WAY OUT THERE Creating architecture in far-flung places FEATURE: The Rural Studio after MockbeeALSO INTERIORS SECTION
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03.2006 On the Cover: Svalbard Research Centre, by Jarmund/ Vigsnæs Architects. Photograph by Nils Petter Dahle Right: Magma Arts and Congress Center, by Artengo Menis Pastrana. Photograph by Roland Halbe News Building Types Study 855 27 Super Bowl spurs demolitions in Detroit 131 Introduction: Offices by James S. Russell, AIA 28 Gulf rebuilding update 132 Hyatt Center, Illinois by Blair Kamin* Pei Cobb Freed Departments 138 Bloomberg Headquarters, New York City by Suzanne Stephens* Studios Architecture 17 Editorial: Keep the Pressure On 144 Endesa Headquarters, Spain by David Cohn* 19 Letters* Kohn Pedersen Fox 53 Archrecord2* 150 E.J. DeSeta Building, Delaware by David Gissen* 57 Correspondent’s File: Syria by Seif El Rashidi Kling 63 Critique: Criticism Today by Nancy Levinson 154 Highlight Munich Business Towers, Germany by Tracy Metz* 69 Snapshot: BOH Tea Centre by Beth Broome Murphy/Jahn225 Dates & Events* For additional office projects, go to Building Types256 Lost to Katrina: St. Peter’s by the Sea by James S. Russell, AIA* Study at www.archrecord.com. Features Architectural Technology 76 Keeping the Spirit Alive by Andrea Oppenheimer Dean 163 Can a New Kind of Heat Pump Change the World? Four years after Mockbee’s death, Rural Studio lives on. by Charles Linn, FAIA* It has arrived: A heat pump that works at sub-zero temperatures. Projects 171 Tech Products by James Murdock* 87 Way Out There by Robert Ivy, FAIA* 88 Magma Arts and Congress Center, Spain by David Cohn* Interiors Artengo Menis Pastrana Arquitectos 187 Introduction: Small Spaces by William Weathersby, Jr. Massive, concrete sculptural forms create a distinctive presence. 188 Flex Physical Therapy and Fitness by William Weathersby, Jr. 98 The Red Location Museum, South Africa by Lisa Findley* Pierluigi Serraino, Assoc. AIA Noero Wolff Architects 195 Lucini Italia by John Peter Radulski The struggle against apartheid is commemorated with design. Slack Alvarez Associates106 New Chancellery Building and Business School, Australia 198 Xing by William Weathersby, Jr. by Christopher Moore* Lewis.Tsurumaki.Lewis fjmt 203 Interior Products by Rita Catinella Orrell A thorny crown caps one of the world’s most remote cities.112 Svalbard Research Centre, Norway by Peter MacKeith* Products Jarmund/Vigsnæs Architects 211 Walls & Ceilings by Rita Catinella Orrell An otherworldly building hunkers down in its arctic setting. 215 Product Briefs120 Parliament Library, India by Sam Lubell* 216 Cersaie Tile Show Review by Jane F. Kolleeny Raj Rewal Associates 221 Product Literature Blessed with the richness of history and complexity of modernity. 240 Reader Service* 236 AIA/CES Self-Report Form* * You can find these stories at www.archrecord.com, including expanded coverage of Projects, Building Types Studies, and AR is the proud recipient of a Web-only special features. National Magazine Award for General Excellence 03.06 Architectural Record 13
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LettersULI responds to return to neighborhoods that are ULI recommendations. reconstruction of the Gulf coast came DEPARTMENTSI worked with the 50-plus members safe and sustainable. We recom- What we recommended for at a great time, for me at least, in thatof the Urban Land Institute, who pro- mended that the city supplement those who cannot rebuild in place is I read it on vacation, shortly after myvided a rebuilding framework to the engineered flood control with natural fair-market compensation—at pre- first visits to the “New Urbanist”Bring New Orleans Back Commission barriers. This will entail reinforcing the Katrina value-—for their homes and Florida communities of WaterColorin November 2005. Michael Sorkin levees, drainage canals, and pump- businesses, to enable them to relo- and its older, more famous neighbor,wrote in his February Critique [“Will ing stations by restoring more natural cate and rebuild in a safer part of Seaside. While I haven’t read the CNUnew plans for the Gulf drown it again, areas to protect the city’s residents, their community. ULI never suggested report, I did understand Mr. Sorkin’sthis time in nostalgia?,” page 47] and rebuilding in a way that better or implied that entire neighborhoods criticisms of its overemphasis onthat the ULI recommended “aban- respects the topography of the city. be abandoned. There are substantial architectural formulas aimed atdoning” some parts of the city as In addition, many of the portions of each neighborhood that strengthening a more homogeneoustoo expensive to save and that its severely flooded areas will require can be rebuilt in a way that adds to and identifiably “regionalist” look inrecommendations were predicated environmental and engineering eval- the entire city’s revival. the new construction.on a bottom-line mentality. He also uation before rebuilding can begin. —Rachelle Levitt The buildings in WaterColor allimplied that there was an implicit We recommended that these evalu- Executive Vice President seemed to me to be beautiful distil-motivation to negatively affect the ations begin immediately so that Urban Land Institute lations of how I had envisionedlow-income African-American popu- neighborhood rebuilding can start. Washington, D.C. coastal-region architecture. Theylation of New Orleans. I’d like to set It is unfortunate that the historical were consistently well designed,the record straight. growth patterns led much of the WaterColor lesson clean, full of wonderful details and ULI’s strategy for rebuilding New African-American population into Michael Sorkin’s February Critique on color, and set into a path-intensive,Orleans was premised on our firm low-lying areas of the city. But, the Congress for the New Urbanism’s varied landscape. The houses werebelief that every citizen has the right safety, not race, was the key to the [CNU] recommendations for the generally modest in scale and de- CIRCLE 11 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
Letters with current fashion or specious theories, we may, finally, discover a where knowledge and experience are transferred not just from an institu- universal audience. tion to the students. There is a total —James A. Gresham, FAIA new way of learning. Our younger emphasized the automobile. The torial, “Reconstructing Kuwait” [page Tucson, Ariz. generation is continuously teaching more I thought about it, however, 19]. With all the doom and rubble we us with their actions. the more I wondered if WaterColor see in Baghdad, it was inspiring to Campuses of the future Take a look at the great cities in is only an “ideal”—no more than a hear about a city nearby that is Robert Campbell [January, page 57] the world. With diversity and hetero- theme park of sorts? Does it only recreating itself. It must have been might be accurate about the nature geneous architecture, they are the represent a particular version of one quite a sight. of the arguments on both sides of the campuses of the future generations. narrow aspect of local design? —Hansa Bergwall UVA campus architecture discussion. —Henry Chao, AIA It is a valid thing to seek and New York City However, he may have missed a criti- Columbus, Ohio understand regional themes in design cal point with respect to the setting and to keep local flavor alive, and it Speaking in tongues and the implication of campus archi- Corrections is equally valid to promote walkable, Robert Campbell’s January Critique tectural design guidelines. With strict In the February issue, the distributor well-organized communities. It is [page 57] brilliantly identifies the subscription to a uniform architectural of the Shades and Screens textile most important, however, to have an major fault line in current design— style, the campus environment is per- collection [page 182] was omitted. overriding design framework that can namely, our failure to create petuating the concept of conformity to The line is now distributed nationwide accommodate and thrive on diversity. memorable architecture possessing the students and faculties, depriving through Nysan for Hunter Douglas This diversity is what seemed to be common appeal. Similar fault lines them of the most important privileges Shading Systems’ network. In addi- lacking in WaterColor, and is what Mr. exist in much contemporary art and of university life: the freedom of think- tion, three of the fabrics included in Sorkin warned against in the future music where self-expression has ing and discourse, and the courage of the image that ran are, in fact, redevelopment of Gulf coast commu- achieved supremacy over craftsman- exploration and expression. Nysan’s Greenscreen products. Two nities. Thank you for the reminder! ship and common sense. Our inability For years, conformity was the images in February’s multifamily —Scott J. Newland, AIA to communicate with the larger pub- principle of campus architecture, as housing Building Types Study [page Minneapolis lic is exemplified by the arcane it was the principle of learning. With 120] should have been credited to architectural babble so current in the the rapid pace of change in modern Jim Wasserman. Antidote for doom profession today. If we concerned society, it is critical that the campus I just read Robert Ivy’s January edi- ourselves more with building well, not reflect the real world, as the place Send letters to email@example.com.Switch Executive: Best of NeoCon Gold Award | www.brayton.com | 800 627 6770 CIRCLE 12 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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Record News JB: We’re setting up teams of resi- dents and leaders supported by funds. Another appropriations request must be submitted to the federal professionals and experts—planners, government by July 1. The reaction of urban designers, architects, cost esti- the mortgage, insurance, and finance mators, civil engineers, etc. Many industries will be key, because ifSPECIAL HURRICANE REPORT neighborhoods have already started they don’t provide financial backing, their planning. The professional people won’t be able to rebuild.Planning to rebuild: An interview with New teams are largely set up at this point. AR: Has this planning process beenOrleans’s master planner AR: Are there any more solid facts handled the same as any otherLast month, John Beckman, princi- JB: There is a lot to be angry about. about how many residents have would, or have the scope and enor-pal with Philadelphia firm Wallace It is a clear case of negligence by returned and how many unsalvage- mity led you to use other methods?Roberts & Todd (WRT), presented the federal government. When you able houses there are? JB: We have done plans for largera master plan for rebuilding New look at the dollars that were JB: The best estimates that I’ve seen cities than New Orleans, but thereOrleans [RECORD, February 2006, expended after September 11, they are that there are now approximately were many factors that made itpage 26]. WRT was asked to devise were completely out of proportion 150,000 New Orleans residents. I do unusual. For example, the lack ofa plan for the urban-planning com- from what happened with Katrina not have an estimate of the number data. The city’s computer system wasmittee of the Bring New Orleans and Rita. Clearly, planning before of homes that are unsalvageable. knocked out, so we didn’t know howBack Commission (BNOBC), the the storm could have been better— The city and the federal government many houses were destroyed, or howteam of professionals Mayor C. Ray from lack of funding to restoration of have given damage reports, but many people there were. There wereNagin formed to address the city’s coastal wetlands. This needs to be many homeowners are appealing no schools, very limited governmentwoes in the immediate wake of an equitably, and efficiently, man- their accuracy. Most people would to interact with, and a very small pop-Hurricane Katrina. aged resettlement of the city so the feel more comfortable with an actual ulation. When we do a citywide plan, people who do come back have the inspection of their properties. it usually involves hundreds of peopleARCHITECTURAL RECORD: services they need. It’s a matter of and many meetings. We did this in anHow did the Bring New Orleans phasing and timing, because every- AR: How are you determining incredibly compressed time frame,Back Commission end up choosing one is not going to come back right future population estimates? with an enormous sense of urgency.a Philadelphia-based ﬁrm to advise away. The only piece of our action JB: It is estimated that bythem on urban planning? plan that was rejected was the September 2008, New Orleans will AR: How will your plans be affectedJOHN BECKMAN: WRT has been moratorium [four months long, to have 250,000 or so people. The by the release of FEMA’s ﬂood eleva-involved in New Orleans off and on assess which areas are most feasi- biggest constraint is habitable hous- tion maps? [The maps are supposedfor over 30 years. In 1974, we rewrote ble to rebuild] on building permits. ing. My gut feeling is that there may to be released by the end of March.]the zoning ordinance to permit cre- be more people than that because JB: Those maps will specify whatation of a downtown development AR: Is the committee working on New Orleans is such a rooted place elevation the first floor of a buildingdistrict. We also worked on plans for design guidelines for new construction? and has such a powerful pull. needs to be. Absolutely no one knowsthe warehouse district, which used JB: Not yet. Our plan recommends what will come out of that process orto be skid row. åWe completed a that the interim guidelines be devel- AR: The plan talks about bridge even when the maps will be released,master plan for City Park just before oped quickly. We also recommended ﬁnancing and other means to help and it is obviously extraordinarily frus-the hurricane. Joe Canizaro (local updating the city’s master plan, giv- people to get their houses back. Any trating for the people of New Orleans.developer and BNOBC Urban ing it the force of law and placing prognosis for those, especially sincePlanning Commissioner) was on the the control of land use, land devel- President Bush has repudiated the AR: What effect do you expect theboard of the group that led the origi- opment, zoning ordinances, and Baker buyback plan? municipal elections, scheduled fornal Downtown Development District, building codes with the city planning JB: The Baker Bill [which calls for April and May, to have on the urbanand he suggested I come down and commission. We felt it was impor- the federal government to buy large planning committee’s progress?meet with the BNOBC. tant that these activities be taken swaths of land for redevelopment] JB: I hope and expect that the citi- out of the political realm. would have been very helpful, and it zens and elected officials of NewAR: Who is paying for your services? was a big disappointment that it Orleans will continue to focus onJB: Neither the city nor the commis- AR: What types of zoning—for uses was rejected by the White House. preparation of a long-term recoverysion is funding our efforts. Some of and densities—is WRT planning? Congressman Baker has indicated plan. I believe everyone understandsthe work is paid for by private funds. JB: That’s going to come out of the that he will propose another version. the stakes involved in building aSome is on an at-cost basis, and we neighborhood planning process. When I presented the plan to the better New Orleans based on thehave donated an enormous amount The action plan we prepared [at Louisiana Recovery Authority [on best of its legacy—a place whereas well. There is no city more won- www.bringneworleansback.org] was January 13], Baker said everyone everyone can return and a place toderful in the U.S. than New Orleans, a recommendation. There also has who opposed the bill said they would which new residents will move.and if you can’t step forward now, to be significant input by the city support it if it were modified. Therewhen are you going to? planning commission. are also CDBG (community develop- Interview by Angelle Bergeron ment block grant) funds, FEMA funds,AR: Many people greeted the plan AR: How is the neighborhood U.S. Department of Transportation For more of this interview, go towith distrust. Why is that? planning process being convened? funds, and various housing agency www.archrecord.com.28 Architectural Record 03.06
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Record News or a tree through a roof was often enough to get a house red-tagged, she says. But such damage is often repaired for less thanSPECIAL HURRICANE REPORT apparently intact homes that had actually beenDespite obstacles, some Gulf residents flooded. “Only a structural engineer and an architecthave begun to rebuild can assess some of theseMany Katrina-evacuated homeowners For the many homes that have problems,” she says.who thought they’d lost everything are not suffered significant structural For many homeown-finding their homes are salvageable. damage, a cottage industry of con- ers, insurance isn’t enough. Last Thanksgiving, for example, tractors and volunteers has grown Only volunteer labor canvolunteers from New Orleans–based around “gutting out” houses: ripping bridge the cost gap. Sheri-Preservation Resource Center (PRC) out water-soaked linoleum, carpet, Mildred Bennett’s shotgun home in the Holy Lea Bloodworth, throughcleaned out a badly damaged 1884 floors, and cabinets; tearing down Cross neighborhood of New Orleans was badly architect-run aid groupshotgun house in the Holy Cross Sheetrock; and often throwing out damaged inside, but it is still salvageable. Architecture for Humanity,neighborhood of New Orleans. The doors and windows to dry out moldy helps coordinate 30-someremovals revealed streaked orange studs. These houses are ready for volunteer groups out of aand blue board-and-batten walls and rebuilding, but homeowners often church in Biloxi, Mississippi.sturdy wood floors, which had come must battle with insurers about wind Teams head out daily toout unscathed. The work was spon- damage (generally covered) versus help residents clean,sored by the PRC and supported by flood damage (either not covered or gut, and treat their homesthe National Trust for Historic only partly covered). Others have to for mold (often using aPreservation, to show that some of fight “red tagging,” which denotes that mixture of trisodium phos-the city’s oldest houses are rehabili- damage is greater than 50 percent, phate and householdtation candidates. According to PRC and means they cannot rebuild except bleach applied with gardenspokeswoman Sue Sperry, the above FEMA-mapped flood levels. sprayers). Plumbers andorganization, with paid and volunteer Those maps are expected by March. electricians, usually paid,labor, should be able to get 82-year- Another cottage industry has inspections by nonprofessionals— follow on, and then volunteers returnold Mildred Bennett back into her built up around getting damage barbers, mailmen—pressed into to redo finishes. Labor, volunteer andhome for $40,000. Progress now estimates reduced to below the service when few professionals were otherwise, remains scarce, althoughonly awaits the restoration of elec- 50 percent threshold. The red-tag- in town. PRC, in fact, has resurveyed those willing to sleep in tents or drivetricity and reliable supplies of water ging, says PRC’s Sperry, was often houses in historic districts, which long distances to help are earningto the neighborhood. cursory, done in drive-by visual cover most of the city. A bulging wall undying gratitude. James S. Russell P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY P R E S E R VAT I O N R E S O U R C E C E N T E R ( TO P T W O )Hurricane recovery briefing in Biloxi, Mississippi, part of its Great Libeskind is now working on a com- Schools By Design initiative to munity center in Gulfport,AIA members lobby for things, purchase large swaths of land improve educational architecture. Mississippi, which was all butKatrina rebuilding plan for planned development, instead of Discussions took place among 20 of destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. TheThe several hundred architects allowing scattered, unplanned devel- the 22 superintendents from the project, being developed pro bonoattending the AIA Grassroots opment. Among several other pleas region and architects and design for the Boys and Girls Club, is beingLeadership and Legislative to congress, the group lobbied in experts from around the country. funded by Rockworks, a charityConference in Washington, D.C., in support of its new sustainable design Topics included new school locations, made up largely of music stars.February took their plans for Katrina initiative [RECORD NEWS, February construction funding, schools as The 30,000-square-foot center,rebuilding directly to Congress. AIA 2006, page 33], which calls for community centers, community par- in the Forest Heights section ofchapter leaders visited the offices of reducing building’s fossil fuel con- ticipation in rebuilding, and managing Gulfport, will house after-schoolU.S. senators and representatives, sumption by 50 percent in the next new students. The group says it will programs, summer programs, andurging them to support H.R. 4100, five years, and pushed for access to hold a spring meeting to examine financial-planning programs for thosealso known as the Baker Bill, pro- small business health insurance particular case studies from the area, left jobless after the storm. Theposed by Louisiana Congressman plans for AIA members. Sam Lubell possibly in places like Pass Christian, design details will be unveiled inRichard Baker (R-LA). The bill would Long Beach, and Moss Point. S.L. the next month or so, says Ninaestablish a private corporation to Mississippi school design Libeskind, the architect’s wife andoversee development in areas of institute From February 12 to 14, Libeskind working in the Gulf business manager. She says theLouisiana devastated by Hurricane the American Architectural Shortly after developing buildings firm is now considering further proj-Katrina. The Louisiana Recovery Foundation (AAF) hosted the for a Atawatuna, a town in post- ects in the Gulf area, but has notCorporation would, among other Mississippi Regional School Institute tsunami Sri Lanka, architect Daniel made any decisions yet. S.L.32 Architectural Record 03.06
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Record News reconfiguring known parts, not inventing typologies,” says Prince- Ramus. The building willOMA’s stacked Louisville Tower would be sandwiched between Interstate 64 along thechange the city’s face Ohio River and the his-At 61 stories, the multipart Museum feet of office space, a 300-room toric district of West MainPlaza tower in Louisville will be the hotel, 85 luxury condominiums, and Street. Downtowntallest building in Kentucky, and one 150 lofts. The contemporary art Louisville lacks density, soof the tallest in the region. The Office museum for which the building was the architects sought tofor Metropolitan Architecture’s (OMA) named will be located at its center, maximize the program onNew York office is designing the build- 22 stories in the air, in a common the small site. The pro-ing, which was unveiled on February space the architects call “the Island.” ject’s diverse commercial9. Though it reaches over 100 feet The Island will serve as a sky lobby components will pay forhigher than Johnson/Burgee’s Aegon for the office building and condos, the cultural components.Tower, the structure is more of a and it will contain conference space, The new Muhammadseries of small buildings stacked on a gym, a bar, and other amenities. Ali Center, designed bytop of each other than a monolithic An angled glass-tube elevator will Beyer Blinder Belle, willtower. “We’ve been interested in carry visitors from West Main Street sit immediately east of Several towers will converge into one building.the question, ‘Can something be up to the Island. Curators will pro- the OMA building and willboth a credible whole and a series of gram both the museum and the share an elevated plaza. project, though the city and stateparts?’ ” says Joshua Prince-Ramus, communal spaces. Philanthropists Steve Wilson and are expected to contribute $75 mil-OMA’s lead designer on the project. While the building’s form may be Laura Lee Brown, developer Steve lion for site work. The developers The 1.2-million-square-foot unorthodox, it reflects careful consid- Poe, and attorney Craig Greenburg expect to complete the project bystructure will include 300,000 square eration of the site conditions. “We’re are developing the $380 million 2010. Alan G. Brake Plans unveiled for larger, more active Javits Center in New York On January 23, the Empire State Development Corporation (ESDC), which available by moving the center’s marshaling yard to the north side of the encourages business development in New York State, released designs and building, into a new six-story structure between 39th and 40th Streets. a master plan for the renovation and expansion of the Jacob K. Javits The current Javits Center has only 790,000 square feet of exhibition Convention Center on the west side of Manhattan. The new scheme (below) space, making it quite small for a city of New York’s size. The expansion will will double the center’s size, increasing exhibition and meeting-room space also add two more floors above most of the existing facility, and will include a by more than 1.3 million square feet. comprehensive renovation of it. Fowle says it is British architect Richard Rogers is design- unclear what elements of the existing structure, ing the project, located on 11th Avenue between designed by Pei Cobb Freed between 1979 and 34th and 38th Streets, with New York–based 1986, will remain at the end of this renovation. FXFOWLE Architects and A. Epstein & Sons. The The project has been in the works for some I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY O M A ( TO P ) ; R O G E R S FO W L E E P S T E I N ( B OT TO M ) design is still being worked out, but so far it calls time. In June 2004, St. Louis–based HOK was for a building with an airy, new 100-foot-tall, selected to design a sketch for the extension, glass-enclosed entry and concourse and a wide, although a convention center spokesperson tree-lined pedestrian corridor along 11th called that plan a “starting point.” Avenue. The new facility, says Bruce Fowle, FAIA, Critics hold that the renovated center will principal at FXFOWLE, will not only feel more still leave too much of the Hudson River water- spacious but will contain a much more active front to the west of the Javits inaccessible. They facade than the present one, which appears also wonder if the land to the building’s south quite dark on most days. The concourse, whose glass will be as clear as possi- will be appealing to local developers. “Given the current market for office ble, will contain glass elevators and exposed stairways, and probably retail, all space, it is not clear that developers will line up to build office buildings of which will be visible from 11th Avenue. Large, colorful banners and LED dis- between the Javits Center and the open rail yard to the south,” said the plays about current exhibitions will also be visible from the street. The new Regional Plan Association in an e-mail sent out just after the unveiling. concourse will contain protruding, boxlike spaces for preshow meetings, a The first phase of building will cost about $1.7 billion, according to the large brise-soleil along 11th Avenue to minimize glare, and plantings through- ESDC. The city and state will contribute about $350 million each, and another out. The plan also creates a new park and retail space at 11th Avenue between $645 million is being raised through bonds backed by a $1.50-per-key sur- 39th and 40th Streets, and leaves 40th Street open to allow (limited) pedestri- charge paid by the local hotel industry. Construction of the first phase is an access to the waterfront. The architects are master planning residential expected to be finished in 2010. Other phases will include construction of a and commercial development south of the center. That property is being made new convention-center hotel across 11th Avenue from the center. S.L.34 Architectural Record 03.06
Record News An angular tower in Warsaw, Libeskind’s hometown, appears compromise. It’s about making things that work. We work hard to make the almost as if it were two towers inter- economic realities of these types of secting at sharp angles. Other projects work, but we want to avoidDespite Freedom Tower setback, Libeskind is projects, like those in Sacramento building typical developer buildings.” and Covington, have been criticized As for whether he’s cut outbuilding skyscrapers around the world for their fairly conventional shapes, do design high-rises, LibeskindDaniel Libeskind has never built a and angular geometry. Many are tapering near the top like Libeskind’s responds, “Architecture is architec-skyscraper. His most famous high- formally and programmatically visions at Ground Zero, and embel- ture. If you’ve mastered building onrise is one that will never be built: advanced, like the 31-story Green lished largely by balconies that form a smaller scale, then you can buildthe original concept for the Freedom Emerald Tower in Milan, which is in exterior designs. something bigger.”Tower in Lower Manhattan. That the city’s new 64-acre fashion and Libeskind’s success in this field In addition to skyscrapers,crystalline, tapering structure has business district. The tower curves as is not just a result of fame or ability; Libeskind will have a number ofnow become an obelisk on a con- it rises like an elongated bandshell, it’s also a product of developers’ other new projects completed bycrete base designed by Skidmore, which helps it to limit harsh sunlight increasing desire to use design archi- 2008, including a German militaryOwings & Merrill. while making a dramatic statement tects to woo tenants and investors. museum in Dresden—which is But don’t feel too bad for him. next to towers by Arata Isozaki and The architect is also willing to work on ironic, he admits, since he also builtThanks partly to fame developed Zaha Hadid. The Emerald Bay towers a building type that some in the top the Jewish Museum in Berlin. Otherfrom the World Trade Center compe- in Singapore (the tallest is 43 stories echelons of the field look down on as works include the New Center fortition and partly to Studio Libeskind’s high) employ similar curves—in this a sellout. He notes that such projects Arts and Culture in Boston, theimpressive list of contacts, develop- case to maximize views of the nearby are often vital to jump-starting neigh- Denver Art Museum, and a retailers all over the world have asked waterfront—and utilize “gardens in borhoods, and even cities’ fortunes, complex and hotel in Las Vegas.the architect to design high-rise the sky,” vegetation-filled bridges and they have a much greater impact And how does he feel about thecondominiums. His firm has secured connecting buildings at upper floors. than the smaller niche projects that situation at Ground Zero, the projectcommissions for more than 10 many of his contemporaries explore. that helped make him, but alsoskyscraper projects in the past Associate Yama Karim admits that came close to breaking him?two years. These include tow- many of these projects stray from the “I’m the only one who’s noters in Singapore; Sacramento, exploding shards and folding planes disillusioned,” he says. “The processCalifornia; Milan; Toronto; that the firm is known for at lower is inherently difficult, and I knewWarsaw; Covington, Kentucky; elevations. But he doesn’t see any of that. But the core of the project isBrescia, Italy; and three more them as compromises. “We don’t still there.” S.L.undisclosed locations in theU.S., Korea, and Europe. Thefirm is so much in demand thatits employees now number55—up from 26 when it movedto New York in 2003. While diverse in form, mostof the high-rises display somedegree of the original FreedomTower’s sleek, tapering profile I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY S T U D I O DA N I E L L I B E S K I N D Tower projects include (clockwise from top left) Green Emerald Tower in Milan, Emerald Bay in Singapore, Warsaw Tower in Poland, Hummingbird Centre in Toronto, and Union City condo in New Jersey. Other skyscrap- ers are being built in California, Kentucky, Germany, and Korea.36 Architectural Record 03.06
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Record News Ground Zero update As it has been for quite some time, according to the WTCMF. The build- the World Trade Center remains ing will now take up about a fifth of under a cloud of uncertainty. New its original’s space, shrinking from York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg 250,000 square feet to about has assaulted developer Larry 60,000. Its location will shift south, Silverstein’s plans for the site more freeing up circulation around the vehemently in recent weeks. Memorial plaza. Frank Gehry’s per- Bloomberg and some city agencies forming arts center, which is to be have charged that Silverstein under- located across Fulton Street from insured his buildings at Ground Zero, the visitors center, is still being that he won’t be able to attract planned, but no designs have been enough office rent to make a profit, released since Gehry was chosen and that he is holding up develop- in the fall of 2004. ment of towers numbers three and four on the site. Silverstein has 7 WTC finds tenants refuted all three charges. Meanwhile, After waiting for some time to attract the Port Authority of New York and tenants to 7 World Trade Center, just New Jersey, which owns the land on north of Ground Zero, Silverstein has the site, has offered to take over now leased space to three tenants. some of Silverstein’s leases, contend- The 52-story building, which should ing that it will be able to expedite be complete in April, was designed the building process. Silverstein does by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, not seem receptive to this idea. And the firm designing the World Trade despite all the discussion, there are Center Freedom Tower. still few signs of building. In early January, Silverstein announced that Ameriprise Snøhetta building will shrink Financial, an asset-planning and dramatically insurance company, signed a 10- Nowegian firm Snøhetta is signifi- year lease for 20,000 square feet cantly changing its design for what of space in the building. The com- was once the cultural complex at pany’s New York office is to occupy Ground Zero. The new scheme is about half of the building’s 39th now being described by officials as a floor. On January 25, officials from visitors center. The project’s design Beijing-based Vantone Real Estate has not yet been unveiled, but it will signed a term sheet for 200,000 be about a fifth as large as the origi- square feet of space—the top five nal building, according to the World floors—in the 1.7-million-square- Trade Center Memorial Foundation foot building. The company has said (WTCMF), which is heading the pro- that it will seek Chinese business ject’s development. Snøhetta was firms to rent the space. Back in chosen to design the building, once December, the New York Academy set to hold the International Freedom of Sciences agreed to lease 40,000 Center and the Drawing Center, in square feet in the building. fall 2004. That plan was scrapped Critics have been complaining last fall amid controversy over the for some time about the 52-story content of both museums, as well as building’s long-standing vacancy— the building’s interference with the which many said was a harbinger of World Trade Center Memorial. the entire site’s overdependence on The visitors’ center will include office space in a market that still ticketing, visitor services, and 9/11- seems to favor residential. Many related exhibition space, which will hold that the small amount of complement the material in the leased space does little to make the museum under the WTC Memorial, building financially feasible. S.L. CIRCLE 22 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GOTO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
Record News Building bust? Slow sales and high costs doom major Las Vegas projects Las Vegas is known as a place Related Las Vegas, a venture where buildings are imploded before between The Related Companies, their time. Right now, projects are New York, and The Related Group of getting imploded before they even Florida, called off its Icon Las Vegas get out of the ground. After experi- project on January 6, due to “drasti- encing a heated building boom in cally” escalating construction costs. recent years, developers are cancel- The $325 million, 514-unit develop- ing plans for high-rise residential ment along Convention Center Drive, towers near the Strip because of ris- just east of the Strip, consisted of two ing construction costs and low sales. 48-story glass-and-concrete towers. Southern Nevada leads the Designed by Arquitectonica, with inte- country in population growth, adding riors from The Rockwell Group, the 7,000 new residents per month, and 4.5-acre project was nearly sold out recent construction growth stems when Related pulled the plug. The company experienced a six-month delay in con- Hole Choice - Perforated Metal struction due to a lawsuit The Perforated Metal panels encircling this stairway show an example of the filed by an adjacent rival product’s features– protection, ventilation, visibility plus an attractive appearance. project that complained of obstructed views. By McNICHOLS service centers have an established starting time, the costs communications network ready to provide you with worldwide service had risen too steeply. including same day stock shipment to the destination of your choice. Diversified Real You will find us friendly, knowledgeable and eager Estate Concepts, to help you with Hole Choices and: Chicago, canceled its quick product information on Perforated Metal $600 million, 825-unit material types and styles . . . Aqua Blue condo-hotel Icon Las Vegas is one of several scrapped projects. off-Strip project in July selection assistance from a vast choice of hole er v ice Cent er because of high building patterns, diameters and gauges . . . S Ins M e ta l s ti t u t e from a 99 percent increase in land costs. The Jeffrey Beers–designed complete how-to-order information to help you ® prices in the past twelve months. development had basketball star specify Perforated Metal. Member John Restrepo, principal of Restrepo Michael Jordan as an investor, with Versatile Hole Products provide solutions for architects, designers, Consulting Group, a Las Vegas plans for a Jordan-branded steak- engineers, fabricators and purchasing professionals. They are the research firm, says there are 60,000 house, café, and athletic center. products of choice for commercial, industrial and architectural uses. condominium and 19,000 condo- Other projects are being sold off More information on Hole Products is available at www.mcnichols.com hotel units currently proposed, to capitalize on the region’s escalat- planned, or under construction in the ing land values. Australian Developer Let Your Hole Choice be Perforated Metal! Las Vegas Valley. Victor Altomare sold the 0.68-acre P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY R E L AT E D L A S V E G A S Other Hole Choice Products include: But Restrepo adds that the parcel for his planned 21-story, 236-Expanded Metal Wire Mesh Bar Grating Grip Strut® Grating Fiberglass Grating proposals are too ambitious for any unit Liberty Tower condo project market: “We anticipate that less than along the Strip in early January for 25 percent of those units will actually $5.5 million. The land’s original price be built in the next five years.” tag had been $900,000. Busy contractors in the area “Only 13 of the valley’s 107 are quoting prices week-to-week planned projects have broken ISO 9001:2000 Custom due to rapid material and labor cost ground thus far, and just 10 have Certified 1-800-237-3820 Fabrication increases, which have climbed 10 gone vertical,” Restrepo reports. percent to 30 percent over the past “Experience, financing, location, year, say local firms. As a result, and branding remain the key ingre- slow-selling projects must budget dients for a project’s successful www.mcnichols.com • e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org enough money into the develop- transformation from a Web site into ment for construction inflation. a vertical reality.” Tony Illia CIRCLE 24 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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Record News On the Boards: Out There UN Studio revamping Wellington Harbor Dutch firm UN Studio has won a Visitors will see nearby Waitangi competition to design the Te Papa Park through curving horizontal slits Made Possible museum extension in Wellington, New Zealand. The firm is planning a free-form structure that recalls the in UN Studio’s building. The aluminum skin wraps around the building’s main organizing structures: a foyer, by Bilco flowing design of its Mercedes Benz Museum in Stuttgart, Germany. The 38,000-square-foot extension will a spiral ramp, and four overlapping exhibition spaces. A tearoom and a raised, outdoor Chinese garden are MRI machines have changed the face of medicine. stand beside the existing Museum also included in the design proposal.They allow physicians to quickly make a thorough of New Zealand Te Papa, dedicated The new extension will exhibit to preserving the nation’s heritage, contemporary art and traditionaldiagnosis without the need for costly and even painful which was built in 1998 on the capi- Maori art and will be connected toexploratory surgery. Installation of these machines, tal’s waterfront. Melbourne-based the original museum by an under-however, can be a challenge for design professionals. architect John Wardle was also ground passageway. Construction ofThey’re too large to fit through most doorways and have awarded first prize in the competi- the entire $34 million waterfronteven more trouble with elevators. tion for his design of a neighboring redevelopment scheme is planned to mixed-use development. begin in late 2007. Robert Such While we obviously can’t take credit for MRI technology,Bilco roof hatches do provide an ideal solution to thisinstallation problem. They can be specified in just Peace Palace inabout any size to accommodate even the largest Kazakhstan nearequipment and feature easy operation, and durable, completionweather-tight construction. I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY U N S T U D I O ( TO P ) ; FO S T E R A N D PA R T N E R S ( B OT TO M ) The Palace of Peace, the pyramidal centerpiece of Astana, Kazakhstan’s capi- tal since 1997, is scheduled for completion in July. Designed by Foster and Partners, stone, was manufactured off-site. the palace, meant to be a symbol The project’s cost is a state secret. for all faiths, will host the Congress The palace is intended to rep- of Leaders of World and Traditional resent unity; its form was chosen Religions in September. because it has no negative religious Foster was selected via compe- or ethnic connotations. Its dimen- tition in fall 2004. When complete, sions—200 feet by 200 feet by the project’s design-and-build process 200 feet—also reflect this theme. will have taken under two years. The building, organized around a This is especially impressive consid- full-height atrium, will house a Bilco Type D Roof Hatch ering Astana’s extreme climate, with 1,500-seat opera house, a library, a CIRCLE 26 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/ temperatures ranging from minus museum, and a conference hall.Bilco, Your Source for Specialty Access Solutions 40 degrees to plus 104 degrees Since 1997, the population of For more information on our Fahrenheit. To avoid losing time, much Astana, a former grain station, has products or help with your of the building, including the skin of risen from 250,000 to more than next design problem, diamond-lattice steel clad in pale gray 600,000. Adam Mornement call (203) 934-6363 or log on to www.bilco.com
Record News On the Boards: Out There The future of sustainability: Arup planning green city in China With its booming economy and plentiful and encouraged. Many often-unchecked development, streets will be arranged as service China has raised serious concerns roads, not through roads, to promote about the health of its environment. walking, biking, and public trans- But the country is starting to move portation. Cars and trucks will use in a different direction, as evidenced hydrogen or fuel cells, rather than fos- by a plan being developed by Arup sil fuels. Buildings will harness energy to build what it calls the world’s first from wind turbines, photovoltaic sustainable city. panels, and converted waste. They The firm recently signed a con- will also be constructed using organic tract with the Shanghai Industrial and biodegradable materials, while Investment Corporation (SIIC) to refuse can be either converted into develop the city, called Dongtan, energy or turned into compost via a located near Shanghai, on the third- machine called an anaerobic digester. largest island in China. Three quarters The city will be built using a strict the size of Manhattan (34 square ecological footprint analysis, which miles), the site is now mostly agricul- measures how many resources each tural land. But by 2010, when the inhabitant consumes. The city will 1,482-acre first stage is expected to call for a footprint that is about one be complete, it will be a mixed-use fifth that of the average U.S. city, and city of mostly 5-to-8-story buildings. about one fourth of a major Chinese Three villages—each with its own city. The island will remain about housing, shops, and schools—will 40 percent farmland and thus self- converge at a city center. sustaining. Most of the residents, Minimizing the environmental adds Head, will live and work nearby impact of all this development is to reduce commuting. essential to the project’s mission. “If Design guidelines have not been growth in China continues as it has developed yet, says Head. But the until now, they’re going to permanently SIIC plans to build a major tourist damage the place,” says Arup princi- attraction and hold competitions for pal Peter Head, who is leading the iconic buildings, targeted to be com- project. “They hope that by ignoring pleted in time for the 2010 Expo in the way the west has industrialized, Shanghai. Dongtan should become a they’ll be able to keep growth growing model for future development in while reducing the impact.” China, says Head. But it will also, he Sustainable development runs adds, allow the Chinese to develop through practically every element of environmental expertise and green Arup’s master plan, which is a work in products that they can then sell to progress. Public transportation will be the rest of the world. S.L. I M A G E : C O U R T E SY A R U P A rendering of the city, which would be sustainable in almost every way. CIRCLE 28 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GOTO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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The LONSEAL Collection News Briefs London finalizes Olympic the first buildings ready by 2012. planners On January 17, London’s The property is part of a 4,700- interim Olympic Delivery Authority acre parcel that served as the El Toro announced that the master-planning Marine Corps Air Station for nearly team responsible for the city’s 2012 60 years before it closed in 1999. Olympic bid last year, including Last year, Miami-based Lennar Foreign Office Architects, HOK Sport, Corporation purchased the property Buro Happold, Allies & Morrison, WS from the Department of the Navy for Atkins, and Arup, will also develop $649.5 million and then transferred a portion to the City of Irvine. Smith’s plan includes a man- made canyon, a lake that will provide the backdrop to a proposed amphitheater, and a linear park that will incorporate a fighter plane museum. The master-plan team The team’s Olympic proposal. includes Enrique Norten/TEN Arquitectos, landscape architects Mia London’s Olympic Park. The design Lehrer + Associates, public artist of the park’s venues will be ten- Mary Miss, ecologist Steven Handel, dered separately, and this team will and environmental engineers Buro design all the infrastructure ele- Happold. The team will begin work on ments, including roads, landscape, the design following contract negotia- bridges, and waterways. tions. Phase I of the project, including The Olympic park will be built the infrastructure, is expected to in Stratford, a neighborhood in East cost $401 million. Allison Milionis London. As detailed in London’s Olympic bid, it will feature nine new Nomadic Museum migrates venues, including Zaha Hadid’s to California After spending last Aquatic Centre (which is already in spring in New York, Japanese development), an 80,000-seat Architect Shigeru Ban’s Nomadic Olympic Stadium, an Olympic village, Museum, a temporary art-exhibition a velodrome, and a media center. space, opened on January 14 next to Several stadiums that can be Santa Monica, California’s historic deconstructed and moved after the pier. The museum contains a travel- games will also be built there. ing show called Ashes and Snow, Updated plans move the park closer featuring large-scale photographic to Stratford City, a new business dis- works by artist Gregory Colbert. I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY LO N D O N 2 0 1 2 ( TO P ) ; G E N S L E R ( B OT TO M ) trict and transport hub in Stratford, The museum is composed of making the park closer to transport, 152 steel cargo containers stacked and avoiding an area of land that, if and secured in a checkerboard pat- developed, would require the reloca- tern 34 feet high. The exhibition was tion of residents and businesses. packed into 12 of those containers as Lucy Bullivant it traveled from New York. The remain- ing containers were borrowed in San- Smith designing Great Park On January 23, New York–based firm Ken Smith Landscape Architect was chosen as master planner for a 1,347-acre park in Irvine, California. The Great Park, which officials say may take decades to complete, will be one of the largest in the U.S. Parts of the park, including sports fields, www.lonseal.com/ar1 are expected to open by 2008, with Constructing the Nomadic Museum. CIRCLE 30 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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The LONSEAL Collection ta Monica, along with recycled River, creating more public space, paper tubes for the roof, reusable and to locate the museum on the wooden planks, and gravel and Banneker Overlook, a raised site sand for the floor. Most of these located close to the river. elements will be recycled after the The museum will likely cover show. The museum design team some 350,000 square feet. The includes principal architect Ban; cost is estimated at $300 to $500 Gensler, the associate architect; million, half of which will be provided RMS Group, the general contractor; by the federal government. Currently, and Arup, the structural engineer. The museum officials have no comment 56,000-square-foot museum will be on the design process. For now, disassembled and then reconstructed the staff is hoping to raise money, as the show travels to other desti- acquire collections, and hire a proj- nations, including Tokyo, Berlin, and ect director. Mr. Bunch aims to open Paris. The Santa Monica exhibition the museum’s doors “in under a will be on view through May 14. S.L. decade.” Ilan Kayatsky Smithsonian chooses site for Chicago landmark lost in ﬁre African-American museum Chicago’s list of lost architectural Nearly 100 years after the idea was treasures grew on January 6 when first put forward, the Smithsonian a fire accidentally set by roofers Institution has chosen a site to house destroyed the Pilgrim Baptist Church a National Museum on the city’s South of African-American Side. Designed by History and Culture. Louis Sullivan and On January 30, the Dankmar Adler, the Smithsonian’s Board landmark structure of Regents selected was built as the a prominent 5-acre Kehilath Anshe location for the Ma’ariv Synagogue future museum on Pilgrim Baptist Church. in 1889. Washington, D.C.’s The distinctive Mall, directly northeast of the design featured two stepped-cubic Washington Monument. The central volumes, topped by a pyramidal site, selected from four final possi- roof. The interior, which held 1,000 bilities, carries great symbolism for people, was noted for its superb the museum’s supporters. acoustics, and the building’s second “It is quite fitting that the expe- life as the Pilgrim Baptist Church rience of African-Americans takes (whose congregation acquired the its place among the museums and structure in 1922) made it a haven monuments that honor the history for the performance of gospel and the contributions of all who have music. Only three of the lower labored, sacrificed, and dreamed to exterior limestone walls, with their make this country great,” said Lonnie characteristic Sullivan arches and Bunch, the museum’s director. incised ornament, remain.I M A G E : C O U R T E SY T I M S A M U E L S O N Among the opponents of the The value of the church’s prop- location is Judy Feldman, chair of the erty insurance remains undisclosed National Coalition to Save Our Mall, a but is acknowledged to be less than citizens group that supports a mora- the many millions of dollars neces- torium on all new Mall construction. sary to restore the building to its “We understand why the African- original condition. Early pledges American museum wants to be on of financial support have come the Mall,” she stresses, but she says from the Chicago Pritzker Family that a better solution would be to Foundation and Governor Rod extend the Mall’s axis to the Potomac Blagojevich. Edward Keegan www.lonseal.com/ar1 CIRCLE 31 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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archrecord.com/archrecord2/ For and about the emerging architect archrecord2 Once more with feeling, once more with facts. In Design, see how Chicago architect Paul Preissner, DEPARTMENTS principal of Qua’virarch, feels his way to project design—atmosphere before arithmetic. In Work, we explore how Mississippi State University’s landscape-architecture students are using facts, history, and logic for a master-planning exercise to rebuild a 75-mile stretch of the battered Gulf Coast. To see how other universities are engaged in the region’s planning process, visit archrecord.com/archrecord2/. Design Qua’virarch: Psychologies of space Paul Preissner, AIA, principal of Chicago-based architecture and urban design firm Qua’virarch, certainly has the gene for the mechanics of design: His father and two brothers are all engi- neers. But his take on the process and practice is much less cal- culated than theirs—he values atmosphere and intuition above precision and defined environments. In fact, Preissner teaches a class to advanced visual studies students at the Art Institute of Chicago using horror films as vehicles to understanding the psychology of space—how scary movies use atmosphere to dissolve the boundaries between the viewer and the screen. He then has students explore advanced software techniques to produce new atmospheres that dissolve the boundaries between surface, structure, orna- mentation, and effect. “Of course, you don’t view architecture the way you wouldI M A G E S : C O U R T E SY Q UA’ V I R A R C H ( R I G H T T W O ) ; J O E W I G DA H L ( P O R T R A I T ) a painting or a film,” says Preissner, “but horror movies have a certain necessity and risk that gets you to intuitively see spaces in a different way.” Preissner founded Qua’virarch (“It’s just a made-up word,” he says) in Los Angeles three years ago, after stints working as a design architect for Kyodo Portmanteau, West End Bridge, steel pedestrian bridge with a Sekkei Architects in Osaka, Japan; as a senior designer at Eisenman Architects Pittsburgh, 2006 competition bicycle path and periodically and at Philip Johnson’s office, in New York City; and as a junior architect and (ongoing) spaced observation bubbles to allow project architect, respectively, in Skidmore, Owings & Merrill’s and Wood- Portmanteau is a proposal for a for city and river-life reﬂection. Zapata’s Chicago offices. He says he learned a lot from the firms he worked for, as well as from the cities he worked in. “Living in Osaka and New York City gave me a love for condensed living and networked systems,” he says. AguaSal, Chicago, 2005 Preissner’s work also reflects his love for spaces that are more about The ceiling of this ﬂotation center intuitive feeling than rationalized geometry. His interior project for Chicago’s and spa was created with 74 cast, Aguasal, a flotation center that offers visitors time in sensory-deprivation tinted-ﬁberglass panels, arranged tanks to experience the benefits of weightlessness, seems right up his alley. and mounted to add to the height- Preissner was asked to transform the center’s interior to create the impression ened sensory awareness that of a nonconfining space. The architect produced flowing patterns of blue-tinted, comes from time spent in sensory- molded-fiberglass panels below the ceiling, adding to the heightened sensory deprivation tanks, which AguaSal awareness visitors experience after spending time in the tanks. specializes in. The panels have Another project, a competition entry for the expansion of the West End Bridge the appearance of ﬂowing water, in Pittsburgh, has Preissner proposing a steel braid across the river with pedestri- without beginning or end. an bridge, bicycle path, and periodically spaced observation bubbles. When com- 03.06 Architectural Record 53
archrecord.com/archrecord2/Asian Culture Center, Gwangju,South Korea, unbuiltThis proposal calls for the efforts ofa group of artists, interior designers,and architectural teams to com-pose a building system based on its National Library of Mexico,cultural content/program. Jalisco, Guadalajara, unbuilt The intricate exterior structure of this proposed public library would exem- plify the complex activities within. The building would provide a warehouse of learning and a public social center housing an abundance of media. pleted, the bridge will close the loop in the trails around Pittsburgh’s three rivers. Preissner’s design “has neither a beginning nor an end,” he says, “and it lives in a moment of passion and emotion.” For Preissner, inspiration comes from emotion. “I don’t think of my work as sculpture,” he says, “but I am inspired by the work of immersive artists like Matthew Barney. I understand the realisms architects have to face,” he says, “and restraint is okay, because it pushes you, but ideally I appreciate less obvious environments—grittier, less defined. A torn edge is more interesting than a clean-cut edge.” With Qua’virarch projects in the works, Preissner also teaches at the University of Illinois-Chicago and at SCI-Arc, in Los Angeles, as well as Chicago’s Art Institute. In addition, he is writing a book about the emotional aspects of space. “It’s about the ability of architecture to create new feelings,” he says, “and how this is done not through a sculptural process, but through expert directing of material. Architecture is essentially choreography, after all.” Ingrid Spencer For more photos and projects by Qua’virarch, visit archrecord.com/archrecord2/.WorkStudents take on the damaged Gulf CoastUniversities near the battered Gulf Andrew. Their goal was to devise a sustainable plan that could I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY Q UA’ V I R A R C H ( TO P T W O ) ; M I S S I S S I P P I S TAT E U N I V E R S I T Y ( B OT TO M T W O )Coast region and beyond have directed serve as a model for redevelopment efforts in the region.the focus of their architecture, land- “It was a really good opportunity to mingle with design pro-scape, design, and planning depart- fessionals and see where their thoughts were coming from,”ments on the real-life lessons to be says Brian Suarez, a landscape-architecture student at MSU.gained by efforts to rebuild the area. “The students took a pretty radical stance,” says Dumas.At Mississippi State University (MSU) in According to him, the storm surge leveled large sections of thelate January, more than 200 landscape- site—basically everything south of the rail line. But rather thanarchitecture students, armed with maps rebuild in the devastated area, the students chose to relocate theand photographs, targeted a 75-mile coastal communities inland and cluster them around the existingstretch of the Gulf Coast as part of a Gulfport, Mississippi’s rail line, so as to protect them from futuremaster-planning study aimed at reviving Mayor Brent Warr storms. The relocation would also helpcoastal communities pummeled by with a student team revive the shore’s natural marshlands—Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. (above). Design a move that could save the local govern- The weeklong project, led by volun- Workshop partner ment millions of dollars in beachfrontteers from international landscape- Todd Johnson (right). upkeep, says Dumas.architecture firm Design Workshop, pro- While the study was originallyvided students with a rare glimpse into the professional challenges intended as a planning exercise, someof rebuilding a natural-disaster zone. “For many students, this is speakers who visited the students’ pres-the first time they have engaged in a planning project of this entation, including Gulfport, Mississippi’sscale,” says Jeremiah Dumas, a landscape architect with the firm. Mayor Brent Warr, were “thoroughly Project leaders selected a site spanning three coastal counties in impressed,” Dumas said. “People want to move back, and developers are thereMississippi and including an existing rail line located five blocks inland and wanting to buy land,” he says. “Decisions have to be made quickly, and the regionrunning parallel to the shore. They then divided students into teams of 10, is in need of these types of planning efforts.” Christina Rogerstasking each with a 6-by-6-mile section of the project. In preparation for the project, the students spent time sifting through case For more information on Mississippi State University’s Gulf Coast rebuild-studies and analyzing the effects of other major storms, such as Hurricane ing efforts and others, go to archrecord.com/archrecord2/.54 Architectural Record 03.06
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Syria weighs national and international influences in a post-Socialist age Correspondent’s File By Seif El Rashidi Until the 1990s, visiting Syria was DEPARTMENTS Three faces of Syrian like flipping through a 1960s design Architecture: Sinan magazine. Oversize cars trundled by Hassan’s fascinating stark, aging Modernist buildings. Like Chocolate Factory out- a Middle Eastern Cuba, decades of side Damascus (left); Socialist political isolation kept the generic, historicist ’70s and ’80s away, making Syria a suburban housing treasure trove of now-antiquated stock (below); Wael Modernist design. It also preserved Samhouri’s al-Hasani traditional architecture and quality of Religious Center, a life: Respectable middle-class fami- hybrid of Brutalist and lies continued to live in well-kept whimsical (bottom). 18th-century houses in the historic quarters of the city (which continue extremes of the present design spec- to be well-preserved). trum, both symbolizing a far lessP H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY S I N A N H A S S A N ( TO P A N D M I D D L E ) ; C O U R T E SY S E I F E L R A S H I D I ( B OT TO M ) Today, with a new, young presi- austere Syria trapped between the dent, Bashar al-Assad, promising traditional world and the new. reform, there’s hardly an old car in This dichotomy between estab- sight. On the highways leading to lished and modern points to some Damascus, slick and Minimalist worrying trends in architecture: hangar-type auto showrooms with Some Syrian architects wonder expanses of gleaming glass and whether public whims will sweep chrome supply the country with its old Syria’s architectural traditions new wheels. They reflect manufac- away, while others question why turers’ corporate architectural there isn’t much home-grown appre- “an abundance of unexploited archi- image, rather than local tastes. ciation for modern architecture. tectural talent, especially among the Simple, age-old Middle Eastern cof- new generation, lost between com- fee shops rub shoulders with Pottery Money=superficiality? puter graphics, superficial gimmicks, Barn–style cafés—picture-perfect It’s Syrians with money that are and architectural practices that Mediterranean bungalows or futuris- most worrying to architects. In what focus largely on decoration.” It’s a tic boxes. Gleaming new hotels were once suburban wastelands, common short-term reaction to tight- reflect historical or international grandiose, stucco-embellished, fisted authoritarianism—like college styles; new government buildings generic villas are springing up. It’s freshmen celebrating newfound free- trumpet progress. While the local cof- easy to see why the country’s archi- dom by partying to excess. Syria is fee shops attract old-world Syrians tects are unhappy. Damascus-based going through a wave of consumerist whose interest in understated quality Sinan Hassan sounds a lot more exuberance, which in architecture produced centuries of great architec- bitter than an accomplished 40- doesn’t lend itself to much substance. ture, the new outlets act as magnets something architect should. He Yet clients’ insensitivity to good The country is taking new for upstart professionals. The new describes a “passionate, persistent architecture isn’t the only problem. directions and rethinking its image. and old cafés represent the two effort to educate, convince, or at Hassan points out that the Syrian But in the Middle East, searching for least neutralize [clients], along with establishment doesn’t really like an indigenous contemporary identity Seif El Rashidi is an architectural making sacrifices of all kinds— contemporary architecture, and that in architecture is a major problem— historian and urban planner working including financial—in order to get poor architectural education and and nobody seems to have found a for the Aga Khan Trust for Culture. an idea built.” decades of isolationism have led to definitive solution. For now, there’s a 03.06 Architectural Record 57
Correspondent’s Filetendency to sentimentally represent P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY DA R A L - H A N DA S S A H ( L E F T ) ; S E R G I O C A L I T R O N I ( R I G H T )the past or to cling to the future.Finding a happy medium is difficult.Struggle for a styleNot far from the stores and coffeeshops of central Damascus, the just-completed Four Seasons Hotel, bylocal firm Dar al-Handassah, is a sim- The new Four Seasons in Damascus (left), by Dar al-Handassah. Theple, limestone-clad structure that Japanese Embassy in Damascus (above), by Italian architect Sergio Calatroni.rises ziggurat-style over the TekkiyaSuleymaniya, a 16th-century mosque inseparable. Like the country’s Damascus, expresses both dismaybuilt by legendary Ottoman architect medieval castles, the lower walls and euphoria about modern archi-Mimar Sinan. It’s a contrast to the are battered; and its bicolored hori- tecture in Syria, writing: “Everythingcountry’s unloved Brutalist hotels of Damascus fade into its shadow. And zontal stripes and central courtyard is constructed badly, in a rush, cuttingthe 1960s. Monochrome, and rela- while representing luxury, the rectilin- recall merchants’ khans, trade hubs corners. Nothing but chaos andtively restrained, it makes overtures ear building still nods to the past’s of goods and ideas. Unfortunately, kitsch. But now and then the chaosto the gleaming classicism so loved monumentalism and Brutalism. the incorporation of ancient ele- and kitsch combined together resultby the Four Seasons chain. And while Among many new public build- ments into fairly banal, blocky forms in unexpected vitality—there is some-it’s a clear message that Syria is ings now in the pipeline, a new seems forced—an example of thing to be learned from ugliness …opening its arms to tourism, once the ministry for foreign affairs by Syrian revivalist kitsch. A city means life, exchange, energy,novelty has worn off, somebody is architect Bassem Barghouti clearly stratified culture and old habits. Ingoing to notice that it doesn’t have wants to be futuristic. The gargan- The roots of originality Damascus, antiquity is everywhere,enough architectural flair to explain tuan building follows the old notion Sergio Calatroni, Milanese designer every wall is an open diary. Here onewhy it has made the landmarks of old that symmetry and formality are of the Japanese Embassy in learns to love the story architecture 50 Years of Innovation! …Light-Years Ahead! TM The leader in daylighting. The most highly insulating fenestration… LEED TM credit Contribution in 6 separate catergories. Now… with Super-Insulating Nanogel ®. Fletcher Priest Architects; Chris Gascoigue/View Photo 800-258-9777 (N. America) See more at kalwall.com For monumental, translucent clearspan SkyroofTM systems, consider our strategic partners… And for tensioned fabric structures… SPAN SYSTEMS, INC. CIRCLE 36 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GOTO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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Correspondent’s File shows that cultural awareness in architecture can mean something country’s cultural stagnation in gen- eral. But he notes that “the onset of deeper than decorated monoliths. bland, consumerist, and ahistorical Such originality is reminiscent architecture in recent times has nottells. Here I feel at home.” windows, and geometric patterns), it of the creative, often carefree totally eclipsed the age-old impulse His own building, the Japanese makes a good case for the possibility spirit of vernacular architecture to mix and match, although the cre-Embassy in Damascus, is an example of abstracting the past. But whether it here, which is less concerned with ativity of earlier experiments has beenof subtle creativity (perhaps inspired will catch on is hardly likely—it is sim- issues of style. In craggy hillside mostly sapped from contemporaryby this chaos), and a careful merging ple, and thus to the layman’s eye too villages around Damascus, con- projects.” He sums up, “A restorationof old and new. Sober and punctured similar to old socialist architecture. crete pilotis jutting out of crevices of civic society, even a modest one, Hassan’s Chocolate Factory out- support overhangs and large ter- is, in my opinion, the necessary side Damascus is another atypical races, allowing them to hover over precondition for any cultural and building. Its playful deconstructionist the valleys below. Roughly finished, architectural revival.” form and lush green setting are rare and sometimes cheap looking, A new architectural publication, for a commercial structure any- they’re not likely to find their way Ebdaat (Creativity), focuses on where—not just in Syria. Meanwhile, into the hearts of the new yuppie regional issues, like the work of local architect Wael Samhouri’s al- class. But they’re proof that there prominent Arab architects, and the Hasani Religious Center in Damascus, will always be creativity in Syria, design principles of the old Damascus which incorporates both traditional and that old-style dynamism is house. That’s what Syria needs, an I M A G E : C O U R T E SY S A M E R K A L L A S religious and modern office and edu- still there. awakening that doesn’t downplay theBarghouti’s foreign affairs ministry. cational space, is essentially a sleek depth of its own, multilayered culture, tower block. Yet its carefully articu- Endorsing experiment yet one that transcends the restrictiveby rectangular windows, the building lated fenestration gives its Nasser Rabbat, Syrian-born professor view of identity expressed throughseems to float on facades of religious-cultural function away: It is of architecture at MIT, sums up the superficial nostalgia. Luckily, Syria isDamascus limestone. It recalls the too well detailed to be a typical urban struggle here to find a unique, affect- coming of age when environmentorganic nature of the traditional structure, and too mindful of the past ing architecture. He blames political, and context are seen as paramount,Syrian house. Devoid of the stereo- to be an average office building. By economic, and societal isolation over and with millennial building traditionstypical design icons of contemporary treating tradition as more than just an the past half century for the lack of and spectacular landscapes, it’s gotArab architecture (arches, screened old pattern book, Samhouri’s building imagination in built work, and for the a lot to work from. ■ CIRCLE 38 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GOTO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
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Critique big challenges for criticism: The Web has made the culture on Archinect or Arch News Now or butterpaper australasia or Design unprecedentedly—amazingly and Observer or dutcharchitects.com— impossibly—global. Architecture to gloss through the first fourexample, and for years the red ink categorical as “the end of print,” has been international in outlook letters of my alphabetized book-of The Atlantic has been tolerated but rather to recognize that old for years, but until recently this marks—and navigate the endlesslyby its deep-pocketed businessman- and new media together will shape was mainly a matter of keeping up interlinking and hyperlinking worldowner David Bradley, and before the future of design critique, and with the foreign journals and new of omnibus portals, a virtual portfo-him, Mort Zuckerman.) Meanwhile, that this future won’t look much monographs, attending lectures lio of global design, the contents offledgling new media are generating like the past. As Kurt Andersen— and exhibitions, and (sometimes which are continuously expanding.flabbergasting quantities of content, whose polymathic career includes even) traveling. You can see the dilemma foran ever-present online multiverse of a stint as architecture critic for Today, this manageable architecture criticism—at least as world-view has exploded into a construed as a type of arts review,FLEDGLING NEW MEDIA ARE GENERATING superabundance of instant-access the weightiness of which hinges globalism, at once exhilarating and inevitably on the degree to whichFLABBERGASTING QUANTITIES OF exhausting. It’s not that more archi- the reviewer’s experience is com-CONTENT AND A NEWER, NARROWER tecture is being made around the prehensive. How can any individualDEFINITION OF “PUBLIC” OR “PUBLICS.” world, it’s that we are more aware critic gain comprehensive experi- of the architecture being made ence of a field whose boundariesimage, information, text, and hyper- Time—argued recently in New York around the world. Years ago—back have become so vast? The ambi-text; and in this illimitable process magazine: “Paper media today in the 20th century—you might tious literary critic can place anthey are also generating a newer, are … like sailing ships around have sprung for a subscription to order for next-day delivery andnarrower definition of “public,” or 1860—still dominant but enjoying The Architectural Review or El stack a season’s reading on therather “publics,” as broadcast slivers their last hurrah.” Croquis or A+U or Baumeister, and bookshelf; the movie critic caninto narrowcast, and as the old-style, every few weeks the periodicals become an encyclopedic authoritytop-down discourse makes way Impossibly global would appear and there’d be several on the basis of trips to the multi-for the looser, more participatory The outlines of a multimedia archi- dozen new projects to view. Now the plex and a Netflix subscription. Indynamics of online exchange. None tecture culture are still faint, but it’s pace is nowhere so leisurely; now disadvantageous contrast, theof which is to assert anything as not too soon to discern one of the you can boot up the laptop and click architecture critic is confronted with Manufacturer of Metal Wall Panels Denver Convention Center Hotel 800-816-8830 • www.adamscampbell.com Architect: klipp architecture CIRCLE 41 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/
Critique and assimilate. So here we might consider capital of what she called “death by development.” that much of the criticism that now seems so exemplary was Rethinking assumptions a multicontinental production that cism that seems paradoxically slight, largely local, that writers like The multiplatformed and micro- will defy any effort to achieve criticism that is noncontextual, Mumford and Huxtable hit their marketed media culture now extensive knowledge. Just to remain episodic, and fragmentary, directed critical strides as keen and close emerging will not offer the sort of au courant with the far-flung proj- more to remarkable moments than observers of the New York scene. widely visible journalistic venues ects of the big-name firms would to complex narratives, the kind of Mumford, who wrote the “Skyline” enjoyed by Mumford and Huxtable. require tireless travel (not to men- criticism that Ho and Menking column for The New Yorker But it might encourage—or com- tion an ample expense account), describe as “celebrity-obsessed, from the early ’30s until the early pel—an imaginative rethinking of and it wouldn’t leave much time to object-centric.” But what if these ’60s, was both a champion of the assumptions of design critique. progressive architecture and a It might encourage, too, a vigorous THE ARCHITECTURE CRITIC IS CONFRONTED five-borough populist, covering and broad-based network of critics not just major projects like willing to come creatively to grips WITH A MULTICONTINENTAL PRODUCTION Rockefeller Center and the ’39 with the experiential limits of global THAT WILL DEFY ANY EFFORT TO World’s Fair, but also cheap architecture—willing, that is, to ACHIEVE EXTENSIVE KNOWLEDGE. lunchrooms, shop windows, neigh- forego the jetlagged international- borhood playgrounds, and public ism of celebrity culture for a track the less-promoted work of characteristics say less about the housing. In the ’60s and ’70s, deeper and more nuanced knowl- young practitioners. How to choose talents of the critics than the limits Huxtable eloquently advocated for edge of the everyday landscape what to review? How to define the of the genre? Herbert Muschamp High Modern design and historic of the local. ■ critical beat? was notorious for his loyalty to “a preservation, but she was espe- Nowadays, the temptation is small coterie of avant-garde archi- cially expert at teasing out the to pursue the global beat, which tects,” to quote Clay Risen in The intricacies of bureaucratic planning Editor’s note: Robert Campbell usually means the big-name New York Observer; but this might and real estate financing, the and Michael Sorkin will each write beat—a natural temptation, for be understood also as tacit admis- politics and money that were Critique four times a year, and the the global is glamorous. Yet the sion that there really is only so transforming the fine-grained other four months it will be written global beat tends to produce criti- much that anyone can experience prewar metropolis into the world by a rotating group of new voices. CIRCLE 43 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/ For more information on the 2006 I-Codes, be sure to visit the ICC booth at the following industry show:REF 44-05-064 CSI Show & Convention, Las Vegas, Booth # 947
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Fire station, Newbern, Alabama: More sophisticated in terms of its material palette and architectural expression than earlier projects by the Rural Studio, thisbuilding points to some of the changes being made at the school under Andrew Freear. The station doubles as a city hall and a venue for community events.76 Architectural Record 03.06
Bridge, Perry Lakes Park, Perry County, Alabama: This 140-foot-long metal-and-cypress-covered bridge crosses a swampy lake and provides pedestrian access to the east side of the park. Engineered by Robert McGlohn, the bridge has three triangular horizontal trusses and end sections stabilized by cables anchored in concrete. ual house (second-year students together build one a year) to sometimes less than rigorous. “We live in a very poor place,”FEATURES community buildings, the province of thesis students who Freear says, “so it’s our responsibility to stretch our resources usually take on three each year. and shoot for zero-maintenance structures.” One result is that There have been other changes. “One of the great the studio’s material palette has narrowed. things about Sambo,” Freear says,“was his ability to move on. I think he’d be proud that the studio hasn’t become stale.” Learning from buildings, not books The newly completed ﬁre station in Newbern, the There’s a lot of cedar and galvanized aluminum siding, Rural Studio’s home, showcases some characteristics of the “silver-colored things that don’t need paint,” he quips.“Sambo post-Mockbee studio. You notice a shift of aesthetic: didn’t have a chance to learn from early projects falling to bits, Sophistication has replaced quirkiness, and off-the-shelf but we have to ﬁx them, and we learn from them and use them materials have replaced scrappy ones. Standing on Main as teaching tools. We don’t have many books, but we have Street across from G.B.’s store, the post office, and a rusty hay about 60 buildings. How do we do a gutter? A roof? An eave? barn the students use as a studio, the ﬁre station is an ele- What’s successful? Is it working well thermally? We have a cat- gant, 21st-century iteration of a barn. It is clad in pine and alog of buildings to learn from.” He adds that the studio has translucent polycarbonate, with south-facing horizontal become serious about its legacy. “We’re landlords now. We cedar slats to provide shade in summer and admit low winter want to set an example.” light. The interior is dominated by an exposed structure of Freear has tried, above all, to raise the level of craft. steel-and-timber wall trusses stretched taut by heavy-gauge For him, that means an increased emphasis on drawing, by steel cables and metal anchors. computer or by hand. Drawings, he insists, allow design teams Because the ﬁre station is structurally complex, to communicate better among themselves, build faster, and Freear explains, it couldn’t be as experimental as in the early convey ideas better to clients. He spends hours listening to stu- days.“You had to have an engineer involved,” he says.“You had dents rehearse their client presentations, conveyed in language to be grown-up.” Further, because it was to double as a city hall anyone can understand. Such presentations are “a much- and a venue for community events, the building underwent missed part of our educational system,” he says. careful programming, an aspect of the Mockbee era that was Of late, the studio has been criticized for overrun- 78 Architectural Record 03.06
ning schedules, which forces students to remain in Newbern ﬁnishing a cedar walkway edging the lake. FEATURES months after graduating. A suggested solution is that Auburn The renovation and expansion of the Rural work out a master’s degree. Meanwhile, leftover students, as Heritage Center in Thomaston, about 20 miles south of they’re called, soak up Freear’s time and Auburn’s resources. Newbern, marks another Rural Studio watershed, if only That was the case with the ﬁre station. For one thing, the studio because of the building’s size (6,000 square feet) and com- had to wait for donated timber to be delivered, on the donor’s plexity. Many projects originate from queries by Freear to schedule rather than the builder’s. Freear says projects would communities about buildings they need and would be willing progress faster if he participated more actively in the design to invest in. “If their money’s in it and they need it and want process, but then, he says, the students would learn less and be it, they’ll spend time and energy to raise more money,” he less invested in their work. says. “Then we put our name alongside the community’s for The studio now tackles multiyear, phased projects grants.” But some projects just present themselves, as did the for the ﬁrst time. An aluminum-and-cedar pavilion marked Rural Heritage Center, with a $190,000 grant from HUD. the beginning of one such project: the renovation of Perry Freear couldn’t resist. Lakes Park, in Perry County, Hale County’s neighbor to the The existing building was a 1950s ugly duckling, west, in 2002. The next academic year, students added three originally used for vocational education. The studio spent the unusual toilets, each with a different view. The cantilevered better part of the project’s ﬁrst year tearing down walls, sand- “long toilet,” as it’s called, is clad in stainless and cedar and focuses on a single tree. The “tall toilet” TODAY THE RURAL STUDIO IS “LESS rises 40 feet and is open to the sky, and the square “mound toilet” has a horizontal slit-opening. In HEINEKEN AND MORE PROFESSIONALISM,” 2005, students completed a 140-foot-long metal- SAYS STEVE BADANES. and-cypress-covered bridge that spans a bayoulike lake and makes the park’s beautiful east side accessible by foot. blasting surfaces, and replacing windows. The students The bridge’s structure, planned with help from structural inserted a glass box for office and display space, the uncondi- engineer Robert McGlohn, is composed of three Toblerone- tioned area between the glass insert and the exterior wall shaped horizontal trusses. The end sections, sandwiching a serving as a climate buffer. The students also added a new central portion whose load is light, are cantilevered, stabilized building entrance, a director’s office facing the street, a glass- with heavy cables, and anchored onshore in concrete. A team walled café that will spill outdoors in warm weather, exterior of students, newly certiﬁed in aerial construction, is recreating cedar cladding, and a 100-foot-high identifying sign of per- a 100-foot-high metal bird-watching tower. Another team is forated metal on vertical trusses. In front of the sign is anRural Heritage Center, Thomaston, Alabama: The Rural Studio took an existing 1950s building, renovated it, and expanded it to create this new facility. A 100-foot-long sign made of perforated metal set on vertical trusses gives the building a civic presence and backdrop for an outdoor performance space. 03.06 Architectural Record 79
Subrosa Pantheon, Newbern, Alabama: A memorial to Mockbee, designed from his sketches by his daughter Carol, this structure features a meditation space entered from a tunnel and roses growing on rods above it (above left). Carol and her sister Sarah Ann whisper to each other by way of a hidden sound tube (above right). outdoor performance space, where the local theater group the region’s most prevalent housing type, is “the $20,000FEATURES staged Steel Magnolias last spring. house,” designed last year by a group of outreach students. Not that the studio has abandoned the individual Another such group is at work on a second iteration with a house. Second-year students recently completed a cedar-clad wraparound porch. dwelling resembling a ﬂat-roofed mountain cabin raised on Most moving is the recently completed Subrosa piers, because it’s in a ﬂood plain. Frank Flury, the second- Pantheon, a memorial to Mockbee designed from his year instructor under whom the house was designed and sketches by his daughter Carol. You descend through a nar- built, likens it to a double-wide trailer with porches. The stu- row tunnel that Carol calls “a fat-man’s squeeze” into a round dio’s most recent effort to create an alternative to the trailer, meditation space, where secrets can be revealed under the roses—subrosa. The little building is replete with Mockbee symbology: Turtles, dear to his heart, paddle in a round pool, from which rise metal rods in the form of beaver sticks, beloved by Mockbee, his daughter explains, as the work of nature’s architects. Roses will climb the metal rods, which are topped by orbs framing the constellations on the longest day of year. Carol wants to explain what it all means by writing about it on Subrosa’s walls. As for the Rural Studio’s future, Freear rattles off a list of new projects: reconﬁguring a 40-acre park for Greensborough, the Hale County seat; building a dog pound in Greensborough; creating a courtyard for the county hospi- tal in the town. “Fourteen years ago, this was a bunch of students with a bushy-bearded professor who the locals all Frank’s House, Masons Bend, Alabama: Second-year students still thought was loony,” Freear says, “and now we’re mainstream, design and build houses; this one recalls a double-wide trailer. and everyone wants a bit of what we do.” ■ 80 Architectural Record 03.06
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The aptly named landscape. The poured- Magma Arts and in-place concrete Congress Center on structure is sheltered the island of Tenerife by a roof of narrow looks as if it had been bent strips of white formed from magma, fiber-cement panels the cooled volcanic that seem to slide over rock integral to the the top of the building.PRO JECTS
Artengo Menis Pastrana brings together primitive, brute forms inthe MAGMA ARTS AND CONGRESS CENTER to create a distinctive addition to Tenerife
The Magma Center’sfacade is striking, withcraggy, bush-hammeredconcrete edges. Alongthe southeastern corner,the jagged forms mergewith the curves of thewhite fiber-cement roof.
The 240,000-square- foot Magma Center occupies a 7-acre site 45 miles from Santa Cruz. The area, known 1 as Costa Adeje, in southern Tenerife, has been developed for tourism in recent decades. Retaining walls of poured con- 2 crete guide visitors to the forecourt of the1. Tenerife South Highway building (above),2. Avenida de los Pueblos where they may enter N 0 100 FT.3. Direction to Atlantic Ocean SITE PLAN 3 the hall. 30 M.92 Architectural Record 03.06
At the rear (northeast the thick walls thatside) of the center, the enclose the back-of-concrete walls create the-house functions. Asolid bulwarks jutting bridge (below) extend-out toward the busy ing from the upper levelTenerife South Highway acts as a secondary(above). Fernando entrance on the slopingMenis carved angular site. In the distance isslots for windows in the Atlantic Ocean.
slopes. Its principal structural elements are twelve concrete piers (some are 20 small buildings in their own right, such as the administrative block), 21 arranged around the interior spaces in a roughly rectangular conﬁguration, 16 alternating with sections of glass or ﬁber-cement-panel inﬁll, their angled 18 16 planes providing vivid chiaroscuro effects under the high subtropical sun. The concrete was mixed on-site with an aggregate of chasnera, a sandy-colored compressed volcanic ash that blends with the exposed vol- 17 19 canic terrain of the surroundings. The piers support the wavy roof, which sags over the narrow ends of the building like a spongy pillow or over- 5 ﬂowing custard, and the seemingly semicollapsed lines of the spandrels. With its rough-cut, unﬂashed edges, the ﬁber-cement roof offers a softer, 15 15 15 weightless variation on the concrete’s rich textures. The project acquires something of the telluric force of a volcanicSECOND FLOOR crater in the interiors, which are ﬁnished principally in board-formed concrete. From the street, pedestrian ramps on each side of the entry 10 11 bring visitors into a protected outdoor forecourt, which can also be used 12 for programmed activities. The spatial compression of the main lobby— 9 8 wide, deep, and dark, its low ceilings broken into wide beams by theatri- 7 6 cally lit gashes—gives way to the expansive space of the main hall, where 13 the high clouds of the ﬁber-cement ceilings split to admit curving crevices 4 3 14 of natural light, and the bare piers and walls, deeply gouged to scatter 2 sound, surround the spectator in a chorus of solemn, primitive presences. 7 5 1 Furnishings and ﬁttings are in keeping with this rough-hewn approach, and show the architects’ appreciation for salvage, also seen in their 13 13 13 other works and characteristic of an isolated island culture. Interior doors, partitions, and folding walls are ﬁnished in sheets of perforated, galvanized N 0 30 FT.FIRST FLOOR steel. Menis used leftover ﬁber-cement panels and other materials for some 9 M. furniture. Local artist Juan Gopar created wall sconces from ﬂuorescent tubes wrapped in plastic sheeting and hung on grids of rebar. Elsewhere, the 1. Lobby 8. Reception 15. Light control local theater director and teacher Carlos Belda installed budget spotlights 2. Café 9. Coatroom 16. Grandstand seating clamped to sections of used plumbing pipe, and Menis set a surplus exterior 3. Kitchen 10. Storage 17. Top hall street light behind the main stair to create a “fountain of light.” 4. Restaurant 11. Stage 18. Offices Intricate calculations were needed to coordinate the interior 5. Terraces 12. Dressing room 19. Press office acoustical shape of the ceilings, the depth needed for beams spanning up to 6. Shop 13. Wardrobe 20. Technical 230 feet, and the ﬁnal exterior forms. Although the architects had limited 7. Bathrooms 14. Main hall 21. Secondary entrance means available, they tackled these complexities with resourcefulness. For94 Architectural Record 03.06
The main stair is atheatrical tour-de-force, owing to theboard-formed concreteand dramatic lighting.Visitors ascend themain stair leadingfrom the receptionarea (opposite, right)on the first floor tothe top hall (left andopposite, left). The tophall’s ponderous ceil-ing (below) is createdfrom fiber-cementpanels mounted onsteel trusses, beams,and framing elements.
The spatial compression of the low-ceilinged, craggy-walled entrance lobby (above) contrasts impressively with the double-height main convention hall (oppo- site). The steplike seating in the main hall (right) is used for con- certs and conferences. Auditorium seats can be bolted into place for an audience of 300.96 Architectural Record 03.06
example, they began with a primitive mechanical “scanning” of a model in Bilbao, is a reminder that the project is clearly a part of the post-made of papier-mâché and sand molds, and reﬁned the process over more Guggenheim landscape, with its fascinating formal possibilities. But whilethan a year. They were aided in their endeavors by students from the Gehry’s coiling titanium is light and crystalline in its reﬂective hardness, hereMadrid School of Architecture, along with AMP’s engineers, and the use of in Tenerife form becomes soft, bland, dense—heavy with the labor of itsKATIA, the only design program capable of resolving the roof’s irregular making and of supporting its own weight. The Magma’s forms are solids incurves into smooth planar surfaces. a semiturgid state of ﬂux, like the ice of a moving glacier—a hardening lava The ﬁber-cement panels employed for the roof and other surfaces flow or a sheet of red-hot steel in the mill, caught in the moment of meta-had never been used in curvature before. It required special sealants for the morphosis that reveals the magic, vital force at the heart of making things. ■75,000 screw holes that penetrate it, and custom fasteners adaptable to itsdouble condition of roof and facade inﬁll; for these, the architects adapted Sources Upholstery: Kvadratacoustic vibration dampers that also permit movement, an application they Cement fiber roofing and Other furniture: Morosohave patented. Flashing is hidden below the surface, while trench gutters acoustical ceilings: Naturvex Task lighting: Philips-Paciﬁcprevent rainwater from spilling over its edges. Chilled air, acoustic insula- Floor and wall tile: Parray Exterior lighting: Philips-Norkation, and the guide rails for the custom acoustic partitions of the halls are Paints and stains: Julio Crespoincorporated in the roof’s interior spaces. Of fice furniture: Unifor; Wilkahn For more information on this project, The fact that the architects had to resort to KATIA, the aerospace Fixed seating: Alis go to Projects atdesign program that Frank Gehry used to design the Guggenheim Museum Chairs and tables: Kusch www.archrecord.com. 03.06 Architectural Record 97
A sawtooth roof (above)recalls industrial build-ings in the area andthe role of labor in theantiapartheid move-ment. A large entrytrellis (below) servesas a public space forthe community.
1. Taxi stand 10. Time-line walk The architects broke 2. Bus stop 11. Temporary exhibits the east facade (above) 3. Public square 12. Memory box into segments and 9 4. Covered porch 13. Auditorium gave it a more diminu- 15 12 12 11 5. Restaurant 14. Memorial tive roof so it would 10 16 6. Museum shop 15. Art gallery relate to the housing 12 7. Reception 16. Storage/archives they had designed 11 8. Kitchen 17. Amphitheater across the street. 13 10 9. Column of Heroes 18. Movie screen/stage 17 14 9 8 7 6 4 5 2 18 3 1 N 0 50 FT.MAIN FLOOR 15 M.
Although much larger by a trellis (above). A accessible. Becauseand more imposing glassed-in restaurant blacks and “coloreds”than the shacks and on the west portion of were barred from visit-concrete-block houses the terrace and an ing cultural facilitiesnearby, the museum adjacent beer garden during apartheid, localreaches out to its (not seen) welcome the residents had little orneighbors with a large community and make no experience withentry terrace shaded the building more these institutions.
This history and context meant that the architects confronted carefully trained rotating labor pool drawn from the township.two exceptional problems in the design of the museum—ﬁnding an appro- Designing such a massive building in the midst of the township’spriate architectural language and a way of choreographing multiple stories. domestic scale was a bold move. While the museum’s size and blank walls Under apartheid, black and “colored” people were forbidden to could easily have overwhelmed daily life in the neighborhood, Noero Wolffvisit museums, libraries, and other cultural buildings, except as employ- carefully stepped down the scale and humanized the two edges of the build-ees, entering through the back door. As a result, such buildings have little ing that meet pedestrians and the street.positive resonance with the people of New Brighton. So Jo Noero and At the entry, a generous terrace sits a few steps above the side-Heinrich Wolff had to invent a different kind of architecture, one that walk, welcoming people with a wooden trellis supported on a grid ofwould be approachable and meaningful to people with no direct experi- columns made of telephone poles bundled together with heavy wire. Thisence of museums. They developed a robust, though reﬁned, industrialaesthetic for the museum, creating a huge, singular volume enclosed by a NOERO AND WOLFF HAD TO INVENT ANconcrete frame in-ﬁlled with concrete block. A sawtooth roof echoes the ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE APPROPRIATEforms found in the manufacturing zone across the train tracks while alsohonoring the antiapartheid movement’s history of organizing in factory FOR TELLING THE STORIES OF APARTHEID.settings. The resulting architecture is simultaneously familiar and fresh. rough detailing brings to mind the resourcefulness of township residents To create the Red Location Museum, Noero Wolff reconceived who often piece together found materials to make their homes. Closer tocommon factory construction, then made sure the structure was elegantly the museum’s front door, the columns become concrete, thinner andbuilt. The ﬁne detailing of the concrete block, corrugated-iron sheeting, taller, and a corrugated-iron roof extends overhead. Emphasizing theand plaster panels elevates and celebrates the ordinary materials the peo- public nature of the building, the architects created a glassed-in restau-ple of the township have always salvaged for use in their houses. At the rant on one side of the entry doors and a gift shop. With its columns andcommunity’s insistence, the contractor employed a closely supervised and shaded space, the terrace is both a formal entry to the museum and a 03.06 Architectural Record 103
A grid of 12 tall roomsstand as somber con-tainers inside themuseum. Each of these15-foot-square “mem-ory boxes” presentsa different perspectiveon apartheid, sotogether they showthat history containsmany different views.
The signature design split form of the chan-element of the project cellery building. Madeis a screen made of from indigenous jarrahtimber spines that fan wood, it creates a strik-upward from nearly ing entry to the campushorizontal to fully verti- and an iconic statementcal, which frames the for the city altogether.
With its thorny reptilian crown, fjmt’s new CHANCELLERY BUILDING AND BUSINESS SCHOOL puts the Joondalup campus of Edith Cowan University on the map PRO JECTS
A dramatic entry plazafronts the four-buildingcomplex (above). Themesh screen estab-lishes a pedestrianzone for circulation(right). Bleacher seat-ing and a lawn create agathering area in frontof the business school(opposite, bottom). 03.06 Architectural Record 109
that meshes these spines together is made from recycled jarrah, cut fromrailway ties, connected to galvanized and painted Z-sections. The taperedends of the jarrah members are proportional to their overall length, thusconveying a subtle, secondary arc along the top and bottom of the facade. The jarrah struts are not simply decorative, but in fact “they forma colonnade at ground level and create shading for the internal spaces, aswell as reduce glare from the buildings themselves,” Francis-Jones explains.“They create an interstitial space between them and the two buildings theyface: the triangular vice chancellor’s building and the administrative build-ing.” The architects place circulation in the space between the timber screenand the main foyer. Stairways and elevators in this shaded zone open to theview, creating informal meeting places in the atrium and drawing occu-pants to the outside as they move between the ﬂoors and wings of thebuilding. The two buildings behind the struts are joined by a glass bridge. Internally, the ﬁt-out is simple, with an emphasis on function.Francis-Jones describes the interiors as “materially warm with modestdetailing.” The palette of colors and ﬁnishes reﬂects the browns andoranges predominant in the nearby desert. The four volumes that make up the complex are all three storieshigh, with the elongated business school buildings rising up from the hillbehind them and stepping down toward the lawn of the plaza. This ter-raced section serves as a gathering place for students having lunch, as wellas bleacher seating for outdoor events. “When the completed buildingswere opened to the public, the university held an opening and the crowds 1. Entry plazaﬁlled the terraces, which have become extensions of the lawn area,” 2. Council chamberexplains the architect. 3. Vice Chancellor’s office The reinforced concrete frame of the structures primarily utilizes 4. Executive officesprestressed slabs with steel framing on the ﬁrst level and steel roof framing 5. Bridge 1throughout the project. The design incorporates an outdoor gathering space, 6. Council chamber foyera café, a bookstore, and underground parking for 200 automobiles, as well as 7. Lawnthe administrative offices for the campus, lecture theaters for the school of 8. Bleacher seatingbusiness, a gallery, and a space designated for hosting university functions. 9. Light courts 4The architecture integrates building services so the designed form and open 10. Academic offices 5 6spaces are not affected by infrastructural clutter. For example, fumes from 11. Administrative 4 3 2car exhaust in the underground car-park are disposed inconspicuously via officesﬂues that rise alongside the chancellery building elevator shafts. 7 The new complex is surrounded by a handful of older universitybuildings whose vintage stretches back to the early 20th century. Francis- 9 8 8 9Jones says this project has transformed the master plan for the university and 10 10will set the stage for new construction in the coming years. While the projectis slightly overscaled to the existing context of buildings, it indicates what is LEVEL FOURto come.“In the future, this campus will be of a much higher density. Thesebuildings are designed to forecast that growth, while retaining a sense of thelandscape and existing character. The organic forms of the architecture havebeen developed to appear to rise naturally out of the landscape itself.” Driving into Joondalup from the south, the striking forms of 1the jarrah screen offer a bold and conﬁdent greeting. It bodes well for acity that Francis-Jones rightly states “has a lot of growing to do.” With thiscampus as a fulcrum for that growth, the seed has been planted both 9intellectually and architecturally. ■ 5 9 11 11Sources Cabinet hardware: HafeleExterior cladding: Midland brick Ceilings: Armstrong 7Metal curtain wall: Symonite Paints/stains: Dulux FerrekoMetal roofing: Bluescope Steel Lighting: Austube 9 8 8 9Windows/doors: Capral Aluminum 10 10Hardware: Lockwood For more information on this project,Closers: Dorma go to Projects at N 0 50 FT.Pulls: Dalco www.archrecord.com. LEVEL THREE 15 M.110 Architectural Record 03.06
An aerial view, over-looking the chancellery,academic building, andcampus illustrates thedramatic scale createdby the complex (oppo-site). The jarrah strutsform a screen thatreduces glare from thebuildings themselvesand creates an invitingcolonnade at groundlevel (right).
Built to withstand hard-ship, the exterior skinof the building appearsas an “anorak”—acontinuous skin inwhich the walls androof are undifferenti-ated and drape thefaceted surfaces ofthe form (inset, right).
Jarmund/Vigsnæs Architects designedthe SVALBARD RESEARCH CENTRE so it glows like a faceted ship in the arctic night By Peter MacKeith I n old Norse, svalbard means “the land of the cold coasts.” Standing PRO JECTS on the meteorologists’ observation deck atop the copper-sheathed research center of the University of Svalbard in arctic Norway, those coastlines, the vastness of the northern polar sky, and the sheer dark and cold of the December polar night, are immediately apparent to the vis- itor to this arctic archipelago at 78 degrees north latitude. The Aurora Borealis, source of myth and subject of research, is close at hand. Svalbard’s remote location and extreme environmental condi- Peter MacKeith, a permanent resident of Finland, is associate dean of architecture at the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts, Washington University in St. Louis. He writes frequently on Nordic architecture. Project: Svalbard Research Centre, Architects—Einar Jarmund, Håkon Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway Vigsnæs, Alessandra Kosberg Owner: Statsbygg/Directorate of Engineers: Frederiksen (structural); Public Construction and Property Monstad (electrical); Erichsen & Architects: Jarmund/Vigsnæs Horgen (mechanical)
The faceted, canted sur-faces of the building andits elevation above thepermafrost are responsesto the cold, wind, and drift-ing snow that characterizemuch of Svalbard’sweather. Tested in a windtunnel, the volumes of thestructure reduce windloads, lessen thermalexchange, and deflect thebuild-up of snow drifts(this page and opposite).
14 10 7 13 13 4SECTION A-A 13 0 10 FT. A stairway opens into 3 M.SECTION B-B one of the canted, pine- clad corridors, which feature slotted paneling on the ceiling to provide 1. Reception 6. Storage 11. Ventilation ventilation (opposite, 2. Classrooms 7. Laboratories 12. Rooftop platform for top). A north-faced 3. Library 8. Computer lab equipment glazed wall brings light 4. Auditorium 9. Historical archive 13. Museum into the central stair 5. Offices 10. Technical “loft” 14. Technical rooms hall (opposite, bottom). A 6 3 7 2 5 7 5 5 EXISTING BUILDING 1 4 EXISTING BUILDING 8 A 9 N 0 20 FT.GROUND FLOOR B B FIRST FLOOR 6 M. 10 5 5 11 12 EXISTING BUILDING EXISTING BUILDING 5 5 5SECOND FLOOR ROOF 116 Architectural Record 03.06
and the choice of interior ﬁnishes and furnishings. As Håkon Vigsnæsdescribes it, “[The building] is an attempt to create an architecture totallysuited to its setting, both mentally and physically.” Clearly the faceted forms of the complex reﬂect Svalbard’smountainous landscape and distant ocean sweep. Indeed, the sheer scaleof the program and the dispersed character of the local communityargued, in the architects’ eyes, for its reference to be to the larger scalesand forms of the landscape. But the angles and cants of its exterior for-mations just as equally derive from the speciﬁc, even scientiﬁc,environmental facts of wind patterns, snow drifts, solar angles, and per-mafrost conditions, rather than from a simplistic, preconceived idea ofan “artiﬁcial landscape.” The tectonic complement to these environmental responses isthe productive use of the constructed space in between—between thewings of the building, the rooms and walls, a ceiling and roof, a ﬂoor anda ceiling. The architects exploited this spatial “in between” at every scale ofoperation. For example, they suspended the mass of the building abovethe permafrost on 250 steel stilts (driven 36 feet into the ground). Theydifferentiated programmatic elements into a multiwinged footprint,which results in shaping external courtyards as well interior spaces. Thearchitects compressed numerous offices and laboratories into efficientshort runs, and provided generously proportioned corridors and gather-ing areas. Lastly, and importantly, the designers neatly sandwichedmechanical systems inside interior partitions, and employed a ventilatedroof construction with a thin outer membrane of standing-seam coppersheeting and a thicker inner ceiling of spruce paneling. 03.06 Architectural Record 117
The Svalbard Research Centre’s design, isolated on its arcticisland, had to contend with material and production limits and condi-tions at every turn. All building products had to be transported to the siteby ship, and construction had to proceed during dramatic climate andlight changes. Fabrication techniques were a central element in designdevelopment, requiring the highest standards for performance. Shaped by climate, light (and its absence), material resources,and our own perceptions of the arctic latitudes’ regional character, thecenter denotes an architecture of true North, as a contemporary incarna-tion of Kenneth Frampton’s argument for a “critical regionalism.”Frampton believed that such an architecture would be found in the“interstices” of contemporary civilization. This project, at the edge of ourconventional maps, is surely in a unique position, although the need forexpanding the facility and the increase in tourism on Svalbard will put theproject’s isolation to the test. The Svalbard Research Centre exempliﬁes research into designthat performs at every scale, attentive to the essential dictates of climate,light, material resources, and human character. Here, the architect hasachieved an architecture of absolute value and ﬁerce beauty. ■Sources Plumbing: MoraStructural system: Skanska Lighting: Fagerhult; Glamox; TriloxCopper roofing: FreitagAluminum windows/doors: Daaland For more information on this project,Hardware: TrioVing go to Projects atElevators/escalators: Kone www.archrecord.com.
A central stair hallconnects all threelevels of the researchcenter (this page andopposite, top) Enlargedwindowsills form seat-ing in the hallwaysoutside the classrooms(opposite, bottom).
Most of the library’s spher-ical or semispherical roofstructures are composedof fiber-reinforced concretebubble domes (this page).One (top center) is fullyglazed. Herbert Baker’scolonnaded Parliament(top) can be seen from thegrassy roof terraces.
Raj Rewal Associates combines traditional and modern forms to create an original scheme for India’s PARLIAMENT LIBRARY in New Delhi 0 100 FT. SITE PLAN N 30 M. By Sam Lubell PRO JECTS R aj Rewal’s Parliament Library, located in the heart of Sir Edwin Lutyens’s and Herbert Baker’s colonial New Delhi, is a hugely important project for India. This is especially true at a time when the country is rapidly PARLIAMENT LIBRARY developing its industrial and information-technology sectors. Not only does the library furnish vital research and meeting capabilities for the government, but its architecture attempts to establish an Indian identity within the once British imperial capital. The circular and rectilinear geometries of its plan, forms, materials, and decorative motifs recall the architectural patrimony of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist temples more directly than buildings by the early-20th-century British architects. Since the library was designed by an Indian, who is adapting traditional forms to modern technology and functions for the designing the Parliament Library. Included in his considerations, of course, symbolically important site, Rewal’s conscientious endeavor is very much was the Parliament on an adjacent site. One of this precinct’s most notable a statement about the direction architecture should take here. Most new buildings, Baker’s round, white-granite Classical structure sits atop a red architecture in the country is not based on Indian tradition, Rewal argues, sandstone base and is surrounded by an extensive colonnade. but is rootless, and if anything obsessed with novelty, or, at the other end Bowing to Baker’s circular building, Rewal’s four-level complex, of the stylistic spectrum, ends up being a “silly historical pastiche.” with two ﬂoors below grade, features a cluster of spherical and semi- One of India’s most established architects, Rewal has completed spherical forms, organized axially around an incomplete square. The several important projects in this city, including the World Bank Regional low-rise library defers to the Parliament, says Rewal, and speaks to it “as a Mission (1993) and a campus for the National Institute of Immunology guru gives advice to the king.” The dominant use of red, white, and pink (1988). But this $45 million, 590,000-square-foot complex appears by far sandstone blocks, cladding a concrete frame, allude to the Parliament’s red base, while its round composite stone-and-steel or concrete columns areP H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY R A J R E WA L A S S O C I AT E S to be the high point of his career. It took more than a dozen years to real- ize: In 1991 Rewal won the commission for the much-needed addition to reminiscent of the colonnade. India’s Parliament—a Classical-style building designed by Baker in 1927. Traditional forms, like jaalis, or ornamental screens, rhythmically The program for the sprawling library called for offices, meeting rooms, articulate much of the otherwise minimal exterior, as do the sandstone and study spaces for members of the Indian legislature. As a major state mullions. Both the mullions and stone jaalis were manually carved off-site building, it needed to express grandeur and solidity, but as a house of by artisans in nearby Rajasthan. The facade’s heavy sandstone blocks and learning it also needed to be calming, quiet, and inspirational. The triangular 10-acre site for the Parliament Library lies north Project: Parliament Library, New Engineer: India Central Public of Lutyens’s Viceroy’s House, now known as Rashtrapati Bhawan, the pres- Delhi, India Works Department (CPWD); R.F.R. idential palace. Designed and built from 1912 to 1931 by Lutyens as the Owner: Government of India Engineers (for domes) seat of British imperial power (which existed until India’s independence in Architect: Raj Rewal Associates—Raj General contractor: Larsen & 1947), its arresting architecture is often referred to as Delhi Classic, owing Rewal, principal; Arvind Mathur, Anshu Toubro to its monumental forms and Mughal motifs. Today the palace and stately Mahajan, H.S. Sandhu, Sanjeet Bose, Consultants: Satish Khanna government buildings, plus the streets, such as the expansive, tree-lined Pratap Talwar, Arun Rewal, Ankur (landscape); CPWD, Satish Khanna Rajpath, form a cohesive urban context that Rewal had to address in Mathur, Vipin Thakur, design team (lighting); CPWD (acoustical) 03.06 Architectural Record 121
1 1 15 15 16 13 13 16 2 3 2 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 7 3 12 3 16 16 13 13 16 16 8 10 14 11 9 9 0 50 FT. N 15 M.GROUND FLOOR FIRST FLOOR1. Scholars’ library 5. Center atrium 9. Digital library 13. Offices Red sandstone clads tom) are infused2. MPs’ reading room 6. Auditorium 10. Public reception 14. Conference space the building’s exterior with light filtered3. Research and archives 7. Committee room 11. Cafeteria 15. Security (below left). Narrow through windows and4. Entrance atrium 8. Press center 12. Banquet hall 16. Courtyard halls (below and bot- stone screens.122 Architectural Record 03.06
The red-and-white chiseled sandstone buildings are organized around three court- yards, tiled with sandstone and planted with local vegetation.small openings help shield the interior from the region’s intense heat, steel ring beams and lattices formed from tubes, castings, and high-tensilewhich can rise to an average of 113 degrees in the summer. Also providing tie bars, the roof system well demonstrates the extent to which modernshade are the overhanging gridded cornices of white sandstone and grid- technology is incorporated into this structure. Traditional materials alsoded midlevel bands of red sandstone surrounding interior courtyards. play a part: Surfaces of the domes are generally ﬁnished in polished sand- The basic plan, where a series of interior courtyards link the dif- stone or granite roof tiles, while the octagonal, hexagonal, or squareferent structures, evokes the interpenetration of indoor and outdoor spaces components of the domes inside are often surfaced in terra-cotta, woodof precolonial temple complexes, including the 15th-century Jain Adinatha acoustical tiles, or teak battens.temple in Ranakpur, and Fatehpur Sikri, the majestic Mughal sandstone city Sandstone walls prevail in many of the rooms, which include ain Uttar Pradesh, built in the 16th century. The three courtyards, paved with digital library, the scholars’ library, an MPs’ reading room, plus receptionsandstone tiles, subdivided by steps, and enclosed with low walls, are planted rooms, banquet halls, and a 1,400-seat auditorium. The multiheightwith local vegetation. Each space is intended to offer different symbolic spaces naturally are dramatic; but even the corridors, surfaced with marblemeanings to its users. One courtyard’s open-air theater is meant to provide or granite ﬂoors, exude a mysterious presence, since they are darker, buta forum for debate. In another courtyard, ﬁcus trees stand for social justice; infused with a light ﬁltered through syncopated openings. Such controlledin a third, a basin of water is an ancient symbol for equality. light seen throughout the building can have a mesmerizing effect. “The But perhaps the building’s most dramatic feature is the extensive longer you linger, the more you start to notice,” says Rewal.use of bubble domes to cover the major spaces. The ﬁber-reinforced con- In the domed halls, daylight enters through clerestorylike bandscrete shells for the bubbles were precast on-site. Resting on an armature of of glass brick, and in some cases glazed brick panels inserted in the roof. 03.06 Architectural Record 123
The three-level scholars’ (above) spans 82 feet. library is flooded with The central dome, where light (left), where panels glass “petals” are linked of glass bricks are by four glazed ladder inserted into domical purlins, is formed from shells supported by a stainless-steel structural structural-steel lattice. members, tensile rods, The five-story central and layers of laminated atrium’s glass dome reflective and clear glass.Your eye is drawn upward, fostering, Rewal hopes, the sense of enlight- designs of the 1960s. The bubble domes recall visionary schemes of theenment you might experience in an Indian temple. The library’s central 1950s (even if the array of domes, viewed from the building’s grassydome, spanning 82 feet over a ﬁve-story hall, is entirely glazed: to rooftops, are strangely exhilarating). For this reason, several Indian archi-counter the heat gain, the panels are composed of a top layer of reﬂective tects, in private conversation, have criticized Rewal for not moving theglass laminated over clear ﬂoat glass and separated by an air space from country’s architecture forward. And while the building’s heavy exterioranother layer of laminated glass. The dome’s framework of stainless-steel responds to the area’s hot climate, the effect is sometimes ponderous—astubes in the form of parabolic petal-shaped segments linked by ladder if it were a fort, not a government building. Because of its lack of visualpurlins dramatically introduces light to the interior, creating a memo- focus, the facade appears much less inspiring than the interior. Still, suchrable central hall for the entire complex. drawbacks do not destroy the overall effect. Like much of India, the build- With its spatial variety, historical references, and solid material- ing feels blessed with the richness and poetry of history, but is still infusedity, the library lives up to its signiﬁcant role as the newest addition to with the exuberance and complexity of modernity. ■India’s governmental buildings. The large open spaces, lofty domes, andcarefully controlled natural lighting lend it a sense of majesty and calm. SourcesStill, Rewal’s architectural vocabulary can seem strangely dated to a Concrete: Larsen & ToubroWesterner used to a more abstracted type of monumentality. For example, Windows: Mahavir Aluminium For more information on this project,conference rooms and banquet halls patterned with brownish or maroon Steel: TATA; Steel Authority of go to Projects atstripes and large circular motifs in marble resemble Late Modernist India (SAIL) www.archrecord.com.124 Architectural Record 03.06
The dome over anentrance hall tothe library is a fiber-reinforced concreteshell braced by anoctagonal steellattice resting on asteel ring beam. 03.06 Architectural Record 125
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The Hyatt Centercarves out space for aground-level plaza thatushers thousands ofcommuters in and outof nearby Loop railstations each workday.
For security, the columns of the monu- mental colonnade (opposite, top left) are concrete-encased inside their metal skins. The high, glass lobby walls are blast- resistant. Low entrance canopies at the juncture of the tower and the low “bustle” (left and lobby plan, below) balloon upward to 50-foot-tall, skylit vestibules accented with wall panels by British artist Keith Tyson (opposite, top right). Moving through a broad but low metal-detector zone, visitors arrive in the main lobby (opposite, bottom), with its tall bamboos augmented by soothing bubblers. South Franklin Street 1. Vestibule 2. Metal detectors 3. Lobby 4. Atrium 1 2 5. Reception below 7 6. Boardroom 7. Offices 6 4 Monroe Street W. Arcade Place 3 5 7 2 1 Wacker Drive SITE PLAN 0 20 FT. FOURTEENTH FLOOR N 6 M.134 Architectural Record 03.06
Skidmore, Owings &Merrill’s StephenApking concentratedamenities for Hyattcorporate offices alongan atrium, most notablyin coffee bars that can-tilever over the glassstair (right). Equallyarresting is the 12th-floor reception area(below and opposite,top), where the wallsand a monumental stairare paneled in blackwalnut. The receptionarea and a boardroom(opposite, bottom) pro-vide a showcase forwood furniture by MiraNakashima, daughterof the Japanese-American craftsmanGeorge Nakashima.
Studios Architectureexecuted officesfor Bloomberg in amixed-use, steel-and-concrete-framed specbuilding (opposite)designed by architectsPelli Clarke Pelli. Thelatter firm carved outa midblock interiorcourt for entrances tooffices and apartments(above). Bloomberg’sopen-riser stairs, suchas one on the thirdfloor (right), look likeartworks, owing to thestainless-steel stringerswith treads backlit byfluorescent tubes inred gel sleeves.
hub, where a pantry with free snacksA A brings employees together, open 4 4 6 stairs and escalators connect to 3 4 6 5 Open to Open to floors immediately above and below. below below 2 Open In keeping with the desire for to below 5 transparency, Studios enclosed the 1 7 conference rooms (125 in all) in 3 vibrantly tinted glass, and strategi- 5 7 cally placed them as buffers 4 between the open offices and the 4 circulation areas. With their vivid 3 3 4 orange, gold, fuchsia, lavender, green, and blue colors, the confer- ence rooms appear to be life-size SIXTH FLOOR 0 20 FT. counterparts to the signature 6 M. Bloomberg aquariums, filled with multihued exotic fish, coral EXPANSION 1. Elevators reefs, and plants, found throughout 19 EXPANSION 2. Reception the offices. 18 EXPANSION 3. Offices Low, modular white desks, 5 feet 17 EXPANSION 4. Meeting area or 6 feet 6 inches long, depending on 16 R&D 5. Wintergarden function, allow clear sight lines to pre- 15 R&D and pantry vail. Since ceiling heights range from R&D 14 6. TV broadcast 9 feet 6 inches to 12 feet 6 inches, 7. Radio broadcast the spaces rarely feel oppressive. M More than anything, the spec- M tacular use of art and graphics in OPERATIONS 10 the public areas galvanizes the envi- 9 OPERATIONS ronment and provides a sense of 8 MARKETING orientation to this multilevel hive of PRODUCT TRAINING NEWS MULTIPURPOSE 7 HR ROOM WINTER activity. For example, Pentagram GARDEN & RECEPTION BROADCAST 6 PANTRY Design sparked up the wintergarden SALES NEWS 5 with a Times Square–size, four-band 4 R&D 4 4 BROADCAST/NEWS LED zipper carrying financial data. 3 R&D ADMINISTRATION Permanent large-scale artworks, 2 chosen in consultation with the L LOBBY Public Art Fund, transform the vari- LL1 ous circulation nodes: They include Iñigo Manglano-Ovalle’s Cloud over LL2 TRAINING CENTER a spiral escalator, and two lighting SECTION A-A pieces by Spencer Finch mounted in equally visible places. For their part, the architects transformed the The two-story-high stainless-steel stairs connecting the reception lobby on the various floors into light sculptures by sixth floor acts as the backlighting the open risers with flu- hub and a pantry. Pelli orescent tubes in red gel sleeves. A Clarke Pelli designed koi pond replete with colorful fish the steel radial-truss and a frog adds an unexpected note structure supporting at the base of the sixth-floor stair. the skylight (left) on the bridge between the two Commentary towers. The bipartite “This is a total collaboration,” floor plates run gener- remarks Darrah about the conjunc- ally from 30,000 to tion of architecture, art, graphics, and 40,000 square feet in interior design. Obviously, such col- the east tower and laboration costs money––the reason 20,000 to 30,000 square most office workers may not benefit feet in the west one. from this approach. Nevertheless, it
A chrome-paneled,curved escalator (thispage) runs from thesixth to the fifth floorbroadcasting studios.Founder MichaelBloomberg saw a simi-lar one in Japan, butin this applicationit is topped by IñigoManglano-Ovalle’stitanium Cloud.
The “paperless” open dramatized by a black office with no parti- glass chandelier art tions features modular piece by Cerith Wyn desks and Bloomberg- Evans. From the win- designed monitors tergarden, viewers (below). The elevator can look into the two- lobby on the sixth story broadcast floor (bottom left) is studios (bottom right). should be studied for the effect that architecture and design have on pro- ductivity. With regard to the common complaint that loud voices travel too well in the open office, Krizmanic replies that since there are no parti- tions and you see everybody, people automatically keep their voices down. To this observer, the main problem seemed to be the lack of storage space. (Overheard: It works best for “paper-phobic Lilliputians.”) In terms of a total design, the Pelli columns and skylight in the winter- garden/pantry introduce a brawny muscularity not quite in sync with the shimmering weightlessness of the graphics, art, and interior design. In spite of all that, the headquarters is so far removed from the conven- tional office, it throws this normal Dilbert-in-a-cubicle drone into a state of (euphoric) shock. ■142 Architectural Record 03.06
Since the lower-leveltraining center has nowindows, the waitingarea is enlivened by asunny, yellow-tiledcurved wall concealingclosets and restrooms.In addition, a 100-foot-long fluorescent-lightart piece by SpencerFinch, called Sunrise,and bold fuchsia seat-ing energize the space.
Endesa faces thehighway with a contin-uous mass (opposite,top) and a dramaticallycantilevered wing(right), while a comb-shaped block with fourprojecting bays facesthe street (opposite,bottom) along withthe entry (below) andits glass atrium roof.
sate for the extra expenditure of the atrium. The building is the Glass and louver first in a line of commercial offices atrium roof that occupy a narrow strip of land between a railroad cut and the M-40, a major ring highway. The design had to contend with isola- Roof tion, noise, and pollution. Solution KPF, which has designed several Of fices atrium-centered projects in the Executive colder climates of northern Europe, floor and La-Hoz divided the office floor area into two continuous blocks Terrace embracing the atrium. These are concrete structures with modular plans and floor plates over 50 feet Offices deep. Open offices predominate, lit by continuous floor-to-ceiling win- dows. The layering of the facades, and the shadows they cast, further enlivens the indoors. The facades vary according to the exposure, Ground floor with fixed aluminum brise-soleils on southern elevations of the comb- shaped block that faces away from the highway, with its northern cor- ners marked by crisp folded planes Basement of white Córdoba limestone. Horizontal slats of fritted glass 0 50 FT. TYPICAL FLOOR N 15 M. protect the southern and western exposures of the imposing block A horizontal plane of Some of the walls that faces the highway, reducing frameless glass sus- are frameless glass glare and noise. This block foldsAXONOMETRIC pended from steel (below left), and some around the atrium to the south to trusses admits ample of them have fritted create the executive office wing, daylight into the shading glass blades and angles out at its northern end atrium (opposite). (below right). in a 100-foot-long cantilever, a ges- ture that commands attention from drivers zooming by on the highway (and conveniently avoiding founda- tions in poor soil, according to Polisano). Inside, corridor bridges span the atrium, dividing it into an entry court, a central gathering space, and a multilevel zone for work breaks and informal meetings at its northern end. The large roof deck is a layered fifth facade, supported by a gangly structure of tubular steel legs and 17 trusses with spans of up to 120 feet. Mounted on the trusses, motorized aluminum louvers per- forming the role of the traditional patio’s movable canvas tarp over the atrium. (The client ultimately rejected the architects’ proposed 146 Architectural Record 03.06
arrays of photovoltaic cells.) The continuous plane of glass over the atrium is the largest and most technically challenging glazing installation of its kind, according to the architects. Each glass sheet, about 4.5 feet by 9 feet, hung from the trusses, can support the weight of maintenance workers. The glass roof pitches for drainage, is acoustically sealed, and engineered for fire-resistance. Despite this complexity, its overall effect is light and direct. Polisano comments, “We all worked very hard to get that.” Exploiting the wide tempera- ture swings in hot-climate Madrid, the underfloor ventilation system uses cool nighttime air to draw off heat accumulated in the slab dur- ing the day. Exterior windows were sealed for budgetary and acoustic reasons, but exhaust air flows naturally into the atrium from the slightly pressurized offices. Heat gain from the glass roof and four passive-solar chimneys induces exhaust air to rise, improving air circulation. An evaporative system delivers free cooling from the ground through the atrium floor, augmented by mechanical cooling when necessary. Commentary The dramatic atrium changes its mood with the shifting of roof lou- vers and the moving clouds and sun. Despite this grand public ges-Bridges link the two ture, the atrium feels oversized atwings of the building ground level, and it lacks theunder dramatic day- hoped-for buzz of activity. Securitylight and shadow measures keep the general public(above). Shared out—as would the isolation of thespaces for eating and site to pedestrian traffic in anymeeting encourage case—and the café tables andcasual encounters in landscaping the architects envi-the atrium (right). sioned have failed to materialize. The atrium feels more like a reli- gious cloister, an inward-looking space of retreat and meditation, than one of southern Spain’s livable residential patios. Replacing the dedication of religious life for the industry of enterprise, could there be a more thoroughly European interpretation of the American cor- porate campus than this? ■148 Architectural Record 03.06
The massive atriumroof projects over themonumental entryfacade. Tubular trusssupports carry theframeless-glass planeto the floor.
The skewed orientationof the DeSeta buildingaims the office wing(far right in photo,right) at views of down-town Wilmington, andopens it to views of therevitalized ChristinaRiverfront (right). Abridge links the officesto a single-level pro-duction shop (below).
arated from the cubicle pool only bytranslucent screens, so that daylight 6penetrates to the full floor depth. On 5 1the roof, the architects thoughtfullyprovided an outdoor terrace thatoffers sunset panoramas of the city. The corrugated-metal-cladproduction building is a conventionalindustrial shed. Glass walls push 7the exterior walls out a bit at thelunchroom, bringing light into thespace between the two structures. Kling worked closely with SECOND FLOORDeSeta fabricators to developarchitectural details and furnishings 1. Lobbythat would advertise the com- 2. Lunch roompany’s prowess. On the outside, the 3. FabricationDeSeta team fabricated the zinc 4. Loadingsheathing system that shingles the 5. Office 1walls of the office wing and the 6. Gatheringcourtyard side of the factory. From 7. Draftingsimple sketches, DeSeta producedinterior column details, stairs, rail- 2ings, and furniture pieces fromtubes, bar stock, panels, and wirefabric. A stone-and-steel receptiondesk greets visitors in the lobby.CommentaryKling has produced a space for 3office work that is communal, bright,and open to Wilmington’s mélangeof converted industrial structuresand new residential ones. Theproportion of bright, airy sharedareas to individual workspaces is A drafting area, linkedadmirably high. The project’s striking by bridge to the officegeometry is visible from the freeway wings, overlooks theas you enter town, yet adeptly fits conventional, window- 4into a context it still must share with less shed of the 0 20 FT.a gas station. Even the biggish pro- production shop (below). GROUND FLOOR 6 M.duction building sits comfortably asthe area witnesses increased urbanresidential development. Though Wilmington possessesexamples of the old sawtooth-rooftypes of factories that flooded shopfloors with outside light and wereventilated with operable windows,the DeSeta production building,though beautifully articulated on theoutside, unfortunately encloses astandard, windowless, mechanicallyventilated workroom. Otherwise, thestructure serving this odd couple ofclients offers a worthy model forrapidly transforming service-sectorcities that want to maintain anindustrial presence. ■152 Architectural Record 03.06
A conference room(with metal partitionsmade by DeSeta)opens to views and adouble-height lounge(top and bottom right).The triple-height lobbydisplays DeSeta’smetalworking prowess(bottom left).
Murphy/Jahn faced theshort ends of theMunich twin towerstoward the noisy high-way (opposite). A lowoffice block addsnoise protection. Thearchitect’s bravuraexploration of trans-parency is especiallyvisible at night inlighted bridges andelevator shafts (right).
mous leasing flexibility. Up close, the towers are unde-niably light on their feet. Murphy/Jahnclaims that the steel structure hasone of the highest slimness ratiosin the world, 1 to 10. The buildings’small footprint liberated two thirdsof the site for a landscape by PeterWalker, which opens the site visuallyto nearby park space. Above a750-car, three-level garage, Walkerunited the site by drawing large con-centric circles of black and whitestone that run from the courtyardsinto the lobby. German codes demand natu-ral ventilation and offices withwindows that open, along withstrict limits on energy use. In thepast, Jahn and other designershave met these requirements withcostly double curtain walls sepa-rated by an insulating airspace. Atthe Highlight Towers, Jahn andSobek trimmed the extra cost bydesigning a single-layer facade oflarge, triple-glazed, fixed-glass pan-els, alternating them with tall,narrow ventilating panels. Faced onthe outside with perforated stain-less-steel sheets, the ventilatingpanels open inside via full-height,double-glazed casement windows. The same ventilating panelsfeed fresh air to ducts that run toheating and cooling fan units oneach level. Conditioned air movesunder the raised floor and into thethe office space through low-velocitydisplacement outlets. (In the dis-placement concept, the buoyancyeffect of warm air—rather than fanpower—draws in fresh, cooler airfrom the floor.) Tiny perimeter fanunits, along with the operable win-dows, offer individual thermalcontrol. Radiant pipes in the slababove the ceiling, connected toa heat exchanger, draw off orsupply additional heat at almostno energy cost. The elaborateness of thesemultiple systems (by American stan-dards) is offset by a gain in usablespace that accrues because thebuilding has no need for a rooftopmechanical penthouse (the space,roof glazed, is rented instead) andavoids extensive conventional duct-156 Architectural Record 03.06
Jahn, with WernerSobek, dematerializedthe glassy bridgesand elevator shafts,creating a stunningimpression from theentry drive (with thehotel visible beyond).
1. Entry drive 2. Tower 3. Low-rise hotel 4. Low-rise office 5. Offices 6. Bridge 5 3 5 1 5 6 5 5 2 1 4 5SITE PLAN N 0 30 FT. 9 M. 0 20 FT. TENTH FLOOR 6 M. Displacement ventilation Underfloor fan coil unit outlets with underfloor with direct induction and convector heating/cooling function Slab integrated piping system for heating and cooling Fresh air distribution from fan room of each floor The Munich towers steel panels (above), alternate sealed triple- part of a natural venti- glazed windows with lation scheme (left) operable lites pro- augmented by small, tected by perforated fan-coil units.
The “clip-on” bridges(this page) permitlarge, contiguous floorswithout sacrificing day-light, views, andnatural ventilation.work and shafts. In the hotel, Jahn turned to hisinterior design firm, Jahn Lykouriaof London. They designed chairs,tables, even the three-watt LEDreading lamps mounted flush in theheadboards. Sleeping areas flowinto glass-enclosed baths fitted withdish-shaped, stainless-steel sinksin glass countertops. Since Jahn didnot want to interrupt the door-sizewindows with railings, local authori-ties will only permit them to open afew inches, for safety. The restau-rant shows the same maximumattention to Minimalist detail, withan underlit glass bar over a bam-boo floor, projection screens, andhuge plate-glass panels held inthin mullions.CommentaryNot just technically innovative, theproject has become an urban land- 03.06 Architectural Record 159
Few columns obscure the panoramic views (top). Large, triple- glazed windows alternate with narrow panels that open to breezes (bottom). mark—honed to a simplicity that keeps it sophisticated. I had not expected the towers to be so mag- netic in person. They draw your gaze from different vantages because of the intriguing way their relationship to each other changes. With the project’s inward focus and hidden entrances, it is not pedestrian friendly at street level now, in spite of the open space. That should change if the towers help to draw new develop- ment, animating the street. In their prominent and convenient location, the Highlight Towers also are waking up Munich, whose citi- zens liken their city to Sleeping Beauty’s castle submerged in slumber. They join the recently completed Allianz soccer stadium by Herzog & de Meuron and Coop Himmelb(l)au’s BMW Welt experi- ence center opening next spring. ■160 Architectural Record 03.06
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Can a New Kind of Heat Pump Change the World? AN ELECTRIC-BILL-BURDENED ENGINEER HAS DEVELOPED WHAT THE HVAC INDUSTRY HAS IGNORED: A HEAT PUMP THAT WORKS WHEN THE TEMPERATURE IS BELOW ZERO. WILL CONSUMERS BEAT A PATH TO HIS DOOR? Zone 1 is less than 2,000 CDD and greater than 7,000 HDD By Charles Linn, FAIA Zone 2 is less than 2,000 CDD and 5,000 to 7,000 HDD Zone 3 is less than 2,000 CDD and 4,000 to 5,499 HDD ARCH I TECTURAL TECHNOLOGY W hen David Shaw got a $400 electric bill in 1995, he was inspired. He had recently retired from his job as compressor designer and refrigeration engineer at the Carrier Corporation, and had moved into a New Britain, Connecticut, condominium that was heated and cooled by an air-source heat pump. “It worked great,” he says, “except when it got cold. The air-conditioning industry never devel- oped a heat pump that could heat a home when it is really cold outside.” So, Shaw set up an R&D lab, Shaw Engineering Associates, and started developing the heat pump that could. Everyone loves the idea of heat pumps, because it’s as if they give us something for nothing. Conventional air-source models heat or cool using thermal energy that is naturally present in the air, and their cousins, geothermal heat pumps, tap the heat that is present in earth or water. These devices “compress” this energy to yield temperatures SOURCE: PLATTS; DATA FROM U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY required to condition interior space. Air-source types are commonly used to condition homes and small commercial Platts E Source expects that the low-temperature heat pump will be competitive with buildings in the southern part of the U.S. and in many parts conventional heat pumps and central air in Zones 1 and 2. In Zone 3, utility companies of the world. Yet they’ve always been very expensive to use would likely have to provide consumers with incentives to get them to make the switch. where ambient outdoor temperatures begin to approach and go below freezing and, as the map indicates, that leaves most of the heaters go online at the same time, electric utilities experience peak-load- U.S. out in the cold. The reason for this is that as temperatures fall, heat ing. Their distribution systems are taxed, they must bring extra power pumps become less and less efficient. So, most use electric-resistance heat- plants online to meet demand, and they pay dearly to buy power from ing as a backup when a severe cold snap occurs. But that’s a bit like making other utilities. Utility companies build these costs into their retail cus- buildings into giant toasters—resistance heating is not only terrible from tomers’ base rates. an efficiency standpoint, but when hundreds of thousands of resistance The absence of viable low-temperature air-source heat-pump (LTHP) technology has left the geothermal heat pump as the only practi- cal alternative for people who wish to use heat pumps in cold climates. CON T I N U I N G E DU CAT I ON The ﬁrst-costs for these systems is higher than it is for fossil-fueled heaters Use the following learning objectives to focus your study because they are complex, and the systems that draw heat from natural while reading this month’s ARCHITECTURAL RECORD/ sources can be difficult to install. Payback periods for them can be rea- AIA Continuing Education article. To receive credit, turn sonable, but many urban and suburban sites are unsuitable because they to page 168 and follow the instructions. Other opportuni- lack either the real estate needed for ground loops or sources of water. ties to receive Continuing Education credits in this issue include several From a thermodynamics standpoint, the LTHP has always beenI M A G E : C O U R T E SY P L AT T S E S O U R C E sponsored sections beginning on page 173. possible, and Shaw says that most of the knowledge and components nec- essary to make LTHPs have been around “since I got in the business in L E AR N I N G O B J ECT I VE S 1958,” but they were never developed. Low prices for fossil fuels, and low After reading this article, you should be able to: ﬁrst-costs for equipment have assured that furnaces and boilers continue 1. Explain the difference between types of heat pumps. to dominate the U.S. space-heating market. This didn’t deter him, and he 2. Describe how a heat pump works. tackled the problem in the mid-1990s, knowing full well the market forces 3. Discuss solutions to using heat pumps in cold climates. needed to make the product a home run might not converge for years. Considering what is now known about global warming, and unprece- For this story and more continuing education, as well as links to sources, dented prices for fossil fuels, it might be time for the LTHP to start white papers, and products, go to www.archrecord.com. changing the world, because it seems impossible that millions of individ- 03.06 Architectural Record 163
1. CONVENTIONAL HEAT PUMP 2. LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT PUMP-STAGE 1 Exterior temperature sensor T T Two-step thermostat Thermostat Compressor Booster ON Primary ON Evaporator coil Evaporator coil Condenser coil Condenser coil Hot air out Hot air out Outside air in to interior 15 F to 30 F to interior 30 F and above 70 F and above outside air in 70 F and aboveARCH I TECTURAL TECHNOLOGY Expansion valve Expansion Economizer valve OFF The difference between exchanger. In Stage 1 allows a much greater mizer kicks in. It is a a conventional heat mode (above right), quantity of low-density heat exchanger that pump (above left) and the booster compressor refrigerant to be com- uses heat usually the LTHP is the addition is activated when the pressed into the liquid wasted to produce of a second “booster” outside temperature required to bring heat refrigerant vapor sent compressor and a reaches 25 degrees to the interior of the directly to the primary “subcooling econo- Fahrenheit. The extra building. In Stage 2 compressor, instead of mizer,” which is a heat capacity it provides (opposite), the econo- into the evaporator coil. ual residential and light-commercial heating systems, each burning its Hallowell hopes to start producing 2000 LTHPs for beta testing this year. own fossil fuels, can be sustained indeﬁnitely. In terms of carbon pro- Shaw also says that his company’s heat pump will only cost about 20 per- duction alone, it is better to have hundreds of utilities produce the power cent more than conventional heat pumps, which doesn’t seem like much, to run millions of heat pumps. Electric utilities have lots of options avail- of course. But, as long as heating with natural gas or heating oil is able to them for reducing their carbon footprint that are not available to cheaper than heating with electricity month after month, year after year, the natural gas industry. These include carbon capture and storage, it will be hard to persuade consumers to buy them. On the other hand, nuclear power, wind generation, and other renewables. utility companies often use economic incentives to push new technolo- In 2005, Platts E Source, a Boulder-based consulting group that gies out to consumers. Those that have excess capacity to sell in winter, does research for the utility industry, released a report called “Can the Low- or experience peak-loading conditions at this time of year, are very inter- Temperature Heat Pump Defrost the Status Quo in the Space Heating ested in the product. Sector?” The authors, Jay Stein, Andria Jacob, and Jon Slowe, indicate that none of the major U.S. HVAC manufacturers is even doing research in the Heat Pumps 101 area of LTHPs. Without the market demand, the big companies simply Here’s a refresher course on heat-pump basics. Refrigerants are the life- aren’t interested in the concept, even though E Source estimates that the blood of every heat pump, refrigerator, or air-conditioning system. These market could be as high as 2.2 million units annually. materials are extremely efficient at absorbing thermal energy in one place, But the paper also describes how far the LTHP has to go. Very and moving and releasing it in another. Water is often used to move ther- few LTHPs of Shaw’s design—only between 150 and 200—have ever mal energy in heating and air-conditioning. But the refrigerants used in been installed. Nyle Special Products, of Bangor, Maine, licensed the heat pumps have many advantages over water. They don’t freeze at 32 rights to Shaw’s patents for a few years and made them under the Cold degrees Fahrenheit, and they boil at temperatures that are much lower Climate Heat Pump name between 2002 and 2005. A number of electric than 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Their boiling points can also be raised or utilities conducted tests of the Nyle product with mixed results, mostly lowered signiﬁcantly by pressurizing or depressurizing them, so when and due to manufacturing glitches and installation problems. When they where they are changed from a liquid state into a vapor or gas can be con- worked, they worked very well. But Shaw decided to take his patents trolled. That’s very useful, because it is when they are changing states that elsewhere, and Nyle can no longer manufacture the products that used they do their work, absorbing heat when they are changing from a liquid them. Shaw has become the chief technology officer of a new company, to a gas, and releasing it when they are changing from a gas back into liq- Hallowell International (http://www.gotohallowell.com), also of Bangor. uid. Old ozone-depleting refrigerants have been replaced by new ones 164 Architectural Record 03.06
3. LOW-TEMPERATURE HEAT PUMP-STAGE 2 Exterior temperature sensor T Two-step thermostat Booster ON Primary ON Evaporator coil Condenser coil Hot air out 0 F to 15 F to interior outside air in 70 F and above Expansion valve Economizer operating The LTHP has legs (top) to keep it out of snow and ice, which improves winter efficiency. The gray cylinder is the booster compressor; the gold-colored box is the economizer (right). that are also much more efficient at absorbing and giving up heat. Today, installed downstream from the compressor. It provides lots of surface R410A is the most commonly used refrigerant for both residential and area, so the heat in the refrigerant can be transferred to the air efficiently light-commercial systems. when it condenses. When a heat pump is being used to heat a building, To understand how refrigerant works, imagine a closed bottle the condenser is placed inside, adjacent to a fan that forces the warm air full of it sitting in a cold place, and assume the container is partly full of into ductwork. liquid refrigerant and partly of the refrigerant in a gaseous state. If it was The other component needed to make a heat pump from the moved to a warm place, it would gradually absorb heat from its sur- loop of refrigerant-ﬁlled tubing is an expansion valve. This device is roundings, and as it did so, the liquid refrigerant would boil, evaporating placed downstream from the condenser. It restricts the ﬂow of the refrig- into a gas. The pressure inside the bottle would increase until the boiling erant inside the condenser so the compressor can build up pressure that’s stopped, because as the pressure in the bottle increased, so would the tem- necessary to condense the gas into a liquid. It also keeps this liquid from perature at which the liquid boils. If the bottle was put back in a cool place, leaving the condenser before the heat it contains has fully transferred out the vapor would give up heat into its surroundings, condense back into of it. Expansion valves can be modulated, so that the amount of pressureRENDERINGS: COURTESY HALLOWELL INTERNATIONAL liquid, and the pressure in the bottle would decrease. in the condenser is variable, and the rate the condensed liquid leaves the Now suppose that the bottle is replaced with a closed loop of condenser can be controlled. The pressure downstream from the expan- tubing ﬁlled with refrigerant, half of it inside a building, where it’s sion valve is much lower than it is in the condenser, so when warm liquid warm, and half outside, where it’s cold. The refrigerant inside the tubing refrigerant leaves the condenser and is forced through the expansion would change states constantly, boiling, evaporating, and condensing, valve, where the boiling point is also lower, some of it “ﬂashes” into vapor. moving heat from the inside of the building to the outside and return- The temperature of liquid that left the condenser now becomes cold as it ing for more. The only time it would stop changing states is when the enters an assembly of pipes and sheet-metal ﬁns, called the evaporator, temperature inside the building equaled the temperature outside. A heat which sits outside the building. It is at this point that any heat that pump does the opposite, using the refrigerant to gather heat from the remained in the warm liquid refrigerant after it left the expansion valve is air outside of the building and move it to the interior. To do this, it is boiled off into cold vapor. As it changes state, it absorbs heat from the necessary to add two components to the loop. One is a compressor (see outside air, helped along by the evaporator’s large surface area. Soon, the opposite page, diagram 1), which pressurizes vapor so it can be turned thermal-energy-laden vapor is on its way back to the compressor to start into liquid inside an assembly, called the condenser. The condenser is the cycle all over again. made up of coils of tubing running through sheet-metal ﬁns, which is What differentiates a heat pump from an air conditioner used 03.06 Architectural Record 165
3-TON LTHP HEATING CAPACITY BTU/HR VS. TYPICAL HEAT PUMPS 80,000 Booster and economizer on Primary running at 100% 70,000 Primary running at 50% Typical heat pump Typical heating load 60,000 Btu/hr Heat capacity 50,000 40,000 3-TON LTHP VS. TYPICAL HEAT PUMP USING BACKUP RESISTANCE HEATING 30,000 4.5 LTHP 4 Typical heating pump 20,000 3.5ARCH I TECTURAL TECHNOLOGY Coefficient of performance 10,000 3 2.5 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 2 Outside air temperature (F) 1.5 1 The top graph shows pumps bottom out at 25 how well different parts degrees. The graph at 0.5 of an LTHP keep up as right shows coefficients 0 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 the temperature drops. of performance. At 0 Outside air temperature (F) With everything running, degrees, the LTHP an LTHP keeps up with makes twice as much heating load until 0 heat per unit of elec- degrees Fahrenheit, tricity input as the while conventional heat conventional heat pump. strictly for cooling is that the direction of the refrigerant ﬂow can be pressor—the compressor that’s already present as standard equipment in reversed—the evaporator and condenser can be switched end-for-end, so every heat pump. Most of the time, the booster compressor would be one can deliver either heat or cooling to the inside of a building. In cool- bypassed, and only the primary would compress the vapor that is gener- ing mode, the condenser is outside, and the evaporator is inside. ated in the evaporator. When the vapor pressure and density dropped below a certain point, however, the booster compressor would be allowed Efficiency counts: how the LTHP works to come on if the outdoor air temperature had dropped below a certain As the temperature starts getting near freezing outside, the amount of heat point and the thermostat inside the building is also calling for more heat. that can be absorbed by the liquid refrigerant boiling in the evaporator The booster compressor has a much larger displacement than the typical decreases. This is because the pressure of the boiling liquid (measured in primary compressor, so when it is enabled, it can move many more cubic pounds per square inch) inside the evaporator decreases, and so does the feet of vapor per minute. The LHTP’s performance can be enhanced in the density of the vapor (measured in pounds per cubic foot) the boiling liq- future when variable speed booster compressors are introduced. uid turns into. This causes two problems. First, the compressor has to work Shaw also knew that in most heat pumps, even after the liquid refrigerant has given up much of its heat to the condenser, it is still pretty A LTHP WILL COST ABOUT 20 PERCENT warm. When it gets really cold outside, this warmth causes as much as 40 MORE THAN A CONVENTIONAL AIR-SOURCE percent of that liquid to vaporize as it goes through the expansion valve. It would be better if it cooled ﬁrst. That way, more of the refrigerant HEAT PUMP, ACCORDING TO ITS INVENTOR. would remain in liquid form, so it could be boiled later on in the evapo- harder to pump it because the pressure has dropped. Second, because rator coil, where it absorbs heat from the outside air while changing the amount of heat that vapor can carry is proportional to its density, the states. Shaw ﬁgured that one way to cool the refrigerant would be to compressor doesn’t have the capacity to deliver sufficient heat from the “donate” some of its surplus heat to a process that would create a source outside air to keep the inside of the building warm. As the temperature of high-density vapor that would bypass the evaporator coil altogether continues to go down, the situation worsens and, at 30 degrees Fahrenheit, and be sent directly to the primary compressor. the backup resistance built into most air-source heat pumps turns on. Shaw calls the device he uses to do this a subcooling economizer The most obvious way to solve the problem would be to put a (see page 165, diagram 3). It is a heat exchanger that is placed between really big compressor into the system. But when it’s not very cold outside, the condenser and the expansion valve. It splits the refrigerant liquid this overcapacity would cause the system to be so inefficient that it would coming from the condenser into two streams. The majority of the refrig- be counterproductive. So instead, Shaw decided to add a second com- erant passes through one side of the heat exchanger, where it gives up the pressor, which he calls a booster compressor (see page 164, diagram 2). This heat necessary to vaporize a smaller stream of refrigerant being fed into is installed between the evaporator coil and what he calls the primary com- the other side of the exchanger. This vapor is then sent to a point 166 Architectural Record 03.06
between the booster compressor and the primary compressor, while the economizer, primary, and booster compressors all running, the LTHP is larger stream of liquid refrigerant, now cooled signiﬁcantly, is sent keeping up with the heating load, but the air-source heat pump cannot through the expansion valve and on to the evaporator coil, where it boils keep up below 25 degrees. The other graph shows coefficients of perform- into vapor. ance (COP) for the two heat-pump types. The COP is the ratio of the The LTHP wouldn’t work if it weren’t for an impressive array of energy transferred for heating to the input electric energy used in the sensors and controllers that place the different components in the system process—the higher the COP, the more efficiently the unit operates. Below into action in the proper sequence at the proper time. Energy is never used 30 degrees, the efficiency of the heat pump using resistance heating drops to supply excess capacity to the system. The indoor thermostat is a two-step very quickly. At 0 degrees, the typical air-source heat pump has basically model, which alters the capacity of the system based on small variations in stopped producing any heat and is using only its electrical-resistance heat, indoor air temperature. When the thermostat ﬁrst calls for heat, only 50 which has a COP of 1, while the COP for the LTHP is 2.23. percent of the primary compressor’s capacity is energized until the outdoor So, can the LTHP change the world? Not just yet. E Source’s stud- ambient air temperature drops to 40 degrees Fahrenheit, when the primary ies show that the calculation of an owner’s payback for installing one, as compressor begins working at 100 percent of capacity. The booster com- compared to a furnace, differs greatly by region and involves such variablesARCH I TECTURAL TECHNOLOGY pressor won’t come on until 25 degrees, and only if the second step of the as prevailing costs for fossil fuels, electric rates, and weather conditions. thermostat calls for it. At 5 degrees, the subcooling economizer is activated, Often, both furnaces and water heaters have to be changed to electric mod- but again, only if the second step of the thermostat calls for it. els in order to make the numbers work, so utility companies will have to embrace the technology and push it to their customers aggressively. How well LTHPs perform For any innovation in the HVAC industry to succeed, sales, dis- The graphs on page 166 show the actual performance of the LTHP units tribution, and installation training obstacles have to be overcome, not to that are now under development at Hallowell International, according to mention the kind of manufacturing problems that plagued the ﬁrst gener- measurements taken in the company’s labs. Shaw says they have been veri- ation of LTHPS that made it into the ﬁeld. Probably, the hardest thing to ﬁed by an independent lab, as well. Above 30 degrees Fahrenheit, the energy overcome is cultural: It’s simply the reluctance of both utility companies efficiency of the LTPHs is fairly consistent with most common heat pumps, and consumers to place their trust in a new product, even if the technolo- but as Shaw says,“Below 30 is where the action is.” One of the graphs shows gies that made it possible aren’t new. Hopefully, the optimism that inspired the performance of a 3-ton LTHP, in Btu per hour, compared to a conven- David Shaw to come this far will continue to encourage him and his com- tional heat pump, as the exterior temperature falls. At 0 degrees, with the pany to keep trying. ■ A I A / ARCH I TECTURAL RECOR D 5. When the refrigerant in a heat pump is changing from liquid to gas, it is doing which? CONT INU ING EDUCAT ION a. releasing heat b. absorbing heat INSTRUCTIONS c. storing heat ◆ Read the article “Can a New Kind of Heat Pump Change the World?” d. converting heat using the learning objectives provided. 6. The freezing and boiling points of refrigerants can be changed by which? ◆ Complete the questions below, then ﬁll in your answers (page 236). a. cooling ◆ Fill out and submit the AIA/CES education reporting form (page b. heating 236) or download the form at www.archrecord.com c. pressurizing to receive one AIA learning unit. d. vaporizing 7. The device that restricts the ﬂow of refrigerant is which? QUESTIONS a. condenser 1. Geosourced heat pumps tap the heat that is present in which? b. compressor a. earth and air c. tubing b. air and water d. expansion valve c. earth and water 8. When the warm liquid refrigerant is forced through the expansion valve, d. earth and rock it does which? 2. Which do heat pumps compress in order to achieve desirable temperatures? a. ﬂashes a. energy b. the boiling point drops b. air c. instantly boils c. water d. all three above d. refrigerant 9. A heat pump is differentiated from an air conditioner by which? 3. As temperatures fall, typical heat pumps do which? a. the pressure of the refrigerant is reversed a. become less efficient b. the volume of the refrigerant can be altered b. become more efficient c. the expansion of the refrigerant can be controlled c. become a toaster d. the direction of the refrigerant can be reversed d. quit working 10. The low-temperature heat pump is more efficient than other heat pumps 4. Geothermal heat pumps are not used in urban areas for which reason? below which temperature? a. lack of earth depth a. 10 degrees Fahrenheit b. lack of adequate water sources b. 20 degrees Fahrenheit c. lack of fossil fuel c. 30 degrees Fahrenheit d. lack of bedrock d. 40 degrees Fahrenheit 168 Architectural Record 03.06
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Tech Products A R C H I T E C T U R A L T E C H N O L O GY Stretching the digital imaginationBy James MurdockAcrobat 3D cones, cylinders, and spheres, as Acrobat 3D, the latestAdobe Systems well as polygon forms, including offering from Adobewww.adobe.com arcs, bezier curves, and b-splines. Systems, creates PDFWindows files that feature FormFonts detailed 3D models.Adobe Systems has added a new FormFontsdimension to its Acrobat product www.formfonts.comsuite—literally. Acrobat 3D includes Windows and Macall of the features available inAcrobat 7.0 Professional plus the Offering something for A&D firms ofability to create PDF files that fea- all sizes, FormFonts provides an inex-ture detailed 3D models. Using the pensive online library of 3D objectssoftware, designers can import and 2D images of items such as win-objects from CAD programs such dows, cars, trees, and shingles. For aas MicroStation without the native monthly fee of $11, subscribers canmodeling software installed on their download thousands of objects fromcomputers. Then, within the Acrobat FormFont’s Web catalog directly intoauthoring environment, they can their CAD programs. The service isrotate objects, change the color or ideal for smaller firms that lack thegraphic style, create cross sections, time and resources to create such aanimate models, create walk- library themselves, while its optionalthroughs, and more. online storage can help larger firms that want an easy, secure way ofMaxonForm for ArchiCAD sharing proprietary styles among MaxonForm is a plug-in for Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD software.Graphisoft multiple offices.www.graphisoft.comWindows and Mac NetBlender NetBlenderFor every architect who has fanta- www.netblender.com FormFonts provides ansized about an easy way to warp Windows inexpensive onlineand extrude rectilinear volumes in library of 3D objectsArchiCAD without using special DVDs are great for delivering high- and 2D images of itemsscripts or GDL editing, MaxonForm quality photos, plans, and other files such as windows,might be the right solution. Based to clients, but the format’s creators trees, and shingles.on Cinema 4D, a free-form modeling failed to anticipate one feature:program used mainly by the enter- DVDs cannot “talk” to the Internet.tainment industry, MaxonForm is a NetBlender enables DVD program-plug-in for Graphisoft’s ArchiCAD mers to embed active hyperlinks onsoftware. It allows architects to a disc, thereby creating a viewing NetBlender softwaremodel organically within ArchiCAD’s environment in which the end user allows DVDs to “talk”Virtual Building platform, using basic seamlessly shifts between stored to the internet, offeringshapes such as cubes, pyramids, content on the disc and additional viewers additional or content, such as streaming video, on updated information.For more information on technology the Web. For architects who want tofor architects, including package their portfolios or proposalsreviews, vendor lists, and links, go on DVD, this software eliminates anyto Digital Architect at guesswork for clients surfing the Webwww.archrecord.com. for additional or updated information. 03.06 Architectural Record 171
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION Series CONTINUING EDUCATIONExploring the High-Performance Benefits of Laminated GlassVersatile Building Material Provides Multiple AdvantagesProvided by Solutia Inc. and Viracon San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, California. Architect: Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP.; Photographer: Richard Barnes lobal terrorism and natural disasters have emphasized the need for architects toG address emerging design challenges regarding safety, security, sustainability, andenergy efficiency. As the building industry examines these performance issues and design tempered glass in safety and security applications. Unlike tempered safety glass, which breaks into small pieces instead of sharp shards, laminated glass remains in the frame,criteria, architects are increasingly turning to laminated glass because of its many high maintaining the building envelope and protecting building contents. Laminated glass alsoperformance benefits. offers multiple security, sound, safety, daylight, and energy benefits, unlike tempered glass.While laminated glass is a relatively new architectural product in the United States, it hasbeen a popular design tool in Europe for many years. Europe’s experience with blasts and Safetynatural disasters has led many countries to place a premium on the safety and security of Safety glazing refers to the reduction of the risk or occurrence of injury or loss fromtheir citizens, especially in public buildings. Standards vary by country, but generally all accidental or natural causes, while security glazing refers to the reduction of the risk orgovernment and public buildings including hospitals, daycare centers, airports, post occurrence of injury or loss from the deliberate or intentional human actions. Safety glazingoffices, and train stations, must be built to withstand blast. In addition to the safety, is specified to protect people from injuries due to accidental glass impact, breakage orsecurity, and sound reduction benefits it affords, laminated glass also contributes to fallout, and laminated glass is rapidly emerging as a powerful and versatile safety glazingsustainability goals, which has further driven demand in many European countries. option. Upon impact, ordinary glass typically shatters and falls from the window frame, which can result in serious or even fatal injuries to building occupants and passers-by. UsedLaminated glass is formed by permanently fusing an interlayer between two pieces of glass in a properly designed system, laminated glass windows may crack, but fragments tend tounder heat and pressure. It is rapidly becoming a popular alternative to the often-specified adhere to the interlayer, reducing hazards associated with falling or flying glass. CONTINUING EDUCATION Use the learning objectives below to focus your study as you read Laminated Glass. To earn one AIA/CES Learning Unit, including one hour of health safety welfare credit, answer the questions on page 177, then follow the reporting instructions on page 239 or go to the Continuing Education section on archrecord.construction.com and follow the reporting instructions. LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this article, you should be able to: • Understand how laminated glass addresses design and safety challenges. • Recognize the benefits of laminated glass during hurricanes and earthquakes. • Explain why laminated glass offers a high degree of security protection. • Discuss how laminated glass reduces sound transmission. PVB is the main component in laminated glass. The fused interlayer and glass • Identify the sustainable, energy-efficient performance qualities of function as a single unit and can be used in almost any configuration. Used in an laminated glass. insulating glass assembly (pictured above), laminated glass can help improve the thermal and sound-reduction performance of a glazing unit. 03.06 Architectural Record 173
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION SeriesCONTINUING EDUCATION Laminated glass is versatile and suitable for almost any desired configuration. By using laminated Security glass as the inboard component of an insulating unit, the assembly provides the thermal Around the world, architects and building owners are seeking to balance the desire for living performance of an insulating air space along with the safety glazing of the inboard laminate. and working in bright, daylit spaces with the need for security protection against criminal and terrorist attacks. In appropriate configurations, laminated glass meets all requirements set forth in architectural glazing safety sections of major model building codes and test standards such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Category I certification requires the Burglary and Forced Entry Resistance glazing to withstand one 150 foot-pound impact, produced by impacting a 100-pound shot Burglaries in commercial buildings and residences are usually directed towards targets of bag from a vertical height of 18 inches. Category II certification requires the glazing to easy opportunity and low perceived risk. The most critical step of a burglary is entry, and withstand one 400 foot-pound impact, produced by impacting a 100-pound shot bag from a the most common means of entry is a window or door. vertical height of 48 inches. In correct configurations, laminated glass meets the requirements of significant test standards including: UL972 of laminated glazing products against forced entry, ASTM International and other test standards for security in Home, Commercial and High Security categories. While many forms of laminated glass are considered strong enough to prevent “smash and grab” burglaries, systems can be designed with appropriate glazing thicknesses to resist most weapons used to force entry, including: rocks, hammers, screwdrivers, bricks, pry bars, sledgehammers, pipes, battering rams, chisels, axes, thermal stress weapons (CO2, fire extinguishers or propane torches), and chemical deterioration weapons (gasoline and acetone). Even quiet glass cutters become useless tools because laminated glass cannot be cut from only one side. Security glazing products Safety Glazing Requirements – Consumer Products Safety Commission with the greatest overall thickness and largest percentage of interlayers offer the best resistance to forced entry. Laminated glass has also been shown to meet Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standard UL972 for security glazing, as well as Class I of the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) International’s F1233 security glazing test standard. In vertical safety glazing applications, laminated glass has proven to be a unique design tool for entrance doors, shower and bath enclosures, storm and patio sliding doors, sidelights, and fixed glazed panels. The glass also meets significant design and safety challenges presented by sloped and overhead glazing surfaces. Portland International Airport Main Force/Forced-Entry Performance of Laminated Security Glazing Air travelers arriving at Oregon’s Portland creating a bright, pleasant environment International Airport, designed by Zimmer for travelers arriving at the airport. Gunsul Frasca Partnership, are welcomed Because it withstands most forms of attempted entry, laminated glass is frequently used for by a dramatic, 100,000-square-foot enhanced security in residential and commercial windows, doors, and storefronts, providing laminated glass canopy that covers and an aesthetically superior alternative to iron bars. Unlike burglar alarms and other security connects the parking garages, floating systems, security glazing provides continuous passive security that is not subject to human pedestrian bridges, and roadway leading error or electronic failure. It ultimately provides greater protection by preventing entry to the terminal. Because of the sheer instead of reacting to an entry. volume of glass overhead, safety was paramount in material selection. Ballistic Protection Laminated glass was chosen because it In addition to withstanding the blows of a variety of objects during an attempted burglary, adheres to the interlayer and remains in laminated glass offers protection against ballistic (bullet) attack. In specific ballistic its frame if impacted or broken, which configurations, laminated glass can reduce the risk of injuries from a ballistic attack without makes it safe for overhead glazing compromising the complete visual clarity afforded by a glass system. It can also resist applications. In Portland, the laminated Architect: Zimmer Gunsul Frasca Partnership penetration by high-velocity ballistics when constructed in multiple alternating layers of glass canopy also provides acoustic Photographer: Wes Thompson glass and interlayers. insulation from the noise of overhead air Portland International Airport, traffic and allows natural light in, Portland, Oregon. UL test 752 tests the ability of glazing to withstand penetration by various classes or levels of firearms. In order to pass certification for a certain level, the projectile (bullet) must not 174 Architectural Record 03.06
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION SeriesCONTINUING EDUCATION Westin New York at Times Square, New York, NY. Architect: Arquitectonica. Photographer: Norman McGrath A This figure presents a comparison between two 25.4mm (1 inch) insulating glass configurations, one using two lites of 6mm (1/4 inch) monolithic glass and the other using two lites of 6mm (1/4 inch) laminated glass (LAG). The 6mm (1/4 inch) laminated glass consisted of two lites of 3mm (1/8 inch) monolithic glass laminated together with 0.76mm (0.030 inch) PVB interlayer. As a reference, the STL for 12.7mm (1/2 inch) monolithic glass is provided. In these applications, laminated glass helps eliminates the “cocktail effect” in interior spaces, in which multiple voices, noise sources, and reverberations occur in an occupied The three glass configurations have nearly the same overall glazing weight, but the space. A room with high noise absorption will yield an environment that is conducive to combination of air space (A.S.) and interlayer results in an STL for the double laminated insulating configuration which is significantly higher than that for either improved hearing and higher productivity. standard insulating or monolithic glass. Sustainability Adding laminated glass to a glazing system is one of the best ways to optimize The sustainability movement has become one of the world’s leading architectural trends. performance. The PVB interlayer effectively absorbs significantly higher levels of In the U.S., buildings account for 39 percent of total energy use and 68 percent of total soundwaves than monolithic glass, thus creating a greater sound barrier. Adding a pane of electricity use. Sustainable design supports efforts to conserve and restore natural laminated glass to an insulating glazing system gives the unit an even higher Sound resources and reduce waste. The resulting benefits include enhanced occupant comfort Transmission Class (STC), blocking more soundwaves. and health, energy efficiency, and improved quality of life. The key to creating an acoustically insulated indoor environment is to select products with Laminated glass usage contributes to sustainability goals by maximizing natural light in a a high STC, which is used by acoustical engineers as a measure of a building materials’ resistance to the passage of sound. The higher the STC, the better the sound barrier. building while minimizing heat gain. The laminate interlayer provides a number of options when specifying laminated glass for daylighting. Various laminates, including colored or Acoustic performance is especially critical in airports and surrounding structures, hotels, textured interlayers, can let in appropriate amounts of light and diffuse the light throughout restaurants, and schools. At the San Francisco Airport International Terminal, designed by interior spaces. Tinted glass substrates, coatings, and silkscreen patterns may also be Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, LLP, laminated glass dampens noise of runway activity and used. Ultimately, daylighting may reduce cooling costs, as natural light produces less heat overhead air traffic and provides seismic protection. On the other coast, the Westin New than artificial light. Various studies, including one by the Rocky Mountain Institute, have York hotel in Times Square, designed by Arquitectonica, uses insulating laminated glass noted that this may also improve occupant productivity and health, and create a more with high-performance coatings to minimize outside noise from busy midtown Manhattan. pleasant environment. The innovative design features a colored glass panel exterior that blocks sound and provides guests with a quiet indoor oasis in New York City. Daylighting with laminated glass can also reduce energy costs associated with lighting and Use of laminated glass for noise reduction provides building occupants with the highest cooling a building. A standard light bulb produces 85 percent heat and 15 percent light. In level of environmental comfort. The glass blocks noise and lets in natural light. In addition the U.S., 40 to 50 percent of total energy consumed by buildings is for electric light and to to walls and windows, laminated glass can also be used in interior applications such as remove the heat it produces. Reducing the amount of artificial light reduces both electricity floors, shower and bath enclosures, partitions and room dividers, elevators, and doors. costs and cooling costs associated with removing the heat from the electric lights.■ 176 Architectural Record 3.06
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION Series CONTINUING EDUCATION CLICK FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READINGThe article continues online at http://archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/archives/0603solutia-1.asp. To receive AIA/CES credit, you are required to read this additional text. Thequiz questions below include information from this online reading. To receive a faxed or emailed copy of the material, call 877-674-1233 or email firstname.lastname@example.org. A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D 5. During a hurricane, the force of winds entering the building through CONTINUING EDUCATION Series windows broken by high winds or flying debris can have the following effects on the building structure: a. Allow for a dramatic increase in internal pressure inside LEARNING OBJECTIVES the structure After reading this article, you should be able to: b. May allow the roof to be lifted off • Understand how laminated glass addresses design and safety challenges c. May exert pressure on the outside walls, causing structural failure • Recognize the benefits of laminated glass during hurricanes and earthquakes d. All of the above • Explain why laminated glass offers a high degree of security protection • Discuss how laminated glass reduces sound transmission 6. Laminated glass can be an effective safety measure during earthquakes because: • Identify the sustainable, energy-efficient performance qualities of laminated glass a. It tends to stay in the frame following an earthquake, INSTRUCTIONS thereby protecting people from falling or flying glass. Refer to the learning objectives above. Complete the questions below. b. It consistently performs better than structural wall systems. Go to the self report form on page 239. Follow the reporting instructions, c. It breaks into small shards of glass that are easy to remove answer the test questions, and submit the form. Or use after a quake. the Continuing Education self report form on Record’s web site— d. It flexes in concert with the racking movement of the earth. archrecord.construction.com—to receive one AIA/CES Learning Unit including one hour of health safety welfare credit. 7. To create an acoustically insulated interior environment, it is important to specify products with: QUESTIONS a. A low Sound Transmission Class 1. Upon impact by an object, laminated glass is likely to: b. A negative Sound Transmission Class a. Break into small, compact pieces c. A high Sound Transmission Class b. Exit the framing system d. A neutral Sound Transmission Class c. Crack, but adhere to the interlayer d. Discolor, due to exposure to the elements 8. Glazing units with at least one pane of laminated glass provide greater reductions in sound transmission than ordinary 2. Laminated glass has been tested and approved for use in monolithic glass. safety glazing applications including: a. True a. Shower and bath enclosures b. False b. Overhead and sloped canopies c. Entrance, storm, and patio doors 9. Adding a low-e coating to a laminated or insulating laminated unit can: d. All of the above a. Reduce energy consumption b. Increase energy consumption savings 3. Which of the following are true about glass performance c. Pay for itself within a number of years following an explosion? d. All of the above a. Typically, 40 percent of injuries are caused by broken or flying monolithic (ordinary) glass. 10. Laminated glass can contribute to credits in the following LEED b. Monolithic glass can project at speeds of up to 300 feet per second. system categories: c. Framing systems do not impact the ability of laminated glass a. Local and Regional Materials to resist explosions. b. Indoor Environmental Quality d. The General Services Administration does not require the use c. Energy and Atmosphere of blast-resistant glazing system in high-risk government buildings. d. All of the above 4. Benefits of using laminated glass to protect against ballistic intrusion include: a. Complete visual clarity b. Reduces possible injuries due to ballistic attack c. Can provide secure, around-the-clock protection for employees of high-risk facilities d. All of the above ABOUT SOLUTIA INC. AND VIRACON Solutia Inc. is a world leader in performance films, producing Saflex®, Vanceva® and KeepSafe® brand polyvinyl butyral interlayers (PVB) for laminated glass in automotive and commercial and residential architectural applications. Viracon is an international company of Apogee Enterprises, Inc. Viracon produces high-performance glass products, including tempered, laminated, insulating, and silk-screened glass, and high-performance coatings. Apogee Enterprises, Inc., is a leading fabricator, distributor, and installer of value-added glass products and systems. For more information on Solutia or Viracon, visit their web sites at www.solutia.com and www.viracon.com. CIRCLE 66 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/ 03.06 Architectural Record 177
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION Series CONTINUING EDUCATION The EssentialDesign Element for Any Office SpaceProvided by LutronIntroduction here are 86 billion square feet of commercial office space in the United States. TheT business of these offices is vast in scope: law, advertising, government, finance, andmanufacturing. The legacy of these offices ranges from the most established banking firmsto budding e-Commerce companies. Despite these wide variations in business scope andorganizational structure, the purpose of every square foot of commercial office space is thesame—facilitating communication and serving as a place where work can be accomplishedand organizational needs met.While the purpose of an office space may be clearly defined, office space design remains,by necessity, much more fluid. Businesses trying to succeed are forced to constantlychange and adapt in the fast-paced and dynamic arena of corporate competition. The designof the office space must transition, in order for the space to remain relevant and functionalfor new organizational needs.Transition of Office Space Design Office design today aims to create spaces that are flexible and efficient,In the 1960s, the number of available office jobs was growing rapidly as the American and work environments that are comfortable and productive.economy shifted from agrarian, to industrial, to office buildings and knowledge workers. Office space design in the 21st century must accommodate a very different corporateMost office spaces were carbon copies of the offices across the hall or down the street. landscape. Information technologies like mobile phones, laptop computers, and theAdvertising agencies were indeterminable in appearance from legal offices. The design Internet have created an atmosphere where a person’s office is really wherever that persontemplate of the time was bland and neutral. Office spaces were mostly private, their sizes happens to be, anywhere in the world, and at any time, frequently available 24/7. Travelingdefined by seniority and clout with cookie cutter precision. The office design reinforced the to the office is no longer required to get work done.rigid formality of the business world. Walls and doors prevailed. Communication wascarried out in memos. Employee interaction occurred in planned meetings with agendas. The office building has become a flagship communicative hub reinforcing corporate culture,Typewriters and telephones were hot technologies whose weight and wires kept employees collaboration, and development. Office space design increasingly incorporates elements oftethered to their desks. Corporate cultures were functional, framed by the 9-5 workday, and branding and corporate identity into a structure with colors, credos, and furnishings. Openintensely loyal. People typically remained with the same company until retirement. office spaces, atria, and cafeterias encourage informal communication between teammates that is invaluable for keeping people informed and generating ideas. Communication CONTINUING EDUCATION frequently occurs face-to-face or over cyberspace. AV presentations, intercontinental teleconference calls, e-mails, and text messages are important mediums Use the learning objectives below to focus your study as you that the office space must be able to accommodate. Office buildings provide read The Essential Design Element for Any Office Space. a medium to communicate corporate identity and brand. Office design builds To earn one AIA/CES Learning Unit, including one hour of health bridges between employees, facilitating communication, information transfer, and safety welfare credit, answer the questions on page 183, then follow the interpersonal collaboration. reporting instructions on page 238 or go to the Continuing Education section on archrecord.construction.com and follow the reporting instructions. The popularity of rigid private-office-heavy floor plans has waned in favor of highly LEARNING OBJECTIVES adaptable, partitioned spaces with modular office furniture systems. This new design After reading this article, you should be able to: allows spaces to be quickly and easily reorganized to match changes in corporate strategies • Examine how office design has transitioned to accommodate changing and initiatives. Individual cubicles merge to create a collaborative team environment. organizational needs. Longer tables and whiteboards are partitioned off to quickly create project rooms or other • Incorporate lighting control strategies that improve building efficiency and add value to the office space. needed conference areas. The International Facilities Management Association (IFMA) • Specify lighting controls that are easy to install, maintain, and reconfigure quoted the current inter-corporate churn rate at 41%, which means that almost half of the when floor plans change. employees in an office space are physically moved to a different location within the same company every year. 03.06 Architectural Record 179
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION SeriesCONTINUING EDUCATION Value is a relative term that provides a comparison for buildings and the ways they are designed. The value of an office building to an organization can describe the cost/square foot, productive capacity, sustainability, and its overall ability to facilitate communication and meet organizational needs. An office space’s value is defined by whether it creates an enjoyable, productive work environment, while sending the right corporate message to clients and employees. Multiple methods for achieving greater system efficiencies have been employed over the years. While each of the following was successful in reducing operational expenses, the value of the space was damaged as a direct result of its more efficient design. HVAC Efficiency Ensure that the office space will be able to accommodate changing Originally, windows provided the climate control in buildings. With the introduction of HVAC organizational needs and floor plans by including a reconfigurable lighting control system in the design. Reconfigurable lighting control systems easily support a systems, fewer windows were designed into commercial projects, reducing the potential of space that may be a conference room today and a team environment tomorrow. leaks and thermal transmittance. This self-contained environment allowed buildings to heat and cool themselves more efficiently, without being forced to accommodate the Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the organizational needs of 1960 and influence of outdoor elements. Improved HVAC efficiency was achieved, but it cost the today is the fierce competition to hire and retain quality employees. Talent is viewed as the commercial space the presence of daylight and outdoor views. most scarce and valuable resource that a company can obtain. Subsequently, employees’ salaries and benefits are by far the largest expense that an office building incurs. Office In office buildings, the presence of daylight and views has been linked to improved spaces are tasked to provide productive and interactive work environments, and to serve as employee mood, motivation, satisfaction, health, and productivity. In European commercial tools for employee comfort, satisfaction, and retention. It is essential that the design of the buildings, the access to daylight and the connection to the outdoors is a fundamental office space support these efforts, simultaneously communicating to employees that they design element that has been manifested in the construction doctrine “no employee office are important and valued by the firm. area can exist more than 6 meters away from a window.” In the United States, the incorporation of daylight and views is recognized by the LEED™ (Leadership in Energy and Amidst the tumult of intense competition, quick strike and counterstrike initiatives, continuous reorganization, and a team roster that is constantly in flux, concrete and glass provide the semblance of stability, purpose, and success. The employees and floor plans will change, that is the nature of business. The office building will stand, that is the nature of architecture. Benefit from the Building Keeping an office building capable of supporting organizational needs is an essential element of good business, underscored by the fact that, for many companies, the physical building is the most expensive capital asset on the balance sheet. In fact, the significant investment required to construct, operate, maintain, and repair an office building (an investment that often represents between 10-20% of a company’s annual revenue) creates a strong demand from building owners and shareholders to pinch every last benefit out of the built environment. “Failure to wring every benefit out of the most expensive capital asset most companies have would not be countenanced in any other aspect of corporate life” (Seiler, John A. 1984. Architecture at Work. “Harvard Business Review,” September/October, 120). Reducing the amount of money required to operate the building can significantly affect the bottom line and is often easily accomplished by improving the efficiency of various building systems, like lighting, heating, or cooling. But opportunities to squeeze the maximum benefit from a building asset exist beyond improving its operational efficiencies. Buildings can be designed to create value for the company, one square foot at a time. Efficiency vs. Value Efficiency is highly quantitative. It describes the cost of producing something—in energy, time, money—in a manner that gets more of something for less. To create system efficiencies, the current performance of the lighting system or HVAC system must be examined and improved. Achieving better system efficiency will reduce operational expenses, but a more efficient building is not necessarily a better place to work. The impact of system efficiency on Lighting control equips buildings to operate more efficiently and adds value to the floor space by making it a healthier and more productive place to work. the office environment depends upon the methods employed to achieve it. 180 Architectural Record 03.06
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION Series CONTINUING EDUCATION Electricity Use in Office Buildings Achieve Efficiency and Add Value with Lighting Control Improving system efficiencies can negatively affect the value of a space, but efficiency and Lighting 35% value are not mutually exclusive. Opportunities exist to create system efficiency, and at the same time, make an office space more flexible, productive, healthy, and valuable to Office Equipment 4% an organization. Cooking 3% One such opportunity exists in the design of the building’s lighting system—or, more Refrigeration 7% specifically, the design of the building’s lighting control system. The lighting control system specified in a building determines how occupants are able to use the lights in the space. In Water Heating 3% the most minimal capacity, light control allows lights to be switched on/off either Space Cooling 27% independently or in larger groups. Dimming technologies allow light fixtures to provide a range of light output—often ranging from 1 or 10% to the full 100%. Lights can be Space Heating 16% controlled manually with a handheld remote or from wall stations, or programmed to Other 5% automatically turn on and off at certain times or when rooms are empty. Light control can even be preset to recall specific light levels—much like the presets programmed into a car In a typical office building, lighting consumes more electricity than heating or cooling systems. radio—based on the activities in the space. Light controls enable a building to save energy and allow employees to select a comfortable light level that is best suited to their tasks.Environmental Design) rating system as an element of sustainable design, enhancing thesustainability of the space by making it a more productive and healthy environment for Lighting systems represent a significant operational expense. Today, more electricity isbuilding occupants. used to light a typical building than is used to heat, cool, secure, or otherwise operate the structure. It is estimated that roughly 10% of all of the electricity consumed in the UnitedAn office space with few windows may have a lower heating bill, but it may also have higher States is used to light commercial buildings and, in 2005, that electricity cost Corporateabsenteeism and turnover ratios, less healthy employees who are less excited to come to America over $7 billion.work every day and are less productive when they get there. This space is efficient, but itsvalue to the organization and its ability to support organizational needs is low. Rising energy costs have spurred a re-examination of how commercial spaces are using their kilowatt-hours. Systems designed to provide more light than necessary, minimal lightSpace Efficiency control, and few light level options have been identified as three reasons why the lightingRent is another big expense for office buildings. Space equals money, as buildings are bills are unnecessarily high.charged dollars for every square foot. The pursuit of space efficiency aims to improve howwell a building is using the space it is paying for to create revenue for the company. Studiesof sales organizations, accounting firms, consulting firms and others concluded that inmany office environments an employee’s desk may be unoccupied 60% of the year.The discovery of the empty, yet expensive, workspaces drove the development of theorganizational concepts: hot-desking and desk pooling. The term hot-desking is borrowedfrom the Naval term “hot-bunking,” which is a practice on submarines where one cot isused by multiple sailors—one after the other. Hot-desking is a strategy that aims to rotateemployees in and out of community desks so efficiently that the chair is reoccupied beforeit has time to cool down. Desk pooling provides employees who are normally elsewhere witha group of standard and unpersonalized desks to use during those rare visits to the office.The desk is equipped with all usual accouterments: stapler, phone, power for laptop and anInternet link. But it is devoid of personalized touches and an everyday owner.The reaction to the loss of a personal office space was negative across the board.Employees, even those who do not spend much time at their desk, associate theirworkstations with feelings of importance, security, and ownership. In the 21st century,office spaces have become more important than functional spaces; they provide a sense ofidentity and represent, in square feet and ergonomic furniture, an investment in theindividual by the company.Hot-desking and desk pooling increased the space efficiency of the building. They alsogenerally upset the company’s most valuable asset (its employees), reduced productivity,and communicated to the workforce that their contributions were minimal and their Design office spaces to be able to provide unique lighting levels to match individual preferences and tasks.importance marginal. 03.06 Architectural Record 181
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION SeriesCONTINUING EDUCATION While the presence of light is essential for an office space to be functional, lighting systems are often designed to provide more light than necessary for typical office tasks. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) recommends that the office building should be equipped to provide between 30-50 footcandles on a workspace. Fluorescent lamps are highly efficient and currently the industry standard in commercial construction. However, as fluorescent lamps age, their light output diminishes. Lamp output is also reduced when the lamps become dusty and dirty. To ensure that there is always enough light present in the office space, many lighting systems are designed to compensate for the diminished output and, subsequently, regularly provide more light than is needed. Lighting control can be a design tool that promotes space flexibility and energy savings. Incorporating only the most basic or minimal light control on a project locks the building’s lighting resource into a rigid and uncompromising structure that wastes energy as unused lights are kept on. For example, in private offices light switches are often placed conveniently near the door. This switch location makes it easier for employees to turn the lights off before they leave their office space, saving energy and money. In the shift from private office spaces to open office spaces, switches now control large groups of lights located over desks that may be vacant for a significant portion of the day. A lighting control system that ties 20 light fixtures to one light switch unnecessarily wastes energy by keeping all of the lights on, even if only half of the people are in their seats. Lighting control strategies need to support sustainable design, improve building efficiency, and accommodate the individual. Beyond the operational expense of keeping overhead lights on when the desk is empty and providing more light than necessary on the workspace, providing no available light range lowers the high-end light level to 90%, for example, so lights switch between 90% and off. between 100% and off can unnecessarily tax the human element of the office. Too much This strategy provides energy savings to the building every time the lights are turned on, light exposure has adverse affects on people’s health, mood, and performance. The automatically reducing the amount of electricity used for lighting by 10%. Tuning is often squinting and strange postures employees strike to avoid glare and unnecessarily bright employed in corridors, hallways, stairwells and other areas of the floor plate where lights conditions cause headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches. are constantly on, but occupants do not require a high level of personalized control for task or comfort. Although the reactions to the wrong light level may be fairly routine, the light levels Occupancy sensing is a lighting control strategy that equips a building to turn lights off considered right and wrong differ from person to person. Health conditions, preferences, when rooms are empty. Occupancy sensing can create an average energy savings of between age, and task are factors that combine to create the unique visual environments ideal for 25-40% and is typically employed in private offices and ancillary areas like copy rooms, each individual employee. Providing inappropriate lighting levels in the workplace have kitchenettes, and bathrooms, where occupancy is sporadic. been linked with productivity losses, reduced attention spans, and dissatisfaction. Lighting systems in office spaces can be easily designed to match employee preferences by Daylight harvesting balances the electric light and natural light in a space, automatically incorporating dimming technologies in the overhead lights. This improved controllability lowering electric light levels when daylight is present and increasing electric light levels in has been credited with improving individual employee productivity 4-7%, reducing a space as daylight wanes. Daylight harvesting saves energy by using electric light as a eyestrain, and improving worker satisfaction. complement to available daylight and protects the visual ergonomics of the space by ensuring that the appropriate amount of light is always present at the desktop. Daylight Incorporating more lighting control and offering a wider range of light levels throughout the harvesting has been credited with reducing lighting energy consumption by almost 40% and office space saves energy, improving the efficiency of the lighting system, and adds value can be incorporated into any office area that receives daylight exposure. to the space by making it a more comfortable and productive place to work. Designing lighting control into an organizational space simultaneously supports environmental Personal control allows employees to select their own overhead light level and modify the interests and sustainable design guidelines, equips the building to work smarter and be light level throughout the day. Personal control gives employees the option to turn their more profitable, and accommodates the company’s most valuable asset. overhead lights on, off, or to select a light level in between. This light control strategy has been credited with lighting energy savings of over 60% and is often applied in open office areas, private offices, and team environments. Lighting Control Strategies The key to achieving the best fit between an office building and its lighting control system Preset control provides a space with different pre-selected lighting scenarios. For example, is to first determine how the space should function and how it will be used, then identify a conference room wall station may be marked AV presentation, Meeting, Cleaning, and Off. which lighting control strategy delivers the functionality that supports the intent of the Each of these scenarios is tied to a different light setting in the room. The AV presentation space. Each different lighting control strategy offers a unique blend of energy savings button lowers the light levels to accommodate the AV technology and makes it easier for potential and controllability. Five strategies popularly employed in office buildings are: people to see the screen. The meeting button engages overhead lights at a level that is on, tuning, occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting, personal control, and preset control. but less intense than 100%, perhaps 75%. Cleaning provides 100% light so that staff can see dust and dirt. This lighting control strategy is most beneficial in areas that host many Tuning is a strategy that uniformly lowers the high-end light level available throughout a different employees for numerous types of tasks. Preset control makes it easier for the space or building. Instead of switching fluorescent lights between 100% on and off, tuning space to best fit the needs of the group, without being prohibitively difficult to use. 182 Architectural Record 03.06
A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D Advertising Section CONTINUING EDUCATION Series CONTINUING EDUCATIONIncorporating the appropriate lighting control strategy in commercial buildings improves package that is easy to reconfigure, easy to maintain, easy to understand and use.system efficiency and adds value to the space, but lighting control systems are able to These features ensure that a system that was once the best fit for the office design willfurther support office space design. Lighting control systems are available that provide continue to fit organizational needs, even as those needs change. ■tuning, occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting, personal control and preset control in a CLICK FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READING The article continues online at http://archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/archives/0603lutron-1.asp. To receive AIA/CES credit, you are required to read this additional text. The quiz questions below include information from this online reading. To receive a faxed or emailed copy of the material, call Jeanette Fitzgerald at Lutron, (610) 282-6661 or fax (610) 282-6437. A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D CONTINUING EDUCATION Series LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5. Designing appropriate lighting controls into an office space: After reading this article, you should be able to: a. wastes energy. • Examine how office design has transitioned to accommodate changing b. improves productivity and comfort. organizational needs. c. eliminates the possibility of changing the floor plan. • Incorporate lighting control strategies that improve building efficiency and add d. creates glare and overly bright conditions. value to the office space. • Specify lighting controls that are easy to install, maintain, and reconfigure 6. Personal control is the lighting control strategy that: when floor plans change. a. detects when a person enters the room. b. allows employees to program the lights to turn on at a certain time and INSTRUCTIONS off at a certain time. Refer to the learning objectives above. Complete the questions below. c. allows individuals to select their own overhead light level and change it Go to the self report form on page 238. Follow the reporting instructions, throughout the day. answer the test questions, and submit the form. Or use d. none of the above the Continuing Education self report form on Record’s web site— archrecord.construction.com—to receive one AIA/CES Learning Unit including one hour of health safety welfare credit. 7. Daylight harvesting is the lighting control strategy that: a. balances electric light and natural light, automatically lowering electric light levels when daylight is present and increasing the electric light level QUESTIONS as daylight wanes. 1. Today, office spaces are designed to: b. uses only daylight to illuminate a space. a. facilitate communication between employees. c. describes any space where daylight is present. b. quickly and easily reorganize. d. none of the above c. provide productive work environments. d. all of the above 8. Which of the following characteristics of a lighting system ensure that it will be able to adapt to changing organizational needs? 2. In 2005, how much did it cost to light commercial buildings in the a. inexpensive and flimsy United States? b. energy efficient and able to accommodate personal preferences a. $700,000 c. provides minimal light control and offers few light level options b. $7 billion d. easy to reconfigure, easy to maintain, easy to understand and use c. $700 million d. $7 million 9. Which of the following is NOT needed to design a fluorescent lighting control system capable of occupancy sensing, daylight harvesting, personal 3. Which of the following is the reason why so much money is spent on control, and preset control? necessary lighting? a. fluorescent dimming ballast a. lighting systems are often designed to provide more light than necessary b. daylight sensor b. minimal light control causes lights to be left on when unneeded c. interfaces and power packs c. few light level options provides lighting at only 100% on, which may be d. occupancy sensor too bright, or off d. all of the above 10. Which of the following features, if specified, makes it possible to reconfigure a lighting system without rewiring? 4. Improving the efficiency of an office building always makes it a better place a. digital addressable ballasts to work. b. sensors that can be grouped to different fixtures a. true c. wireless handheld programmer b. false d. all of the above Lutron Electronics Co., Inc., (www.lutron.com) headquartered in Coopersburg, Pennsylvania, is the worlds leading designer and manufacturer of lighting controls, lighting control systems, and shading solutions for residential and commercial applications. CIRCLE 68 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO ARCHRECORD.CONSTRUCTION.COM/PRODUCTS/ 03.06 Architectural Record 183
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S M A L L S PA C E SINTERIORS The custom pool is color to create visual landscape that went beyond a series of enclosed spaces,” Serraino says. wrapped in a seamless depth. The red-walled “The forms and materials create visual relationships, and clearly reveal sheet of corrugated waiting room/reception how the space is constructed.” metal (above). Each area provides a bright Gutting a rental storefront space that had most recently housed a wall plane is a different welcome (below). ﬂower shop, the architect plotted a straightforward sequence of spaces with clear sight lines to establish a sense of procession. Entering through a metal-framed storefront whose glass panels are treated with translucent ﬁlm for privacy, clients arrive at a double-height reception room painted bright red. A blue-and-white wall graphic accompanies curvaceous chairs designed by Karim Rashid that add a Pop Art feeling. Beyond the reception area, an exercise room reserved for ﬂoor and massage-table workouts has walls awash in red and yellow. Called the “land therapy” area, the zone is ﬁlled with wood-based equipment sta- tions that support Pilates instruction. “They are such beautiful pieces of equipment, mechanically and aesthetically, that I wanted to showcase them,” Serraino says. In lieu of partitions to separate massage and exercise stations, 14-foot-tall curtains create a vertical scale and aid temporary pri- vacy. The curtains, he notes, visually simulate the look of a colonnade. An above-ground therapy pool commands the second main room, a 1,000-square-foot space. Measuring 8 feet by 20 feet, the custom pool sits atop three steel beams set at grade within the concrete ﬂooring. The resin pool shell is supported by a wood-frame structure and rises to a height of 5 feet 2 inches within the 16-foot-tall room. Leaving the pool above ground was required because the facility is a leased space, but Serraino says he welcomed the chance to create two elevations in the 190 Architectural Record 03.06
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S M A L L S PA C E SINTERIORS Fourteen-foot-long cur- tain finishes in the tains in the massage dressing room area and Pilates areas stand include an epoxy-resin in for built partitions floor, metal panels, and (above). Easy-to-main- louvered doors (left). room. Along its two exposed sides, the pool is faced with seamless sheets of corrugated metal. Across the room, two opposing walls feature a dado of the same metal, creating a visual dialogue with the pool enclosure. The panels also screen the studio’s HVAC and plumbing systems, which rep- resented a signiﬁcant part of the build-out budget. Serraino placed the pool lift in a prominent location to emphasize its sculptural quality. Each wall within the aquatic room—along with its epoxy-resin ﬂoor and pool deck—is a different, vibrant color. Along one wall, the inte- riors of four changing rooms ﬁtted with louvered doors are also painted in varying hues to provide visual cues. While color at Flex is the visual vehicle deﬁning intersecting planes, it also casts economical theatrical backdrops where the mending of body and spirit is celebrated. ■ Sources Paint: Sherwin Williams Wood doors: Lemieux Chairs: Umbra Hardware: Schlage; Builders Brass Pool lif t: Aquatic Access Acoustical ceiling: USG Metal panels: AB Steel Structures For more information on this project, Resilient flooring: Mount Diablo go to Interiors at Flooring System www.archrecord.com. 192 Architectural Record 03.06
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Space-dividing bulk-heads, stripedcarpeting, and theceiling grid direct theeye toward the east-facing window wall(above). A display ofdigitized photographsadds color and textureto the corridor (left).Opaque painted wallsin the conferencearea contrast with thetransparent walls else-where (opposite, top).The suspension systemsupporting the station-ary and sliding-glasspanels is set within a51⁄2-inch-wide spacewithin the ceiling grid(opposite, bottom).
INTERIORS S M A L L S PA C E Sthrough each panel are abstracted silhouettes of the mechanical equip- ﬁlm evokes the rich color of Lucini Italia’s extra-virgin olive oils. The lam-ment above. By eliminating decorative details such as cornices and inated glass allows views from the main corridor through each office andbaseboards and exposing the connecting infrastructure of the ceiling and beyond to the bay, while providing solar and sound insulation. The nar-wall planes, the architects sought to “buttress the core narratives of sim- row space between the ceiling tracks and the suspended panels serves as aplicity and openness,” Kosovac says. return air plenum, eliminating the need for an obtrusive grille. Three private offices on the north-south axis of the suite—each The conference room in the north-facing leg of the space isframed on two sides by the bulkheads and on one by the window wall— anchored by a custom table fabricated from century-old ﬁr, a reference toopen to a central corridor. Each office is fronted by two ﬂoor-to-ceiling traditional Italian refectory dining tables. The designers left a productlaminated-glass panels ﬂanking a central slidin