2. Outline Introduction Basic Principles of Language Learning Model Lesson Techniques Language Learning Task Conclusion
3. Introduction of Methodology Methodology – A branch of pedagogics dealing with analysis and evaluation of subjects to be taught and of the methods of teaching them. What goes on in the classroom, what students have to do. (Robinson, 1991)
4. Basic Principles of Language Learning (a) Language learning is developmental process - existing knowledge contributes to better understanding. Language learning is an active process. - psycho-motor activity - language processing activity
5. LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE IN BRAIN (A) LEFT RIGHTHEMISPHERE HEMISPHERE (analytic) ( creative ) -Analytic • holistic thought thought - logic • intuition -Language • creativity- Science and • art and math music
6. LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE IN BRAIN (B) Paul Broca also specified the location of the language part in the brain which is at the front part of the left hemisphere known as Broca’s area A decade later, a German Neurologist, Carl Wernicke has discovered another variety of aphasia at the temporal lobe of left hemisphere known Wernicke’s area. Broca’s area + Wernicke’s area = language function (lateralization)
7. LOCALIZATION OF LANGUAGE IN BRAIN (C)
8. Basic Principles of Language Learning (b) Language learning is a decision making process. - enhance critical thinking - developmental process of knowledge takes place. Language learning is not just a matter of linguistic knowledge. - linguistic knowledge and cognitive capacity should be developed together.
9. Basic Principles of Language Learning (c) Language learning is not the learner’s first experience with language. - learners are already competent in communication. Learning is an emotional experience. - create positive emotions
10. Basic Principles of Language Learning (d) Language learning is to large extent incidental. - Language can be learned in many ways. Language learning is not systematic. - learners should create their internal system inside the brain.
11. Model Lesson (a) Materials: Hotel Management and Operations text book (5th edition). Test Pad 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. Audience: Economics and management students. Place: In Hotel and Resort Management class.
12. Model Lesson (b) Procedures: A) Starter Ask students to read a case study in Unit 4.6, from page 150 to 158. B) Analysis 1) Divide the class into 5 groups. 2) Give one test pad to each group. 3) Give one question to each group, the questions provided are as follow: a) Who is bellstand? List the duties of the bellstand in a hotel. b) Describe procedures in handling various types of guests’ luggage. c) Describe pre-check in activities. d) Describe the procedures handling VIPs’ arrival in a hotel. e) What is an express guest check out? Describe the procedures in handling express guest check out. 4) Ask the students to discuss in group and list out the points in the test pad provided.
13. Model Lesson (c) Procedures (cont.) C) Sharing Information 1) Ask each group to send a representative to present the answer for each of the questions. 2) Ask every student to give comments based on the answers given. 3) Ask why if students think that the points presented are not enough. Teacher will then give further explanation on the topic given. D) Prediction In this way, students should be able to: 1) know how front office works in a hotel. 2) describe what are the procedures in every check-in activities. 3) think critically. (“Why do you think so?”)
14. Techniques (a) Types of Techniques ExplanationGaps Gaps create the demand of thinking in the learning process. There are varies of gaps: a) Information Gaps b) Media Gaps c) Reasoning Gaps d) Memory Gaps e) Jigsaw Gaps f) Opinion Gaps g) Certainty Gaps
15. Techniques (b)Variety In order to get the repetition necessary to help learning, there must be a variety to keep the mind alert. Variety can be achieved in: (i) Medium: text, speech (ii) Classroom Organisation: pair work, group (iii) Learner Roles: presenter, negotiator (iv) Exercise, activity, task (v) Skills: , listening, speaking (vi) Topic (vii)Focus: fluency, discoursePrediction Using existing knowledge of pattern or system to assume or anticipate a novel situation.
16. Techniques (c)Enjoyment Necessary in order to engage the learner’s mind. It doesn’t matter how relevant a lesson is, if it bores the learners it is a bad lesson.An Integrated Using a range of skills increases the range of activities in the classroom.MethodologyCoherence The progress of lesson should be clear. Each stage should be in order to ensure a smooth flow of process.Preparation An early planning on what is needed to be taught in the lesson. Also normally interpreted as the teacher planning the stages of the lesson.
17. Techniques (d)Involvement Participation of the student in both cognitively and emotionally in the lesson.Creativity Lesson should includes activities that allow varies answer level of responses,Atmosphere The cultivation of a cooperative social climate within the classroom. Eg. A teacher who is unsure of the materials or who actively dislikes the subject area will project a different ambience.
18. Language Learning Task (a) Language Learning Task In EGP Language learning task is one of a set of differentiated, sequencable, problem-posing activities that involving learners and teachers. Language learning task is also a range of varied cognitive and communicative procedures applied to existing and new knowledge in the collective exploration and pursuance of foreseen or emergent goals within a social milieu. (Candlin, 334) Criterias for task design: A) Extended discourse B) Information gap C) Uncertainty D) Goal-orientation E) Real-time processing
19. Language Learning Task (b) Language Learning Task In ESP Methodological principles: A) Reality control B) Non-triviality C) Authenticity D) Tolerance of error
20. Language Learning Task (cont.) Role Play and Simulations Role play - involves the learner taking on a different role and even identity from his or her usual one. Simulations - is frequently longer than a role play and allow the student to maintain his or her normal persona. Roles of simulation: A) Motivate learner. B) Give opportunities for meaningful practice of the language learnt. C) Inject a feeling of realism. D) Use as an assessment technique. E) Encourage creativity.
21. Language Learning Task (cont.) Case Studies Case studies/case report - an intensive analysis of an individual unit and stressing development factors in relation to context. By doing case studies, all language skills are involved. Reading input documents, listening and speaking or discuss and writing the report. Have introduction to the professional culture.
22. Language Learning Task (cont.) Project work Group project Mini research project Literature based project
23. Language Learning Task (cont.) Oral Presentation Most common last task type in ESP. Project such as written report, case studies and mini research are required to do oral presentation in the end. All the language skills are involved. Communication and professional skills as main focus.
24. Conclusion Identify the learners needs, create syllabus and carry out methodologies is not enough to let an ESP programme to be successful. Interaction between the teachers and the learners is more important to create a successful ESP programme. Enable learners to communicate effectively using the target language by interaction. Enable learners to achieve the course goal. Can improve both teachers and learners performances.
25. Questions Explain methodology in ESP. What are the techniques used in methodology of ESP? What are the difference of the methodological principles between EGP and ESP? How can the variety be achieved?