man made pollution and bioremediation aspects


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man made pollution and bioremediation aspects

  1. 1. MAN MADE POLLUTION AND ITS BIOREMEDIATION ASPECTS Hareesha A S Hareesha A S PALB 3192 PALB 3192 Jr MSc (agri) environmental science Jr MSc( agri ) Environmental science 1 Dept. Forestry and environmental science Deportment of Forestry and Environmental science
  2. 2. Pollution When there are some physical, chemical or biological changes occur in our environment it is known as pollution. The substances which brings these changes are known as pollutants. Man made pollution When there are some physical, chemical or biological changes occur due to man made activities in our environment it is known as man made pollution.
  3. 3. Types of Environmental Pollution. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 3
  4. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 4
  5. 5. 1.Air pollution When some foreign particles enters the air and deteriorate its quality is known as air pollution. These particles can be produced naturally or man made Sources of Air Pollution • • • • • Volcanic eruptions, Dry soil erosion, Forest fires, Automobiles , Manufacturing exhaust, • Burning of fossil fuels.... 5
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  7. 7. 1. Air pollution 2. Water pollution 3. Soil pollution 4. Noise pollution 5. Thermal pollution 6. Plastic pollution 7. Radioactive Pollution 7
  8. 8. 2.Water pollution When some foreign particle, organic, inorganic or biological impurities are added to the water so that it becomes unfit for use is known as water pollution. Sources of water pollution Automobiles,  Fertilizers,  Animal waste ,  Sewage waste,  household cleaning products,  Litter etc..  8
  9. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 9
  10. 10. 3.Soil Pollution • Soil, or land pollution, is contamination of the soil that prevents natural growth and balance in the land whether it is used for cultivation, habitation, or a wildlife preserve. Sources soil pollution • Hazardous waste from industries, • Sewage waste, • Improper farming practices, such as the heavy use of inorganic fertilizers ,pesticides, herbicides ….. • Mining activity, • deforestation, • Household dumping and littering , etc….. 10
  11. 11. Bioremediation of soil ,water and air pollution Bioremediation • "Remediate" means to solve a problem. • ―Bio-remediate" means to use biological organisms to solve an environmental problem such as contaminated soil , air and water. 11
  12. 12. Types of bioremediation • Phytoremediation • Mycoremediation • Bacterial remediation 12
  13. 13. Phytoremediation • Phytoremediation is a process of decontaminating soil or water by using plants and trees to absorb or break down pollutants. 13
  14. 14. Phytoremediation 14
  15. 15. 1. Phytoextraction – Uptake of substances from the environment, with storage in the plant (also known as phytoaccumulation). 2. Phytostabilization – Reducing the movement or transfer of substances in the environment, for example, limiting the leaching of soil contaminants. 3. Phytostimulation – Enhancement of microbial activity for the degradation of contaminants, typically around plant roots. 4. Phytotransformation – Uptake of substances from the environment, with degradation occurring within the plant (phytodegradation). 15 Cont….
  16. 16. 5. Phytovolatilization – Removal of substances from the soil or water with release into the air, possibly after degradation. 6. Rhizofiltration – The removal of toxic materials from groundwater through root activity. 16
  17. 17. The role of genetics in phytoremediation Genetic engineering is a powerful method for enhancing natural phytoremediation capabilities, or for introducing new capabilities into plants. For example, Genes encoding a nitroreductase from a bacterium were inserted into tobacco and showed faster removal of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,) and enhanced resistance to the toxic effects of TNT 17
  18. 18. Examples of phytoextraction from soils • Arsenic, using the Sunflower a hyper accumulator in its leaves and Chinese Brake fern also stores in its leaves. • Cadmium and zinc, using Alpine pennycress, a hyper accumulator of these metals at levels that would be toxic to many plants. 18
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  20. 20. Advantages of phytoremediation • the cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes . • the plants can be easily monitored • the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in “phyto mining”) • it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state. 20
  21. 21. Limitations of phytoremediation  Phytoremediation is limited to the surface area and depth occupied by the roots.  Slow growth and low biomass require a long-term commitment.  With plant-based systems of remediation, it is not possible to completely prevent the leaching of contaminants into the groundwater 21
  22. 22. Mycoremediation • Mycoremediation is a form of bioremediation in which fungi are used to decontaminate the area. • Certain strains of fungi have been reported to successfully degrade the nerve gases sarin . example: Nematophagous Fungi Ligninolytic fungi. Fungi such as the white rot fungus Phanaerochaete chrysosporium have the ability to d egrade an extremely toxins present in the soil. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Bacteria Aerobic bacteria recognized for their degradation are Pseudomonas, Alcaligenes, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, and Mycobacterium. Thaismicrobes have often been reported to degrade pesticides and hydrocarbons and polyaromatic compounds. • Kumar.A, Bisht.B.S, Joshi.V.D, Dhewa.T International Journal of Environmental Sciences Volume 1 No.6, 2011 24
  25. 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 25
  26. 26. 4.Noise Pollution • Noise pollution refers to undesirable levels of noises caused by human activity that disrupt the standard of living in the affected area Sources of noise pollution •Traffic •Airports •Railroads •Manufacturing plants •Construction or demolition 26
  27. 27. Effects of noise pollution Hearing loss, Wildlife disturbances, and A general degradation of lifestyle. 27
  28. 28. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 28
  29. 29. 5. Thermal pollution • Thermal pollution is the discharge of waste heat via energy dissipation into cooling water and subsequently into nearby waterways. Sources of thermal pollution • Power plants creating electricity from fossil fuel • Water as a cooling agent in industrial facilities 29
  30. 30. Effects of Thermal pollution • Thermal shock: Due to decrease in DO levels there is suffocation of plants and animal species which creates anaerobic conditions .The sudden change in the temperature causes harm to the aquatic organisms. 30
  31. 31. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 31
  32. 32. 6. Plastic pollution • The accumulation in the environment of manmade plastic products to the point where they create problems for wildlife and their habitats as well as for human populations. 32
  33. 33. Plastic A synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers ,that can be moulded into shape while soft, and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form. 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Plastics Thermoplastic plastics are made of long chains of polymers which don‟t cross over very often. When heated, the molecules slip easily over one another. Thermosetting plastics also have lots of long chain molecules, but there are links between them. These cross links prevent the molecules from moving over one another. individual monomer molecule individual monomer molecule 35
  36. 36. Plastics There are two main groups of plastics: thermosetting plastics thermoplastic plastics. Thermoplastic plastics: The word ‘plastic’ What does ‘easily means the word ‘plastic’ mean? shaped or moulded’. Formed by heat Soften when heated Made of long polymer chains with few cross links Can be reheated and reshaped Mostly recyclable 36
  37. 37. Thermosetting plastics: Initially set by heat Consist of polymer chains with strong bonds between each chain Strong and durable Cannot be reshaped once set Common in powder or resin forms 37
  38. 38. What are the reasons responsible for Plastic Pollution in our Community.     Waste of the households, Shops , etc. Improper garbage system of the area. Irregularity of the Pvt. Garbage contractors. Ignorance of the people about the causes and effects of the plastic pollution.  Lack of proper knowledge about the plastic pollution and its effects.  Lack of social responsibility and ownership. 38
  39. 39. SOLUTIONS TO CONTROL PLASTIC POLLUTION. • Awareness campaigns- Stop using plastic bags. Educate people about the plastic pollution and its effects on our environment. • Road show in regards “No to plastic bags”, and display of banners on the walls of slums, colonies and societies areas. • Hands with the Municipal Corporation to take the corrective measures, to do timely inspections. • Support NSS, NGOs, Volunteer agencies. • Social responsibility, commitment and ownership by every individual may control the problem. 39
  40. 40. Bioplastics Vs Petroplastics 40
  41. 41. Bioplastics • A bio plastic is a form of plastic made from renewable biomass and it is biodegradable , instead of traditional plastics derived from petroleum Examples of bioplastic polymers are polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), polyhydroxybutyrate-covalerate (PHBV), and polyesteramide. 41
  42. 42. Biodegradable bioplastic Starch-based bioplastics. Can be manufactured from either raw or modified starch.. Common starch sources include maize, wheat, potatoes and cassava. Cellulose-based bioplastics. Chemically-modified plant cellulose materials such as cellulose acetate . Common cellulose sources include wood pulp, hemp and cotton. Lignin-based bioplastics Contain wood (or lignocellulosic plant material) produced as a byproduct of the paper milling industry. Plant proteins bioplastics. Such as maize „zein‟ can also be used to manufacture bioplastics. Milk based bioplastic Milk is used for preparation of bioplastic 42
  43. 43. CORN BASED BIOPLASTIC • • • • • • • • Here is how to make corn-based plastic: Materials 1 tablespoon cornstarch 2 drops corn oil Zip-sealing plastic bag 1 tablespoon water Food coloring Microwave oven 43
  44. 44. What to do • Place the cornstarch in the plastic bag. • Add corn oil. Add water. Seal the bag, and then mix the ingredients by rubbing outside the bag with your fingers. • Add two drops of any color food coloring to the mixture, seal and mix again. • Open the zip seal just a tiny bit and put the bag in a microwave oven. Microwave on high 20–25 seconds. Be careful removing your plastic. It will be hot! • While the plastic is still warm, shape it into a ball. If you want to see your ball degrade, just immerse it in water. 44
  45. 45. How it works • Before heating, the starch and water molecules combine physically in a liquid mixture, but do not permanently attach. • Heating causes the water molecules to move fast enough to penetrate and break up the starch granules, which then tangle together to form polymers. Because the polymers are weaker than commercial plastics,they readily break apart in water. 45
  46. 46. MILK BASED BIOPLASTIC INGREDIENTS • 1 cup of milk • 2 tablespoons of vinegar for each cup of milk • spoon for stirring • fine strainer • container (to strain the mixture) • paper towels for clean up 46
  47. 47. DIRECTIONS • 1. Pour the milk into a pan and warm it on the stove. Be careful not to boil. 2 .Move the pan from the heat. 3. Add vinegar to the warm milk and stir until it separates and the curds are well formed (about 1–2 minutes). 4 .Strain the mixture through the fine strainer. 5. Wait for the strained curds to completely cool (2–3 minutes). 6 .Wrap the curds in the cloth , hold them between your hands and squeeze out the extra liquid. 7 .The curds will be crumbly at first—press and knead them into a solid plastic. (A drop or two of glycerin will help to ―plasticize‖ the mixture.) 8. Shape the plastic as you like—you may want to use cookie cutters to cut shapes. Let dry overnight. 47
  48. 48. Types of Environmental Pollution. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Air pollution Water pollution Soil pollution Noise pollution Thermal pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive Pollution 48
  49. 49. 7. Radioactive Pollution • Radioactive pollution can be defined as the release of radioactive substances or high-energy particles into the air, water, or earth as a result of human activity, either by accident or by design. Manmade Sources of radioactive pollution 1) nuclear weapon testing or detonation 2) the nuclear fuel cycle, including the mining, separation, and production of nuclear materials for use in nuclear power plants or nuclear bombs. 3) accidental release of radioactive material from nuclear power plants. Natural sources Radon gas emitted from beneath the ground, are considered pollutants when they become a threat to human health. 49
  50. 50. Bioremediation for radioactive pollution • Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a Ucontaminated soil to remove the U. Jianwei W. Huang ,* Michael J. Blaylock , Yoram Kapulnik , and Burt D. Ensley Phytotech Inc., 1 Deer Park Drive, Suite I, Monmouth Junction, New Jersey 08852 Environ. Sci. Technol., 1998, 32 (13), pp 2004–2008 • Helianthus annuus in phytoremediation for uranium Beate Huhle, Herman Heilmeier ,Broder Merkel Book -Uranium, Mining and Hydrogeology • Bacteria Clostridium is used for bioremediation for uranium contaminated areas. 50
  51. 51. • Water hyacinth for phytoremediation of radioactive waste simulate contaminated with caesium and cobalt radionuclide's H.M. Saleh ,Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza, Egypt • Sunflowers used as phytoremident for uranium in the Chernobyl accident. Francis A. J. 1997. Biotechnology of Radioactive Wastes 51
  52. 52. “I have never in my life learned anything from any man who agreed with me“ - Dudley Field Malone THANK YOU 11/13/2013 52