Engineering Incentives in Social Clouds

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Combining the strengths of the Cloud Computing and Social Network paradigms, the vision of Social Clouds aims to provide a resource sharing mechanism where participants dynamically share and trade resources on the premise of the relationships encoded in a social network. By building upon existing relationships in social networks and the inherent trust that accompanies these relationships, a Social Cloud is able to address one of the most cited obstacles in the adoption of current cloud solutions, the missing trust between Cloud service providers and users. However, as with other computing approaches relying on user participation, incentivisation of potential and existing participants is crucial for the success and sustainability of a Social Cloud. Therefore, an incentive engineering approach is needed and will be discussed in this paper considering all phases of user participation in a Social Cloud in order to provide proper incentives for active user participation and desired user behavior.

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Engineering Incentives in Social Clouds

  1. 1. Incentive Engineering in Social CloudsA Research AgendaChristian HaasKARLSRUHE SERVICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE (KSRI)KIT – University of the State of Baden-Württemberg andNational Research Center of the Helmholtz Association www.kit.edu
  2. 2. Research Agenda • Motivation 1 • Concept of Social Clouds • Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds 2 • Relation of Incentive Schemes and Sharing Mechanisms • Related Work 3 • Research Questions and Methodology 42 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  3. 3. How does resource sharing happen today Scenario: A user wants to backup personal data, but doesn’t have the required amount of computational resources/storage Required: Where to get these resources? Buy servers Volunteer1,2 Grid Available: Cloud 1: Anderson 2002; 2: Stainforth 20023 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  4. 4. Existing approaches all have certain shortcomings Buy servers Data control Costs, inflexibility Volunteer Willingness to provide Exchange not necessarily resources bilateral Grid Access to (heterogeneous) QoS, user- resources friendliness, access Resources available on Cloud Trust assumptions demand None of the above mechanisms meets all requirements. What other approaches can we consider, e.g. Social Computing?4 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  5. 5. Social Computing is on the rise Facebook: Active Users (Millions) FB: Social Graph 700 600 Social 500 400 Network 300 200 Platform 100 0 Aug/ 08 Aug/ 09 Aug/ 10 Jun/ 09 Jun/ 10 Apr/ 09 Apr/ 10 Okt/ 08 Feb/ 09 Dez/ 08 Okt/ 09 Feb/ 10 Dez/ 09 Okt/ 10 Dez/ 10 Social Aspects Social aspects are becoming more important: in Resource • social sharing of resources Sharing • business models building upon social relationships Sharing of Sharing of Sharing of Storage WLANs Policies5 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  6. 6. The vision of a social cloud (Extended) Definition: (based on Chard et al. 2011) “Social Clouds are a scalable, dynamic and user-centric resource sharing framework in which computational resources, services and information are shared amongst members on the premise of the relationships encoded in a social network.” Socially-oriented Sharing Platform Social Clouds enable the sharing of (heterogeneous) resources in a framework where the social structures infer an implicit level of trust6 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  7. 7. Incentives play a crucial role in this scenario Socially-oriented Sharing Platform Adherence to Active user Subscribing (informal) participation Agreements What are users’ Incentives to provide Adherence to trading incentives to resources agreements join a SC? Disincentives to free-ride1 Avoiding “anti-social” and malicious behavior 1: Hardin 1968 Mechanism Design Suitably designed (economic) mechanisms are able to provide proper incentives in order to address incentive issues in all phases7 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  8. 8. Choice of incentives depends on design specifications • Social Computing or Storage Cloud Application • Social Research Cloud Scenario • Enterprise Social Cloud Trading/Inter • Volunteer, Reciprocal Incentive action • Reputation, Trophy Scheme Mechanism • Posted Price, Auction, Spot Market • Family, close friends Relationship • Colleagues, friends Type • Other people, virtual “friend”8 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  9. 9. Example: Choice of incentives depending on relationship types Volunteer Reciprocal Family, close friends Trophy Posted Price Auction Friends, Colleagues Example: • Non-monetary incentives for close friends Other People • Monetary incentives for other people Different groups have different levels of perceived trust Choice of interaction mechanism could depend on relationship type9 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  10. 10. Related Work: Incentive Engineering in other contexts Resource Sharing with Anonymous Networks social structures Online photo-sharing Incentive schemes to provide community3 resources1 Sharing of scientific workflows4 Free-rider problem2 Social Incentives/Preferences5 1: Feldman 2004; 2: Golle 2001 3:Nov 2010; 4: De Roure 2009; 5: Charness 2002 Do not capture social structures Do not explicitly consider incentive schemes Research Gap: Explicit need for incentive mechanisms for resource sharing frameworks with social fabrics10 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  11. 11. Several Research Questions will be targeted in future research (1) Engineering suitable incentives in Social Clouds What types of incentives do users have in a Social Cloud context, with respect to participation, sharing and adherence to agreements? Are existing mechanisms for resource sharing suitable for Social Clouds? How can a mechanism be specifically designed for Social Clouds in order to foster participation and resource sharing? Methodology Theoretical model Prototype Experiments11 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  12. 12. Several Research Questions will be targeted in future research (2) Addressing strategic user behavior What are the strategic options for users in a Social Cloud, and how are they affected by the mechanism used? Is the Social Cloud mechanism robust against malicious user behavior, and how can it be extended to address this issue? Methodology Theoretical model Simulation Experiments12 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  13. 13. Summary and next steps • Concept of socially-motivated resource sharing Social Cloud • Use existing (digital) relationships to enhance trading framework • Incentives for users to participate, share and refrain Incentive from “anti-social” or malicious behavior Engineering • Consider influence of design issues such as application scenario on incentive scheme Next steps • Build a theoretical model of economic and social incentives in a resource sharing environment • Analyze user strategies under different trading mechanisms • Compare theoretical results with findings from simulations and/or experiments13 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu
  14. 14. Thank you for your attention! Questions? Feel free to contact us Christian Haas, ch.haas@kit.edu Simon Caton, simon.caton@kit.edu Christof Weinhardt, weinhardt@kit.edu14 22.05.2012 Christian Haas – Incentive Engineering in Social Clouds Karlsruhe Service Research Institute www.ksri.kit.edu

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