Single Cylinder, Air Cooled, With Electrical Dynamometer) AIM: To conduct performance test on the VCR engine, to obtain heat balance sheet and draw performance curves. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Engine coupled to Electrical Dynamometer, Measurement and control panel, Load bank, Temperature Sensors, stop watch EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: 4 Stroke, V.C.R Petrol Engine 4 5 6 10 11 12 1314 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 - Feild Voltage 2 - Engine Speed indicator 3 - Motor Voltage 4 - Manometer 5 - Burette 6- Fuel tank 7 - Feild Current 8 - Temparature Indicator 9 - Motor Current 10 - Feild Control 11 - Temperature channel selector 12 - Motor control 13 -Air tank 14 - Voltmeter 15 - Ammeter 16 - Motor switch 17 - Mains 18 - Start 19 - Light 20 - Stop 21 - Intching 22 - Ignition ON 23 - Mains ON 24 - Electric Load switches 25 - Rotameter 26 - Engine 27 - Coupling 28 - Generator 1 2 3 7 8 9 Fig.19: Experimental setup Of 4 stroke, VCR Petrol Engine
  59. 59. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 53 PROCEDURE: 1. Ensure water level in the manometer to approximately half the full scale in both the manometer limbs 2. Ensure oil level in the engine sump up to the dip stick mark, Fill required amount of fuel (petrol) in the fuel tank 3. Check fuel line for any leakages, tighten if necessary (open all the valves in the fuel line up to the engine inlet, do not turn the knob to “Start‟) 4. Connect the engine test rig to the 3 phase electrical source, all the three mains indicators glow 5. Ensure the direction of rotation of the engine is as desired by momentarily pushing the push button starter (refer arrow mark on the guard for correct direction of rotation) 6. Switch „on‟ the console switch, all the digital indicators glow and indicate respective readings 7. Put the switch to motor position, turn on the ignition button, push the START button, and slowly rotate the MOTOR CONTROL knob to start the engine, once the engine starts, bring the MOTOR CONTROL knob to zero position and turn off the motor by pushing the STOP button. 8. Change the switch to GENERATOR position; use the FIELD CONTROL knob to excite the generator voltage, set the FIELD VOLTAGE to 150 volts. 9. Wait until the engine stabilizes at its rated speed (Governed engine) of 2800 to 3000 rpm indicated on the digital rpm indicator 10. Switch „on‟ the electrical loading switches on the load Bank. Now the engine is ready for loading 11. For every load note down the readings. 12. To stop the engine remove load by switching “off” the load switches, bring the engine to no load condition, Push the engine “off” push button 13. Close all the fuel valves in the fuel line. 14. Tabulate all the readings obtained at each step and calculate Brake power (BP) weight of fuel Consumed (wf), specific fuel consumption (Sfc), Brake thermal efficiency (η Bth) and air fuel ratio (A/F). 15. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP
  60. 60. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 54 SPECIFICATIONS: ENGINE Make : MK-25, Crompton Greaves Compression ratio : Variable from 2-8:1 Cylinder bore : 70 mm Stroke length : 66.7 mm Displacement : 256 CC ALTERNATOR Rating : 3 KVA Speed : 2800-3000 rpm Voltage : 220 V AC Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm Air Tank : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm Orifice : Circular, 12 mm dia OBSERVATIONS: Cylinder bore, D : 70 mm Stroke length, L : 66.7 mm Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2 Petrol density, ρp : 750 Kg/m3 TABULAR COLUMN: Comp Ratio S. N. Spee d in RP M Time for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in sec Field Voltage (V) Volts Field Current (I) Amps Manometer reading (hm) in mm Temperature in o C T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 h1 h2 hm 1 2 3 4 T1 = Air Inlet temperature T2 = Exhaust gas calorimeter water inlet T3 = Exhaust gas calorimeter water outlet T4 = Exhaust gas inlet T5 = Exhaust gas outlet
  61. 61. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 55 MOTORING TEST TABULAR COLUMN S.N. Engine Speed (N) rpm Motor Voltage (V) Volts Motor Current (I), amps 1 FORMULAE USED: secinnconsumptiofueloffor10cctakentimet kg/m750petrolofρwhere kg/sin t ρ10ccinconsumedfuel mconsumedfueltheofMass1. 3 p p 6 f      densityis Therefore Total Fuel Consumed (TFC) = 6060fm in Kg/Hr kg/minPa/RTaairofdensity mtrsinreadingmanometerh /4)d(orificetheofareaA 0.62C /minmin2ghAC60intakeairofvolumeactualaVwhere kg/mininVmsuppliedairofMass2. 3 a a 2 o d 3 aoda aaa          is g = 9.81 m/s2 air watermanometer a h h    in meters of air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in meters a a air RT p  Where air = Density of air in Kg/m3 pa = Atmospheric pressure = 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 R = Real gas constant = 287 J/Kgo K Ta = Room temperature To calculate air use the following relation )273(287 1001325.1 5 a air T   in Kg/m3 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) = g IV   1000 in KW Where, V = Voltmeter reading I = Ammeter reading
  62. 62. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 56 ηg = Efficiency of Generator = 0.75 m m RatioFuel-Air4 f a  kJ/kginfueltheofvalvuecalorifictheisVC kg/sinsuppliedfuelofmasstheismwhere kWinVCmQinputHeat5. f f  6. (SFC)nconsumptiofuelSpecific Hr-kg/kWin BP 3600mf   engine.theofboreandstroketheareDandLmin/4DAewher /minminN/2ALmeSwept voluVsupplyairlTheoratica 100 VsupplyairlTheoratica Vsuppliedairofvolactual efficiencyVolumetric7 22 3 th th act vol      Va = Actual Volume of air supplied in m3 /min 100 QinputHeat BP efficiencythermalBrake8 bth  9. Frictional Power (FP) = g IV   1000 in KW V = Voltmeter reading during motoring test I = Ammeter reading during motoring test ηg = Efficiency of motor = 0.75 powerfrictionaltheisFPwhere FPBP(IP)PowerIndicated10  100 QinputHeat IP efficiencythermalIndicated11 ith  100 IP BP ,EfficiencyMechanical12. mech  RESULT SHEET Mass of air supply ma in kg/sec Mass of fuel supply mf in kg/sec BP in kW Air – Fuel ratio ISFC in kg/kW- hr BSFC in kg/kW-hr Heat input in kW Vol Eff ηvol Mech Eff ηmech Thermal efficiency ηith ηbth
  63. 63. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 57 HEAT BALANCE SHEET: .tempgasExhaust&RoomT&T K-kJ/kg1.005gasexhaustofheatspecific mmkg/secinGasofrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(TmGasesExhaustby thecarriedHeat4 water.ofinlet temp&letoutT&T K-kJ/kg4.18waterheatofspecific kg/secinrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(Tmwatercoolingby thecarriedHeat3 KWnBPBPofequivalentHeat2 KWinVCmQinputHeat1 51 fag 15g 23 w 23w f        Cpg Cpg Cpw Cpw i 5. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in % Heat supplied by the fuel a)Heat equivalent to BP b) Heat carried away by cooling water c) Heat carried by exhaust gases d) Heat equivalent of FP e) Heat unaccountable a-(b+c+d) Total input Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, single cylinder VCR petrol engine was carried out. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn.
  64. 64. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 58 Experiment 15: MULTI CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE TEST RIG (MORSE TEST) (Four Stroke, Four Cylinder Engine coupled to Eddy Current Dynamometer) AIM: To Conduct Performance Test, Morse Test & to draw heat balance on given multi cylinder engine to find the overall efficiency of the engine. INTRODUCTION: The engine is four stroke, Four cylinder, water cooled, petrol driven automobile Engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer mounted on a strong base, and is complete with air, fuel, temperature, load, and speed measurement system. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP: Four Cylinder, 4 Stroke Petrol Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1 - Fuse 2 - Lamp 3 - Temperature indicator 4 -Temperature Dial 5 - Manometer 6 - Burette 7 - Fuel tank 8 - Console on/ff 9 - RPM Indicator 10 - Rotameter (for calorimeter) 11 - Rotameter ( For Engine cooling) 12 - Throttle 13 - Torque Control 14 - Air tank 15 - Engine cutoff 16 -Engine 17 -Coupling 18 - Eddy curent dynamometer 19 -Power light 20 - Ignition start Key 21 - Light indicator 22 - Oil Temparature 23 - Battary 24 - Engine load indicator Fig.20: Experimental setup of 4 cylinder, 4 stroke, Petrol Engine
  65. 65. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 59 DESCRIPTION: The test rig comprises of the following: 1. Four stroke, Engine coupled to Eddy current Dynamometer, with the arrangement to cutoff the cylinder 2. Measurement and control panel 3. Temperature Sensors. PROCEDURE: 1. Install the Engine test rig near a 230V 5A 50Hz electrical power source and an un interrupted constant head water source. 2. Check all electrical connections, water level in manometer, and oil level in engine sump. 3. Ensure water flow into the engine jacket & exhaust gas calorimeter 4. Open both the valves of 3 way Manifold, make fuel flow to engine directly 5. Start the engine with self start key, Throttle the engine to the rated speed (2000 rpm). 6. Now take readings of manometer, temperature, Fuel consumption against time. 7. Load the engine in steps of 2Kgf up to 10Kgf (full load) keeping the speed constant by operating the throttle knob (accelerator) suitably to maintain the speed at 2000 rpm. 8. Record the following readings at each step. a) Manometer difference b) Time taken in Sec for 10cc fuel consumption by closing valve on your right hand side of the burette (line coming from fuel tank to burette) so that the fuel is drawn from burette. c) Load at each step as indicated on the Dial spring balance d) Speed of the engine in rpm e) Temperatures at different location ( T1 to T6) 9. Plot the graph Qin V/S BP, mf V/S BP, SFC V/S BP , ηith V/S BP, ηbth V/S BP SPECIFICATION: ENGINE: Type : Four stroke, vertical, in line, water cooled, Petrol Engine Cylinders : Four Starting : Self Ignition : Spark
  66. 66. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 60 DYNAMOMETER Make : Powermag Type : Eddy current Brake Display : Spring balance (Dial type) 25 kg capacity Manometer : U tube, water filled, 30 cm Air Tank : Made from MS, 400 x 400 x 400 cm Orifice : Circular, 20 mm dia Temperature Sensor : CrAl speed Sensor : Magnetic pickup, located on the coupling shaft. OBSERVATION: Water density, ρw : 1000 kg/m3 Calorific value of petrol, CV : 47,500 Kj/kg Acceleration due to gravity, g : 9.81 m/sec 2 Petrol density, ρp : 750 Kg/m3 Torque arm length (R) : 250mm Efficiency of dynamometer (ηd) : 85% Atmospheric pressure, pa : 1.01325 Bar = 1.01325x105 N/m2 Real gas constant, R : 287 J/Kgo K Cylinder head cooling water flow rate = _____________liters/min Exhaust gas calorimeter cooling water flow rate = __________ liters/min TABULAR COLUMN: S. N. Engine Speed in rpm Load in Kgf Time taken for 10cc of fuel supply (t) in seconds Manometer reading (hm) Temperature readings h1 h2 hm T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 1 2 2 4 3 6 4 8 5 10 T1 - Water inlet, T2 - Water jacket outlet, T3 – Calorimeter water outlet T4 - Exhaust gas inlet to calorimeter, T5 – Exhaust gas outlet from calorimeter T6 – Air inlet temperature
  67. 67. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 61 CALCULATIONS: secinnconsumptiofueloffor10cctakentimet petrolofρwhere kg/sin t ρ10ccinconsumedfuel mconsumedfueltheofMass1. d p 6 f     densityis kg/minPa/RTaairofdensity mtrsinreadingmanometerh /4)d(orificetheofareaA 0.62C /minmin2ghAC60intakeairofvolumeactualaVwhere kg/mininVmsuppliedairofMass2. 3 a a 2 o d 3 aoda aaa          is g = 9.81 m/s2 air watermanometer a h h    in meters of air Where ha = head of air in meters h manometer = manometer reading in meters ρwater = 1000Kg/m3 a a air RT p  Where air = Density of air in Kg/m3 Ta = Room temperature To calculate air use the following relation )273(287 1001325.1 5 a air T   in Kg/m3 RPMinrdynamometetheofspeedtheisN mminarmtoruetheofradiusaisR Ninrdynamometeon theactingloadnettheFwhere kWin 100060 )(2 (BP)powerBrake3. d is NRF      m m RatioFuel-Air4 f a  kJ/kginfueltheofvalvuecalorifictheisVC kg/sinsuppliedfuelofmasstheismwhere kWinVCmQinputHeat5. f f  6. (SFC)nconsumptiofuelSpecific Hr-kg/kWin BP 3600mf  
  68. 68. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 62 d = Efficiency of the dynamometer = 85% 100 QinputHeat BP efficiencythermalBrake bth  MORSE TEST PROCEDURE: 1. Start the engine with the water flow into the engine jacket. 2. Load the engine to its full load (5 Kgf ) at rated rpm. (2000 rpm) 3. Cut off first cylinder, the engine speed drops, bring the engine speed to its rated speed by decreasing the load on the engine (Do not operate the throttle knob). 4. Record the load as indicated on the load indicator. (Dial spring balance) 5. Cut off Second cylinder, while replacing the first cylinder back into working Condition simultaneously (as the engine is a Four cylinder engine, ensure always three cylinders are in working condition) 6. Record the load on the engine, adjust the speed if deviated from the previous cut off. by adjusting the load only 7. Cut off the third cylinder while replacing the second one in to working Condition, follow step 6. 8. Similarly cut „off‟ the fourth cylinder while replacing the third cylinder into working condition, follow step 6. TABULAR COLUMN FOR MORSE TEST SL No. Cylinder condition Engine speed N (rpm) Load W (kgf) Brake power in KW Indicated power in KW 1. All Cyl. running 2. 1st Cyl. cutoff 3. 2nd Cyl. cutoff 4. 3rd Cyl. cutoff 5. 4th Cyl. cutoff CALCULATIONS: 1) Total Brake power, BPT =   d RWN     000,60 2 in KW ( With all cylinders running) Where, N = Engine speed in rpm.
  69. 69. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 63 W = Net load on the engine in N (W in kgf x9.81) R = Radius of the torque arm = 250mm d = Efficiency of the dynamometer 2) Brake power, BPi =   d i RWN     000,60 2 in KW ( With ith cylinder cutoff) Where, i= 1, 2,3,4 Wi = load on the dynamometer to bring the speed of the engine to rated speed with ith cylinder cutoff d = Efficiency of the dynamometer 3) Indicated power of ith cylinder, IPi = BPT -BPi where i= 1,2,3,4 4) Total Indicated power, IPT= (IP1+ IP2+ IP3+ IP4) 5) Frictional power, FP = IPT-BPT T T IP BP o,yoeeficiencallOver6.  RESULT SHEET: Mass of air supply ma in kg/sec Mass of fuel supply mf in kg/sec BP in kW Air –Fuel ratio BSFC in kg/kW-hr Heat input in kW Thermal efficiency ηbth HEAT BALANCE SHEET: .tempgasExhaust&RoomT&T K-kJ/kg1.005gasexhaustofheatspecific mmkg/secinGasofrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(TmGasesExhaustby thecarriedHeat4 water.ofinlet temp&letoutT&T K-kJ/kg4.18waterheatofspecific kg/secinrateflowmassmwhere KWin)T-(Tmwatercoolingjacketby thecarriedHeat3 KWnBPBPofequivalentHeat2 KWinVCmQinputHeat1 65 fag 65g 12 w 12w f        Cpg Cpg Cpw Cpw i
  70. 70. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 64 5. Heat carried away by calorimeter water = KWin)T-(Tm 13w Cpw Where T3 = Calorimeter water outlet T1 = Inlet temperature of water 6. Heat lost by frictional power = FP in KW HEAT BALANCE SHEET: Heat input KW in % Heat Output KW in % 1) By combustion of fuel 1) Heat equivalent to BP 2) Heat carried by the jacket cooling water 3) Heat carried by exhaust gases 4) Heat carried by calorimeter water 5) Heat lost by frictional power 6) Heat unaccountable (1-(2+3+4+5)) Total input Total output CONCLUSION: 1) Performance of 4 stroke, four cylinder petrol engine was carried out and evaluated IP, FP and overall efficiency. 2) Heat balance sheet for the engine worked out with unaccounted heat loss. 3) Performance plots were drawn. 4) Morse test was conducted to find overall efficiency of the engine.
  71. 71. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 65 VIVA QUESTIONS 1) What are lubricants? 2) Define flash and fire points. 3) What is the significance of flash point and fire point measurement? 4) List the flash point and fire points of different fuels. 5) List the flash point and fire points of lubricating oils 6) Define the flash point and fire point of a lubricating oil. 7) What should be the flash point of a good lubricant? Ans. A flash point must be at least above the temperature at which the lubricant is to be used to avoid the risk of a fire hazard. 8) What are the factors that affect the flash and fire points? Ans. Moisture, vapor pressure, apparatus used, frequency of application of test flame, rate of heating the test oil, and so on. 9) What is the significance of a flash point and fire point measurement? 10) What happens to the flash point of an oil if it is contaminated with moisture? Ans. If moisture is present in the lubricating oil, it increases the flash point because steam prevents vapor from igniting. 11) What are lubricants? 12) What are the units of viscosity? 13) What is the effect of temperature on the viscosity of liquid and gas? 14) What is kinematic viscosity? 15) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity? 16) Mention the names of other viscometers. 17) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant. 18) What is kinematic viscosity? Ans: The coefficient of viscosity bv density is called the kinematic viscosity. 19) What is the unit of kinematic viscosity? 20) Mention the names of other viscometers. Ans: Ostwald viscometer and Saybolt viscometer. 21) What is viscosity? Discuss its significance for a lubricant. 22) Define valve timing in four stroke petrol engine? 23) What is overlapping? 24) What is inlet valve?
  72. 72. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 66 25) What is exhaust valve? 26) What do you mean by ignition? 27) What are the various types of ignition systems that are commonly used? 28) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke petrol Engine? 29) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke petrol Engine? 30) What is Suction Stroke? 31) What is compression Stroke? 32) Describe Expansion / Power Stroke? 33) Describe Exhaust Stroke? 34) What are the construction details of a four stroke petrol Engine? 35) What is the main deference in 2-Stroke Petrol Engine and 4-Stroke Petrol Engine? 36) Describe the working principle of 2-Stroke Diesel Engine? 37) Describe the working principle of 4-Stroke Diesel Engine? 38) Explain the air-fuel ratio? 39) What is Injection Timing? 40) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine? 41) Distinguish between power and specific output? 42) Define the morse test? 43) What is transmission dynamometer? 44) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine? 45) What is a smoke and classify the measurement of a smoke? 46) What is the break power of I.C. Engines? 47) What is volumetric efficiency? 48) What is air fuel ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine? 49) What is air delivery ratio in two stroke single cylinder petrol engine? 50) Explain an automatic fuel flow meter? 51) Define the friction power? 52) Define Willian‟s lines methods? 53) What is break power ? 54) Define speed performance test on a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine? 55) What is Air rate and A/F ratio in a four-stroke single – Cylinder diesel engine? 56) What is combustion phenomenon? 57) What is indicated power ? 58) Mention the simplified various assumptions used in fuel Air-cycle Analysis
  73. 73. Energy Conversion Laboratory Manual (10AEL58) 2015-16 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, DSCE, Bangalore -78 67 59) What are the different Air – Fuel Mixture on which an Engine can be operated? 60) Define the carbonation ? Ans. It is the process of mixing air and petrol mixture and vaporize and atomize that mixture. 61) What is clearance volume ? Ans. When piston moves from B.D.C. to T.D.C. the volume left above in the cylinder is called clearance volume. 62) What is swept volume? Ans. The volume covered by piston while moving from B.D.C. to T.D.C. is known as swept volume. 63) What is the compression ratio? 64) Explain the air-fuel ratio? 65) What is Injection Timing? 66) What are the methods of available for improving the performance of an engine? 67) Distinguish between power and specific output? 68) What is the importance of specific fuel consumption? 69) What is the torque of an engine? 70) Define the morse test? 71) What is transmission dynamometer? 72) What is need of measurement of speed of an I.C. Engine? 73) What is the break power of I.C. Engines?

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