Salivary glands develop as outgrowths of buccal epithelium.
Parotid – ectodermal in origin
Sublingual – endodermal in origin
Parotid – 4th Wk of gestation
Submandibular – 6th Wk of gestation
Sublingual – 9th Wk of gestation
Salivary Gland is any cell or organ
discharging a secretion into the oral
Major and minor Salivary Glands
Those in the Tongue, Palatine
Tonsil, Palate, Lips and
•Main function of Salivary
Gland-secretion of saliva
•Daily secretion -800 to
•pH : 6-7
Water (99.5%) Solid (0.5%)
Functions of Saliva
Keep the mouth moist
Aids in swallowing
Aids in speech
Keeps the mouth and teeth
Bicarbonate acts as buffer
profuse secretion of watery saliva
scanty viscous secretion
Sympathetic supply comes from cervical
sympathetic chain along the blood vessels
Salivatory nuclei are excited by
Taste and tactile stimuli from tongue
and other areas of mouth and
Stimuli from esophagus and stomach
(due to stimulation of vagal afferent
Stimuli arising from higher centers of
brain due to sight, smell or thought
Largest salivary paired gland
Secretions of which is serous in nature
1. Superficial Temporal vessels.
2. Cartilaginous part of
External Auditory Meatus.
3. Temporal branch of Facial n.
1. Cervical branch of Facial n.
2. Retromandibular vein.
3. Posterior belly of digastric.
4. External Carotid artery.
• Zygomatic branch of Facial n.
• Transverse Facial artery.
• Buccal branch of Facial n.
• Accessory Parotid gland.
• Parotid duct.
• Mandibular branch of Facial n.
1. Great Auricular nerve.
2. Parotid lymph nodes.
3. Skin and Fascia
1. Ramus of the mandible.
2. Masseter muscle.
3. Medial pterygoid muscle
1. Mastoid process
2. Sternomastoid muscle
3. Posterior belly of Digastric
4. Styloid process and the muscle &
ligaments attached to it.
5. Internal carotid artery & Internal
1. External carotid artery
2. Retromandibular vein
3. Facial nerve –enters the gland
posteromedially,and divides into
terminal branches within gland,and
leaves the gland through anteromedial
Structures within the Gland
Semidetached part of the gland,
which lies just above the parotid
5 cm long &
border & runs
•At the anterior border of
masseter it pierces
•Buccal pad of fat
•It opens into the vestibule of
mouth opposite to the 2nd
External Carotid Artery
Retromandibular Vein drain into the internal jugular vein
Lymph first drains into parotid nodes and then
upper deep cervical nodes
Great Auricular nerve
From the sympathetic plexus around the
The preganglionic secretomotor fibers
arise from the inferior salivary nucleus in
the medulla oblongata.
Joins the glossopharyngeal nerve (9th
cranial) , tympanic branch ,tympanic
plexus,Lesser Petrosal nerve
Enters the foramen ovale to relay in the
The post ganglionic fibres pass through
auriculotemporal nerve through which they
reach the gland
Also called as auriculotemporal nerve syndrome or
It is condition wherein sweating in the area of
distribution of ATN occurs,which is caused by a
stimulus to secretion of saliva.
It is thought to be the result damage to ATN post
ganglionic parasympathetic fibres from otic
ganglion become united to sympathetic fibres
arising from superior cervical ganglion going to
supply sweat gland
Combination of both
Anterior part of
It is roughly j-shaped
Mixed secretion but
1. Superficial part
2. Deep part
3. Submandibular duct
Wedge shaped, extending:
Posteriorly: to the angle of mandible.
Superiorly: to mylohyoid line of mandible.
Inferiorly: it overlaps the 2 bellies of digastric m
1. Inferolateral surface: related to skin, superficial fascia (containing
platysma, cervical branch of facial n., . facial vein, Lymph Nodes) &
2. Lateral surface: related
to body of mandible,
facial artery, mylohyoid
nerve & artery
3. Medial surface: related
to 2 muscles (mylohyoid
& hyoglossus) & 2 nerves
(lingual & hypoglossal).
Small part lying deep to mylohyoid
Superficial to hyoglossus
Between lingual nerve above & hypoglossal nerve
5 cm long
Emerges at the anterior end of deep part
of the gland
Runs forwards on hyoglossus b/w lingual
and hypoglossal N
At the ant. Border of hyoglossus it is
crossed by lingual nerve
Opens in the floor of mouth at the side of
frenulum of tongue
Branches of facial and
Drains to the common facial
or lingual veins
Deep Cervical Nodes via
Plexus around the facial artery
Chorda tympani from Facial nerve
Sublingual Salivary Glands
smallest of the three glands
weighs nearly 3-4 gm
Lies beneath the oral mucosa in
contact with the sublingual
fossa on lingual aspect of
Mixed secretion but
Above the mylohyoid
below the mucosa of
floor of mouth
Medial to sublingual fossa
Lateral to genioglossus
Ducts of Rivinus
Largest of all,sub lingual
joins sub(bartholin duct)duct
mandibular duct to drain through
Most of them open directly into the
floor of mouth
Arterial from sublingual and submental arteries
Venous drainage corresponds to the arteries
Similar to that of submandibular glands( via lingual nerve ,
chorda tympani and sympathetic fibers)