Questions1) States the various key factors of oral presents(Dec 2012)(5)2) What are the visual aids? Give it’s importance in presentation. How will you prepare your oral presentation using visual aids? Describe.(July 2012, & Dec 2010)(8)3) Discuss the key factor of successful oral presentation(July 2012)(8)
Continue…4)Explains the techniques and importance of oral presentation of research findings. Is only oral presentation is sufficient? If not, why?(July 2010)(10)5)Discuss the key factor of successful oral presentation.(Dec 2010)(8)6)Discuss the importance of presentation skills in an oral presentation(June/July 2011)(6)
Continue…7)Describe the key factors of successful oral presentation.(June-July 2011)(5)8)Why there is a need of visual aids in an oral presentation?(June-July 2011)(5)9)Short note on oral presentation.(Dec 2011)(8)
DefinitionPresentation can be defined as• “Something set forth to an audience for the attention of the mind “
Importance• We can effectively recall• 20% of what we hear;• 30% of what we see;• 50% of what we hear and see;• 70% of what we do.• So it is clear that we must allow the audience to see, and hear and interact with the presenter and the presentation material.
In a presentation• To tell them what they need to know;• To show them as much as is necessary• To create opportunities for interaction
Types of PresentationsMore Persuasive Sales Instructional Explanatory Oral presentation More Detailed
SubtypesSome Presentations are• Too long• Too short• So Keep It Short and Simple
Short and Simple presentation• About 20 minutes (including the introduction and the conclusion) you have time for only two major points.• In 30 minutes you might make three major points.• In 40–45 minutes you might be able to cover four major points, but three points and a longer time for questions would be a better alternative.
Starting the presentation• List of things planned to say
Continue…• The ‘keyword’ in the central box should be a one or two word abbreviation of your primary objective.• Use just one or two words on each ‘limb’, even a whole phrase if necessary – but never a complete sentence.• Use the full range of colors you have available.• If different parts of the spider gram seem to link up, indicate this fact with a linking arrow rather than duplicating a whole set of ‘limbs’.
Creating a presentation• Make a structure to presentation. Make understanding of the points you are making as you go along.• Do not try to say• ‘which I will explain later on’ and ‘I’d like to add some comments to something I said earlier about…’• Effective way to create a structure for your presentation is to take the main points you plotted on your spidergram
Oral Presentation•Be active – move•Be purposeful - controlled gestures•Variations – vocal (pitch, volume, rate)•Be natural•Be direct – don’t just talk in front of the audience talkto them
Continue…• While using a over head projector face the audience while talking• Point with a pen• Appropriate lighting• Ensure clear visibility• 10 lines, 10 words per line
• Create your presentation in PowerPoint format.• Practice your presentation beforehand and time it.• Most volunteered papers are 15 minute presentations, including time for questions. Plan on making a 10-12 minute presentation to allow a few minutes for your introduction and any questions from the audience.• Use active words, short sentences.• Words should reinforce visual material.• Speak loudly and clearly into the microphone. Be sure to repeat any comments or questions from the audience.
Skills• There are differents skills• Communication skill• Hearing skills• Listening skill• Communication is the art of -transmitting information, -ideas and attitude from one person to another.• Communication is the process of meaningful interaction among human beings.
Continue…• A verbal or nonverbal message• A process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs, or behavior
What are the most common ways we communicate? Written Word
Barriers to communication• Noise• Inappropriate medium• Assumptions/Misconceptions• Emotions• Language differences• Poor listening skills• Distractions
Hearing & ListeningHearing – Physical process, natural, passiveListening – Physical as wellas mental process, active,learned process, a skill Listening is hard.
Essential of communication does•Always think ahead about what you are going to say.•Use simple words and phrases that are understood byevery body.•Increase your knowledge on all subjects you arerequired to speak.•Speak clearly and audibly.•While listening, always make notes of important points.•Always ask for clarification if you have failed to graspother’s point of view.
Essentials of communication don’ts•Do not instantly react .•Do not use technical terms and terminologies notunderstood by majority of people.•Do not speak too fast or too slow.•Do not speak in inaudible surroundings, as you won’tbe heard.•Do not assume that every body understands you•Do not interrupt the speaker.
How to Improve Communication?• IMPROVE LANGUAGE.• IMPROVE PRONUNCIATION.• WORK ON VOICE MODULATION.• WORK ON BODY LANGUAGE.• READ MORE• LISTEN MORE
Continue…• THINK AND SPEAK.• DO NOT SPEAK TOO FAST.• USE SIMPLE VOCABULARY.• DO NOT SPEAK ONLY TO IMPRESS SOMEONE.• LOOK PRESENTABLE AND CONFIDENT
Improving Body Language• Keep appropriate distance• Take care of your appearance• Maintain eye contact• Smile genuinely
Effective presentation• Poster (Posture)• Format of model• Gesture• Eye contact• Facial expressions• Stage Fright• Volume – Pitch, Speed, Pause• Language
Poster Presentation• Presenters should bring their own materials for attaching illustrations to the boards.• Dont crowd too much information into the presentation; concentrate on two or three main points. Highlight your title, headings, and subheadings with colors or colored lines.• Format headings and subheadings to be at least 25% larger than the text copy in bold or semi bold.• Keep your text in short, concise, legible statements; minimize complete sentences and paragraphs.
Continue……• Text in upper and lower case letters is more readable than all capitals. Text type should be at least 1/4-inch (0.64 cm) tall and readable from a distance of 6 feet (1.8 m).• Back-lighted photos, sound or projection equipment, and free-standing displays are strictly prohibited.
Gesture• A movement of part of the body, especially a hand or the head, to express an idea or meaning: "so much is conveyed by gesture".
Stage• A point, period, or step in a process or development: "there is no need at this stage to give explicit details".
Fright• A sudden intense feeling of fear.• The facts: Shaky hands, blushing cheeks, memory loss, nausea, and knocking knees.• Be normal.
VolumeC: Clear – the use of simple, easily understood words and phrasesL: Loud (enough) – it is important that everyone can hear youA: Assertive – a bright and confident air born of knowledge of the subject and good preparationP: Pause – it is essential to allow the listeners time to digest what you have said
Pitch• Pitch means to make point out some points
Speed• Speed of presentation should be medium.• Speed is neither to be too fast nor to be too slow.• Presentation should be given in such way that it will complete in particular time period in medium speed.
Language• People must understand your language either it is body language or spoken language.• You should give presentation in such a way that other people can understand your language.• Watch your audience if you feel that they have dought than express the problem in other language.
Visual Aids• To make, explain or identify a point• To emphasize, clarify or reinforce a point• To remind, summarize or review a point • We remember – – 10% of what we read – 20% of what we hear – 30% of what we see – 50% of what we see and hear
Continue… • Enhance understanding • Add variety • Support claims • Lasting impact Used poorly, however, they can be a distraction and lead to an ineffective presentation
Continue… • PowerPoint slides • Overhead transparencies • Graphs/charts • Pictures • Web links (http://www.unh.edu/uacc/unhpathways.html ) • Films/video • Flip charts • Sketches • Chalk or white board
Visual Aids Should…• Outline, explain, support main points• Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s• Be simple and clear• Supplement and support…
Continue…• Use Sans Serif fonts (fonts without feet) – e.g. Arial, Tahoma, Trebuchet, Verdana, etc.• Titles should be 32-44 pt. font size, BOLD• Text should be as large as possible – First level 24-32 pt font size – Second level 20-28 pt font size, etc…• Use color wisely – Contrasting colors
Red/Blue ConflictRed letters on blue background creates “flicker effect”Blue letters on red background just as bad
Low ContrastWhite on yellow Yellow on white Black on blue Blue on black
“Fly-In” Vs “Wipe”• Could you read this?• How about this one?• Maybe the third time is the charm!• Less distracting• Reduces eye movement• Increases readability• Be CONSISTENT throughout presentation!
Use the Rights Words What you say, and how you say it, is the key to a successful presentation:P – state your position or pointR – explain your ideasE – use examplesP – restate your position or point
Body Language• Make eye contact,…but move focus around the audience• Use your hands,…but don’t go crazy• If possible move around,…but slowly!• Maintain good posture• Make sure everyone can see you• Don’t speak with your back to the audience
Common Problems• Verbal fillers – “Um”, “uh”, “like”, “you guys” – Any unrelated word or phrase• Swaying, rocking, and pacing• Hands in pockets• Lip smacking• Fidgeting• Failure to be audience-centered
Closing Summary• Audience is always attentive at the begining• Somewhat less attentive in the middle• Generally more attentive at the end• Tell them what you are going to say• Then say it• At the end, say it again• Allow time for questions
Questionnaire• Keep your answers short and to the point – don’t respond with another lecture• Don’t say that a question is bad, or that you addressed it already• If you really dont know the answer – Say "Interesting, I will look into that" or “That’s a good point, let’s discuss it afterwards” – Dont feel that you have to invent an answer on the fly -- you are only human and you cant have thought of everything• If the questioner disagrees with you and it looks like there will be an argument then defuse the situation – "We clearly dont agree on this point, lets go on to other questions and you and I can talk about this later"