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  • 1. Management Centre TeambuildingALL CONTENTS COPYRIGHT © 2004-2008 H&H ASSOCIATES WEDNESDAY, 05 NOVEMBER 2008
  • 2. . .Contents . .Team Building ..................................................................................................1 . . Purpose .....................................................................................................1 . . Introduction ................................................................................................1 . Ideas for Team Building.............................................................................3 Outdoor/indoor pursuits .............................................................................3 Workshops.................................................................................................3 Social events .............................................................................................4 Charitable work..........................................................................................4 Changes to work practices ........................................................................4 Training and Development ........................................................................5 Summary ...................................................................................................5 Team Learning Reviews - Introduction......................................................5 The Learning Organization ........................................................................5 What is Team Learning? ...........................................................................6 Questioning................................................................................................6 Valuing Diversity ........................................................................................8 Communicating........................................................................................10 Learning Review ......................................................................................11 Conclusion ...............................................................................................11 Team Communication -What does it take? .............................................12 Overview..................................................................................................12 Why communication is important & necessary…....................................12 Characteristics of Open Communication.................................................13 Guidelines to Team Communication .......................................................14 Responsibilities of Team Members .........................................................14Appendix – Definitions & Resources .............................................................20 Resources................................................................................................20 Definitions ................................................................................................21 2
  • 3. Team Building Week1 – Day 3PurposeThe purpose of this lecture is to present the importance of teambuilding anddeveloping a team.IntroductionCompetencies emerged in the 1980s as a response to organisational changesand to wider changes in society. In 1982 the US academic, Richard Boyatziswrote “The competent manager: a model for effective performance”. This bookproved to have considerable influence on the profession and, over the followingtwo decades, competency frameworks became an increasingly accepted part ofmodern HR practice.The use of competencies was featured as a special area of investigation in our2007 Learning and development survey. ARE You An Emotionally Intelligent Leader Or A Dimwit? Posted by Marianne Kolbasuk McGee, Jul 2, 2008 02:40 PM Recession or no recession, dot-com boom or bust, bull or bear market, it doesnt seem to matter. For as long as Ive been covering tech career trends (about 15 years,) employers have complained about shortages of IT professionals who have the right balance of "people skills" and tech-skills du jour. However, now theres a new skill shortage developing--a scarcity of "emotionally intelligent" IT leaders. Have you tapped into your emotional intelligence today? In case you missed it, the term "emotional intelligence" first popped up on book shelves and newsstands in 1995 with the release of Daniel Golemans book called, well, Emotional Intelligence (Bantam Books). That tome, and a number of follow-up books and articles, outlined how ones ability (or inability) to identify and understand ones own emotions--and those of others--influences that persons knack for leading, motivating or alienating others.
  • 4. For instance, like on deadline day when your multi-million dollar IT project is due to go live, and yourteam has been working weeks of 18-hour days to fix a big glitch, but then Joe, VP of marketing, walksby your office asking if you can help him program his new iPhone--do you:a) Bite your tongue and help Joeb) Hastily pawn off Joe to one of your frazzled staffc) Tell Joe to get lostd) Ask Joe how hes feelingEven if you havent read the book (which I admittedly havent,) you get the idea. Recognizing, forinstance, when you--or others--are about to pop, but knowing how to tap and channel those emotionsfor a more productive (and civil) outcome are admirable and useful skills for anyone, but especiallyleaders.Ok, Golemans book came out 13 years ago. So why is emotional intelligence suddenly so important(and apparently in shortage) for IT leaders now? Surely, there have always been shortages of"emotionally intelligent" leaders of all kinds--from executives to politicians, teachers to camp counselors--even before the book was published. (How did Noah coax the mules onto that ark, anyhow?)The problem now, however, is that theres a new melting pot of generation gaps stewing in todaysworkplace. Youve probably heard that too. Baby boomers, Gen X, Gen Y, Millenials--everyone is tryingto work together like one big, happy, dysfunctional family.However, youve probably also heard (or maybe even participated in) examples of how grumpy BabyBoomer managers dont have a clue (or the patience) to motivate coddled Millenials, the 20-somethingswho grew up in the self-esteem-aware era where everyones a winner.Those same newbies also have a penchant for making the world greener, balancing life and work, andare "very goal and metric driven," says Shelly Funderburg, a VP at Right Management, the humancapital consulting services arm of staffing firm Manpower.So, as a leader, knowing how to tap into what makes those youngsters (as well as the old timers) tick--and learning how to modify your style to cultivate the very best work out of these people (and retainthose employees), well, thats a big ingredient in the recipe for success for your own career, as well asyour organization, Funderburg says.Emotional intelligence skills are sort of a next level in "soft-skills," or interpersonal, communication skills,she says. "It boils down to how the emotion is infused in interpersonal relationships, how do youcommunicate when you or others are under stress," she says."Theres a lot of change happening in the workplace, higher levels of stress," says Funderburg, whosecompany offers coaching for leaders to develop emotional intelligence skills."Everyone is different, people derail for different reasons," she says. Coaching can help individualsdiagnose whats likely to derail them, and how to develop a "toolkit" to deal with that--as well aseffectively lead and motivate others in challenging, stressful situations.A recent Right Management survey of 656 HR managers in North America found that only 23% oforganizations provide new leaders (or those individuals who recently advanced to supervising others)with any sort of coaching to assist their development in that career transition. Thats where the potentialshortage of emotionally intelligent IT leaders of the future comes in. 2
  • 5. Hows your emotional intelligence coming along?Ideas for Team BuildingThere are many different types of team building activities that you can considerdoing in your team, falling into the categories of:  Outdoor/Indoor Pursuits  Workshops  Social Events  Community Service or Charitable Work  Changes to Work Practices  Individual Training/DevelopmentOutdoor/indoor pursuitsThere are a wide variety of pursuits available, from conventional ones such ascanoeing or rock climbing, to more unusual ones, such as blind-four-wheel-driving or sheep-driving. We cant list them all here, because there are so many,but there is a selection on our outdoor team building activities page. Thesepursuits are often expensive (typically starting in excess of �100/person).If physical activity is a problem for some members of the group, then there aresome outdoor pursuits that are less active, such as:  treasure hunt  making a video  hot air ballooning  cookingIf those are too active, you could then try indoor pursuits, such as:  10-pin bowling  Quasar  Casino gamesWorkshopsWorkshops (preferably offsite) enables a group to focus on a particular topicwithout interruption.In many situations, the most effective type of workshop is one that involveseveryone in forming collective goals or developing strategic or tactical plans. Thisengenders ownership amongst all members, and is one of the most powerfulteam building activities you can use.Other types of workshops can help to develop better relationships, mutualunderstanding or solve particular business issues: 3
  • 6.  Group games and exercises (that have learning points)  Psychometrics or personality questionnaires (to develop better interpersonal understanding)  Business problem solving, or information exchange  Customer interaction forums (eg: ask customers to provide feedback on the service, or what they want from you in the future  Technology exchange (invite leading figures from the industry to present their vision of the future)Social eventsThese are often the most cost-effective form of team building activities, becausethey are low cost and high impact. It is often important to make sure that peoplemixes, especially with larger groups, otherwise people just stick with their friends.Here are some ideas for social events:  Lunchtime drink  Evening meal/BBQ  Family picnic  Quiz nightsSocial events can be organised for very little cost and are like the oil in anengine: they can help keep the heat down and things running smoothly.Charitable workWhy not choose to do something that has a benefit to the community? Achievingsomething worthwhile can help to unite the group even more, providing it is nottoo difficult a task and does not create too much pressure.Changes to work practicesHaving a day offsite or doing something that is fun may have a short term impact,but to improve communication, co-operation, etc. in the long term, you may needto introduce new work practices, such as:  Team meetings/Cascade briefings  Job swapping  Team newsletter (for larger teams)  Open door policy  MBWA (Management By Walk About), for all staff, not just management 4
  • 7. Training and DevelopmentIt can be beneficial to combine team building activities with individual training.That is, the group receives training, but does so as a group. This has the dualbenefit of developing the individuals whilst going through the experiencecollectively.Such courses could include:  Communications  Persuasion  Negotiation  Technical trainingSummarySome of the options we have outlined above are very effective and dont cost alot of money. Social events are particularly valuable because they can bearranged to suit most peoples diaries/tastes, are relatively cheap, and have a bigimpact. However, the best approach is often to have a "mixed portfolio" and dosomething in all the above areas.Team Learning Reviews - IntroductionMany organizations have tried to focus on teams. Self-managed teams offer thepotential for downsizing organizations and the prospect of improving productivity.How many organizations can claim to have really succeeded in their attempt?Meeting people from all around the world, I hear the same comment, "Oh, teams,yes we tried that but it didnt work."It is not possible to wave a magic wand and create a high-performing, self-managed team overnight. A self-managed team needs to develop a culture oflifelong, individual and team learning.The Learning OrganizationA buzz word often talked about is The Learning Organization. This concept isthe synthesis of a number of ideas about managerial learning brought togetherand popularized by Peter Senge and others in their books about the FifthDiscipline. Five disciplines comprise the learning organization concept.They are:  Systems Thinking  Personal Mastery  Mental Models  Shared Vision 5
  • 8.  Team LearningMany people I talk with are impressed by these five disciplines and want tointroduce them to their organization overnight. The question they always ask meis, Where do I start?My answer is, Start with Team Learning. It is a process you can commencetomorrow and it just may help you prevent your self-managed team strategy fromfailing.What is Team Learning?Team Learning is an adaptation of action-learning originally proposed in the UKby Reg Revans many years ago and recently rediscovered by organizationaldevelopment consultants in the USA. It focuses on providing solutions tobusiness problems by developing an open approach to questioning. As RegRevans himself once said, "The mark of a leader is not the answers he gives butthe questions he asks." The business world is changing at such a pace that thesolutions to problems are not found in books or journals, nor in the mind of theexpert. They are found by team members themselves, who, through the processof Team Learning, identify the key questions to be addressed. They then seek touse their resources to find the answers, often through trial and error.The concepts of Team Learning can be broken down into four key components: 1. Questioning 2. Valuing Diversity 3. Communicating 4. Learning ReviewQuestioningWhen faced with a problem, a new project or an opportunity, it is a good idea tofocus on the nine key success factors which make the difference between a high-performing team and a low-performing team. These factors are arranged in amodel of team tasks, known as the Types of Work Wheel.This Wheel describes nine essential team activities as:  Advising - Gathering and reporting information  Innovating - Creating and experimenting with ideas  Promoting - Exploring and presenting opportunities  Developing - Assessing and testing the applicability of new approaches  Organizing - Establishing and implementing ways of making things work  Producing - Concluding and delivering outputs  Inspecting - Controlling and auditing the working of systems  Maintaining - Upholding and safeguarding standards and processes  Linking - Coordinating and integrating the work of othersThese factors form the basis for a methodology of questioning. 6
  • 9. When faced with a difficult problem, the starting point for team discussion isadvising. What information do we need? Why? Where will we get it? Who will getit? When do we need it? How will we get it? This ensures that all currentlyavailable data is gathered for consideration.The Innovating sector ensures that the team will spend time discussing ideasaround the problems being faced. Most successful innovating sessions follow aprocedure designed to ensure an open and diverging discussion. Such sessionsshould be free from any commitment to make a decision. That comes later.Promoting has two aspects to it. Each team member needs to learn how topresent ideas and solutions in a way that will influence other team members.Equally important is a focus on the key stakeholders outside the team. Whooutside the team needs to be persuaded if the idea is to proceed?Many ideas are impracticable and can never be implemented, due toorganizational and cultural constraints. Developing sessions focus on whichideas are likely to work and how can they be tested for verification.Organizing is action-oriented and ensures that the team will implement agreedsolutions and assign accountabilities and responsibilities. It is predictablycoloured red - the colour of action.Producing addresses the output aspects of any decision. What are weproducing? To what quality levels? To what standards? When? Producingdefines the bottom-line on which many teams are evaluated.How many ideas fail because the detailed aspects were not thought through?Unforeseen contractual problems arise, financial difficulties occur, security issueseventuate, computer errors appear. Many of these Inspecting problems can beeliminated by focusing discussion on this aqua-blue aspect of work. Blue is thecolour of cool, clear, detailed thinking.Maintaining the agreed decisions and the team processes will ensure that theteam stays together and learns together. Your car will fail if it doesnt have aregular 10,000km service. Your team will fail if it is not maintained. Maintenanceinvolves regularly reviewing mistakes in a non-recriminatory way and establishingguidelines to prevent them from reoccurring.Linking is in the middle of the model because it is a shared responsibility of everyteam member. Each person working on a team task must undertake to link withother team members so that everyone is fully informed.This model should be the basis for any Team Learning processes established inyour organization. It provides a structure and a language to ensure that theessential activities for excellence in teamwork are continually implemented. 7
  • 10. Many successful learning teams structure their meetings into four basic sessions,rather than attempting to cover everything in one sitting. Green meetings focuson information; yellow meetings concentrate on opportunities, red meetingsimplement plans and blue meetings check details and review progress.Valuing DiversityDiversity of thinking is one of the hallmarks of learning teams. Problems need tobe viewed from different angles if the best solutions are to be generated. Ifeveryone looks at problems in the same way then group think can occur. Ifdiversity is allowed and encouraged, then better solutions will result.However the downside of diversity is conflict. Different viewpoints will inevitablylead to disagreement and it is only the committed learning team that can use thediversity of views in a positive way.Many of the work content issues of diversity can be addressed through apreference model like the Team Management Wheel. This model highlights thedifferent ways that team members like to approach work situations. The model issummarized below:  Reporter-Advisers enjoy gathering information and putting it together in a way that makes it easily understood. Usually they are patient people who prefer to have all the information before they take action.  Creator-Innovators enjoy thinking up new ideas and new ways of doing things. Usually they are very independent and will pursue their ideas regardless of existing systems and methods.  Explorer-Promoters like to take ideas and promote them to others, both inside and outside the organization. They are often advocates of change and are highly energized, active people who like to have several projects on the go at once.  Assessor-Developers usually display a strong analytical approach and are at their best where several different possibilities need to be analyzed and developed. They are often sociable, outgoing people who enjoy looking for new markets or opportunities.  Thruster-Organizers are people who enjoy making things happen. They are analytical decision-makers, always doing what is best for the task, even if their actions sometimes upset others. Their great ability is to get things done, and for this reason they are often found working in project management positions.  Concluder-Producers are practical people who can be counted on to carry things through to the end. Their strength is in setting up plans and 8
  • 11. standard systems so that outputs can be achieved on a regular basis, in an orderly and controlled fashion.  Controller-Inspectors are quiet, reflective people who enjoy the detailed side of work, such as dealing with facts and figures. They are usually careful and meticulous and can spend long periods of time on a particular task, working quietly on their own.  Upholder-Maintainers are people with strong personal values and principles which are of prime importance in their decision-making. Usually they have a high concern for people and will be strongly supportive of those who share the same ideals and values as they do.  The Linker role is a shared role that is held in conjunction with the other roles. It comprises key skills focusing on the linking of people, linking of tasks and leadership linking.It is immediately obvious that this model is related to the Types of Work Wheel.Someone with a preference towards being a Reporter-Adviser will most likelyenjoy Advising work and can be assigned responsibility for the informationprocesses. Someone with a preference to be a Thruster-Organizer will mostlikely prefer to work in the sharp end of the team, organizing and making thingshappen.The Wheel highlights the diversity problem in a team. The Explorer-Promoter, forexample, will look at situations totally differently to a Controller-Inspector, whichmay cause frustration or conflict.However, once team members understand their individual work preferences, theyhave a language for discussing potential problems that might occur. It helpseveryone understand, for example, why the Thruster-Organizers in the team mayget impatient when too much time is spent in green or yellow meetings.Team Management Wheel role preferences are measured by the TeamManagement Profile Questionnaire - a 60 item profile questionnaire focusing onRelationships, Information, Decision-Making, and Organization. Feedback is a4000 word report on individual work patterns. 9
  • 12. CommunicatingCommunication is the essential process that links a team together. In Sengesbooks the authors talk about dialog or skillful discussion. In Team ManagementSystems, we prefer to talk about the seven key influencing skills that ensureteam processes are at an optimum.The Strategic Communication Model can help achieve this.Pacing, Inquiry and Identifying are shown on the model as Information-Focusedskills while Leading, Proposing and Closure are Solution-Focused skills as theyare commonly used to move discussions towards solutions. Reviewing is in themiddle as it can be used in either situation. Communicating within the teamlearning discipline is a dynamic process which constantly moves through allseven skills.  Pacing is the technique of varying your communication style to match that of other people. When dealing with a Controller-Inspector, for example, you may need to focus on the details, slow down your rate of speaking and make the connections between the past and the future. With an Explorer-Promoter you need to be future oriented, enthusiastic and full of ideas. Pacing establishes a rapport with the other person, enabling an open and honest dialogue to take place.  Inquiry is listening carefully to what people are saying and asking questions to fill in the gaps. Knowing when to use closed-ended inquiry or open-ended inquiry and when to focus on the facts or the feelings are the skills associated with this sector.  A joint Identifying of the root cause of a problem is essential before any discussion on solutions is attempted. Many a team implements a solution to the problem they think they have, rather than to the problem they actually have!  When team discussions are complex and long, everyone will lose track of the important points. Reviewing is therefore essential to ensure that everyone has the same understanding. 10
  • 13.  Leading is one of the most critical solution-centered skills as it can focus the conversation on the important issues. It is a process of transmitting information in a way that leads people to talk about possible solutions rather than your imposing solutions upon them. Leading can be done overtly (simple leading) or covertly (complex leading) and can involve advanced techniques like storytelling.  Proposing involves presenting possible solutions as a choice of options. The number of choices will often depend upon the various role preferences of the team.  Closure is where the conversation is brought to an end, or closed, with an agreed action between the two conversing parties.Learning ReviewLearning is an iterative process that takes place through feedback. We are allused to performance reviews and individual feedback, but rarely do weexperience team feedback.At the end of each team meeting (or at the start of the next), it is a good idea toreview how the meeting went. Was the questioning process adequate? Did wevalue diversity? How well did we communicate?If conflicts did arise in the meeting everyone should be encouraged to personallyreview what went on. A useful technique here is the three position process.Review how the interaction seemed from your position, replaying the scene withdialog. Now transpose yourself into the body of the other person, listening andfeeling the interaction from their perspective. Finally zoom out and take aposition outside the group and observe the interaction from a distance. Noticehow it would seem and feel to an observer. These three positions will give youvaluable information on how the discussion should have perhaps gone.ConclusionTeam Learning is fundamental to the performance of a team. Without it, a teamcan never achieve its potential. Team members can attend strategic planning 11
  • 14. sessions, learn techniques of quality assurance or learn how to run a meeting,but unless the principles of Team Learning are fully implemented, improvementswill be short-lived.Team Communication -What does it take?Overview  Why it is important & necessary  Creating Team Communication  Characteristics of Open Communication  Guidelines to Team Communication  Responsibilities of Team Members  Getting Your Message Across  Other issues  Tools  QuestionsWhy communication is important & necessary…  In a team you are ALL working towards a same goal.  You need to define and ensure that the goal is shared by all the members.  If there are questions/issues about the goal those need to be resolved quickly in order for the team to move forward. 12
  • 15.  When decisions need to be made the team has to be made aware of the decision that is at hand.  EVERYONE NEEDS TO BE ON BOARD  If communication keeps the team members informed, therefore a team working towards the same goal can be more effective and efficient.  Information is shared within team.  Team members have knowledge  Knowledge is power  Sense of power gives members sense of belonging and dedication  Dedicated members will contribute more and feel valuable to the team.Creating team communication  Ensure that goals are clearly defined.  Interaction is aimed at solving problems and achieving team goals.  Ensure team members trust each other by having open communication.Characteristics of Open Communication  Members are encouraged to solicit input from others.  Disagreement is invited and dealt with as a vital part of making sound decisions.  Team members share responsibility for communicating effectively. 13
  • 16.  Everyone is pro-active to understand team goals.Guidelines to Team Communication  Be specific: include facts and details to avoid being vague  Be accurate: as much as possible be sure that the information you are giving is true and reliable.  Be honest: be truthful with those you are communicating with and do not use questionable information.  Be logical: make sure messages are easy to follow  Be complete: give all needed information in regards to your ideas.  Be concise: be brief- not unnecessarily wordy.  Be relevant: stay on task and give information that is needed.  Ask for feedback: have recipients give comments on information.Responsibilities of Team Members  Open minded  Listen to what is being said  Give feedback to what is being said  Make sure all team members have a chance to communicate their ideas.  If decisions need to be made discuss pros and cons, and decide best option for TEAM.  Take ownership for what you say.  Take responsibility for making sure you are heard and understood.  Use terminology and examples that your audience understands. 14
  • 17.  Be aware of body language. Always work to maintain the trust and confidence of those with whom you are communicating/working. Getting Your Message Across State the purpose of your message. Communicate your message. Listen to the response of others. Clear up any misunderstandings. Summarize and move to action. Other Issues Team members who are not participating: Ensure they know goal and are on board towards working for the same goal If there are other reasons why team member is not participating then try to find out before team meets. If argument is valid then convey message of understanding to team without breaking confidence. If message is not valid then try to find help through your peers, or other people. Try to find ways of motivation for the team and ways team member will feel motivated to participate. Poor communication can lead to: 1. Wasted time and/or energy 2. Lack of trust 3. Misunderstandings 4. Deadlines are not met 15
  • 18. 5. Lack of change for the better  Therefore make sure team is exercising good communication. Tools  Recognize team members strengths and weaknesses  Open discussion  Response cards  Subgroup discussion  Partners  Fishbowl  Team GuttersStress exercise (stress demonstration, ice-breaker, and teambuilding)This is a helpful and non-threatening way to show the effects of stress andconfusion, especially in teams, and by implication the effects of stress onproductivity, organisational performance and healthy working.Ideally for teams of eight to ten people. Split larger groups into teams of 8-10 andestablish facilitation and review as appropriate, appointing and briefing facilitatorssince each team requires facilitation.You will need for each team about five balls of various sizes, compositions,weights, shapes, etc., depending on team size and the teams ball-handling skills.Five balls is probably adequate for most teams of eight people.Using very different balls makes the exercise work better (for example a tennisball, a beach ball, a rugby ball, a ping-pong ball, etc - use your imagination).Form each team into a circle. 16
  • 19. The aim is to throw and catch the ball (each ball represents a work task/objective) between team members - any order or direction. The ball must be kept moving (the facilitator can equate this to the processing of a task within the work situation). Allow the team to develop their own methods/pattern for throwing the ball between members if they find this helpful. A dropped ball equates to a failed task (which the facilitator can equate to a specific relevant objective). A held ball equates to a delayed task. When the team can satisfactorily manage the first ball, the facilitator should then introduce a second ball to be thrown and caught while the first ball remains in circulation. Equate the second ball to an additional task, or a typical work complication, like a holiday, or an extra customer requirement. Continue to introduce more balls one by one - not too fast - each time equating them to work situations and complications. Obviously before not too long the team is unable to manage all the balls, and chaos ensues. Avoid creating chaos too early by introducing too many balls too soon. Allow the sense of increasing stress and confusion to build, according to the ball- handling capability of the team. Introducing balls too quickly will not allow the stress to build. Points for review: Relate the experiences of the game to the work situation, especially effective team working and communications. What does too much pressure and failure feel like? Are these feelings the same for everyone? 17
  • 20.  Do we know how others are feeling and can best deal with stress and confusion, unless we ask? How can we anticipate, manage and avoid these effects at work? (Not easy, especially if the pressure is from above, which often it will be - nevertheless understanding the causes and effects of stressful confusion is the first step to resolving them). What helps us handle these pressures and what makes things worse? Relate this learning to work situations, and then to possible improvements and changes. Picture pieces game (teamwork, departmental/individual inputs towards a common goal) This exercise is a simple team-working idea, adaptable for any group size, and any ages. Duration is half an hour, or longer if you increase the complexity for big groups, and/or increase the size of the work. Choose a well known picture (or diagram or cartoon) - ideally one well-known and full of detail. Cut the picture (retaining a copy) into as many pieces - ideally equal squares or oblongs - as there are participants for the exercise. Issue each person a piece of the picture. Instruct people to create a copy of their piece of the picture exactly (for example) ten times bigger. Magnification level (ten-times, five-times, twenty-times, etc) is up to you - the more then the longer the activity takes, and the bigger the final result. Issue pencils/drawing/colouring equipment and paper and make rulers available for measuring. You will probably need to clarify what ten-times bigger actually means, or different interpretations of this could spoil the result (which is a lesson in itself about consistency of planning and communications, etc). 18
  • 21. Give a time limit (5-20 minutes depending on complexity of the work and the magnification level you specify). When all the enlargements are completed ask people to assemble them into a giant copy of the original picture - on the table, or onto a wall using sticky putty, (be careful not to use a wall whose surface could be damaged when removing the sticky putty). Review points: How would the group have responded to and met the task if the task leader simply asked the whole group to Create a copy of the picture ten-times original size? If the assembled big version is not right in any area, where did the task fail and for what reasons? If anyone has embellished their particular piece (which almost certainly will happen) how does this augment or threaten the final result, and what does this teach us about local interpretation and freedom? Does it depend on the task and the aims (and customer needs) as to whether the result is improved or weakened? (Probably) The activity demonstrates divisionalized departmental working - each person (represents a team or department) working on their own part (representing specialisms), all of which contribute to an overall group aim and result. What are the main factors determining success for working like this? Does each individual person (which represents a team or department) necessarily need to know what other people are doing, in order for the overall task to be achieved? (Probably not in detail.) Does each individual person (which represents a team or department) necessarily need to know what the end aim is in order to achieve the overall task? (Not necessarily, but arguably its helpful if they do.) What level of mutual understanding and checking (while the task is in progress) is useful for this sort of departmental or divisionalized working? Is there a fixed rule for checking in progress, or more likely, does it depend on the task and the performance of it? Here are some suggestions of well-known pictures to use for this exercise: Sunflowers (Van Gogh) Venus and Mars (Botticelli) 19
  • 22. The Hay Wain (Constable) Bathers at Asnières (Seurat) London Underground Tube Map The Bayeux Tapestry (lots of work there..) These are just examples - choose a picture that appeals to your group, and which when cut into pieces gives sufficient detail to work on. Other ideas for pictures: geographical maps and weather maps, biological diagrams, well-known posters and cartoons. You can adapt the exercise by altering the ten-times enlargement factor, for instance five-times would make the task easier and quicker; twenty or a hundred- times would make it more difficult and longer, (and also more impactful, if you have time and space, and enough drawing materials...) The task can be made more complex for large groups by: splitting the group into teams issuing each team a piece of the picture instructing each team to cut its piece of the picture into smaller pieces, giving one smaller piece to each team member.The resulting assembled whole picture will indicate how well each teamcommunicated and managed its own divisionalization of the task. Appendix – Definitions & Resources Resources ACCA - http://www.accaglobal.com/ ICAEW- http://icaew.com 20
  • 23. AIA - www.aiaworldwide.com/ Accounting web - http://www.accountingweb.co.uk/ ACAS - http://www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=837 Definitions What is teamwork?Key Points: -  In a general sense people talk of teamwork when they want to emphasise the virtues of co-operation and the need to make use of the various strengths of employees  This booklet concentrates on team working which involves organising employees into teams based on a distinct product, part of a process, or service - often cutting across existing functional divides Teams have been around for as long as anyone can remember and there can be few organisations that have not used the term in one sense or another. It is common to hear of management teams, production teams, service teams or even whole organisations being referred to as teams. Employers stress the importance of employees working as a team and advertise for staff with the ability to work in such a way. In a general sense people talk of teamwork when they want to emphasise the virtues of co-operation and the need to make use of the various strengths of employees. This booklet concentrates on a more specific use of the term team working involving a reorganisation of the way work is carried out. This includes organising employees into teams based on a distinct product, part of a process, or service - often cutting across existing functional divides. These teams are given a high degree of responsibility and expected to work with increased flexibility. Frequently the change to this type of team working is accompanied by wholesale changes to the management structure and the role of supervisors and managers. Companies which have reorganised their workforce into teams in this way claim substantial improvements in morale, job satisfaction, productivity and quality. These claims have resulted in interest from other organisations keen 21
  • 24. to share in the possible benefits. At the same time there is confusion overwhat exactly is meant by team working and concern on the part of managers,employees and their representatives over the possible drawbacks ofembarking on what may be a radical change in work organisation.Most research into team working has been carried out in manufacturing andmuch of the advice in this booklet is placed in a manufacturing context. Teamworking, however, is capable of much wider application and the booklet willalso be relevant to organisations in the service sector. Small firms, too, oftennaturally work in teams and will find the advice here can help to improve theireffectiveness. 22