Standard practices r9


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Standard practices r9

  1. 1. Standard Practices of Handling, Storage and Transportation of Cl2 Tonners/Cylinders BY H. S. SEHGAL DGM (PRODUCTION)
  2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>As on today 70,000 chemicals have been identified for industrial and domestic applications and there is addition of 3000 chemicals per year. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 3500 chemicals have been classified and listed in central motor vehicles rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Compressed gases filled in 0.5 ltr to 1000 ltr. Cylinder falls under the classified category. </li></ul><ul><li>Many industrial and laboratory operations require the use of compressed gases for a variety of different operations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conti… <ul><li>Careful procedures are necessary for handling the various compressed gases in view of safety. </li></ul><ul><li>In India road transport is the favorite mode of transportation for compressed gases. More than 3 lacs accidents are taking place per year resulting 88,000 fatalities and 102 million injuries. This result is direct economic loss of 700 crorers and national loss of Rs. 55000 Crores. Consequences are disastrous when vehicles involving is carrying hazards goods. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to improve road safety it is important that the cosignator, consignee, the hauler, the vehicle driver and all the concerned authorities do their best to achieve this goal. So that we can have comparable road safety standards as in the developed countries </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Compressed gases present a unique hazard. Depending on the particular gas, there is a potential for simultaneous exposure to both mechanical and chemical hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Gases can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flammable or combustible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous/toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrophoric (burns on contact with air) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or a combination of hazards </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Common Industrial Gases <ul><li>Oxidants support combustion e.g. air & oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Inerts do not generally react with other materials, asphyxiants(leak displace air) e.g. nitrogen, argon, helium </li></ul><ul><li>Flammables when mixed with oxidant and ignition source will burn e.g. acetylene, hydrogen, propane </li></ul><ul><li>Toxics toxic in small concentrations e.g. ammonia, chlorine, carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosives react with materials causing reactions e.g. chlorine, sulfur dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrophorics ignite spontaneously in air e.g. silane, phosphine </li></ul>
  6. 6. Main Causes of Accidents <ul><li>Inadequate training and supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Poor installation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Faulty equipment and/or design (e.g. badly fitting valves or regulators) </li></ul><ul><li>Poor handling </li></ul><ul><li>Poor storage </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequately ventilated working conditions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Main Hazards <ul><li>Impact from the blast of a gas cylinder explosion or rapid release of compressed gas </li></ul><ul><li>Impact from parts of gas cylinders that fail or any flying debris </li></ul><ul><li>Contact with the released gas or fluid (such as chlorine) </li></ul><ul><li>Fire resulting from the escape of flammable gas or fluids such as LPG </li></ul><ul><li>Impact from falling cylinder </li></ul>
  8. 8. Flammable Gases <ul><li>Examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acetylene </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Propane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Butane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Non-Flammable Gases <ul><li>Examples are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Argon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Poison Gases <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Arsine </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphine </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Sulphide </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosive </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen Chloride </li></ul>
  11. 11. NEVER trust a color of a compressed gas cylinder. NEVER assume cylinder content ALWAYS check the label! Compressed gases Identification
  12. 12. Handling Liquefied Compressed Gas-Chlorine <ul><li>A liquefied compressed gas can be defined as a gas, which when compressed in a container, becomes a liquid at ordinary temperature . </li></ul><ul><li>Liquefied gases cylinder contains both liquid and gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder pressure, or the “vapor pressure” of the gas, is directly affected by ambient temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Increases or decreases in the temperature will cause the vapor pressure to increase or decrease, respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Product withdrawal should be carefully supervised by qualified people with the proper equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel should be aware of the associated hazards of the product and equipment and thoroughly understand applicable safety regulations and emergency procedures. </li></ul>
  13. 13. CONT… <ul><li>Liquefied compressed gases come in a variety of containers. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonner containers have two valves. The container is oriented so the valves are one above the other. The valves are connected to dip tubes that run to the cylinder sides. </li></ul><ul><li>The top valve will have the dip tube in the vapor and the bottom valve will have the dip tube in the liquid. </li></ul>
  17. 17. CONT… <ul><li>Previous tonners were manufactured as per BS-1500. it has not been updated for this last 4 decades and is withdrawn in march 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Both ends of ASME model contained one curved inward (concave design) which has following advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Higher burst pressure (more than 2.5 times the test pressure) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Safe handling </li></ul><ul><li>3. Relief for overfilling </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ease of fixing safety kit. </li></ul><ul><li>Drop test. is carried out on prototype container filled with water to working pressure from a height of 6 miters. the toner shell not leak, crack or burst </li></ul><ul><li>A strain gauge measurement of stresses on the prototype container both at working pressure and test pressure is carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Post weld heat treatment after welding and NDT testing as per code. </li></ul><ul><li>Burst test of tonner to check max. pressure of failure. </li></ul>
  18. 19. CONT… <ul><li>Use of fusible plugs on chlorine toner has been withdrawn in 1981 in view of inbuilt safety of toner and hazard nature of cl2. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard design of tonners from other countries is acceptable after approval from dept. of explosives. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent gas cylinders are designed as per IS 7285 (seam less cylinder) O.D. 232 mm, L. 1370 mm. </li></ul><ul><li>Cl2 storage tanks are designed as per IS-2825 </li></ul><ul><li>The life of tonner depends on its storage and upkeep. An average life of 10-12 years is quit common. </li></ul>
  19. 20. STORAGE PRACTICES FOR TONNERS AND CYLINDERS <ul><li>Storage license. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate storage for filled and empty tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>No storage under sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>No double layer storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Container storage on trunion/ provision of wooden wedges. </li></ul><ul><li>No other material to be stored in chlorine storage. </li></ul><ul><li>No high temp pipeline should be pass. </li></ul><ul><li>No underground storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of crane and approved chain for lifting the Tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of safety equipments. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine sensors/Alarm system. </li></ul><ul><li>Announcement system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cool, well ventilated area ground, dry concrete floors with proper slope covered storage. One to four minutes air changes required in the emergency. Day light provision in the night hours </li></ul><ul><li>First aid facility. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind direction indication. </li></ul><ul><li>First come first serve basis consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized persons are not be allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Filled tonners not to be stored for 2-3 months . </li></ul>
  20. 28. ASSOCIATED OPERATIONAL PRACTICES <ul><li>Tonners nos. (stencil/punch nos.), hydro test due date </li></ul><ul><li>Denting/damage of valve/ plugs etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover hood, </li></ul><ul><li>Painting of tonners, </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation party wise tonners. </li></ul>b. Checking/ recording of receipt tonners <ul><li>Unloading tonners with crane fitted with crane weigh scale (Calibration of weigh scale with standard weigh scale in every shift) </li></ul>a. Unloading of cylinders from truck
  21. 29. PREPARATION OF TONNERS/CYLINDERS <ul><li>Opening of plug </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion of 12 volt supply </li></ul><ul><li>Checking for wetness/foreign material </li></ul>d. Internal inspection with 12 volt supply <ul><li>Replacement of damaged valve/spindle/ plug </li></ul>c. Checking of valves/spindle/plugs <ul><li>Depressurization to hypo </li></ul>b. For Cl2 gas <ul><li>Any dent </li></ul><ul><li>change of color </li></ul><ul><li>overdue for testing </li></ul><ul><li>material shortage in tonners </li></ul>a. Physical checking
  22. 30. Conti… <ul><li>Filling of check chart fit for filling certificate </li></ul><ul><li>Verified by supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Approved by manager </li></ul>f. Preparation for empty tonners <ul><li>Washing </li></ul><ul><li>Steaming </li></ul><ul><li>Hydro test </li></ul><ul><li>Drying preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic testing </li></ul><ul><li>Tonners are rejected on : </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss > 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion > 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Thread damage of valve/plugs </li></ul><ul><li>Dent </li></ul><ul><li>Any heat treatment </li></ul>e. Hydro test for overdue tonners
  23. 31. FILLING OF TONNERS/CYLINDERS <ul><li>Operator has to ensure availability of approved check chart before filling. </li></ul><ul><li>Marshalling the toner on weigh scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Filling is done on weigh scale only & weight is being monitored. </li></ul><ul><li>Checking & recording of empty tonners/ cylinders weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of hydro test date </li></ul><ul><li>Connection of liquid Cl2 feed tubes (annealed cu flexible tube having working pressure > 17 kg/cm2) </li></ul><ul><li>Opening valve – check with ammonia torch & Cl2 detector </li></ul><ul><li>Physical checking of Cl2 tonners for temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Using proper size of spanners, special clamps </li></ul><ul><li>Filling of 900 Kg + - 5 Kg Cl2 in tonners/ cylinders (as per filling ratio) </li></ul><ul><li>On – line checking of weigh scale measurement on DCS </li></ul><ul><li>(Actual real time Cl2 tonners filling is monitored and recorded) </li></ul>
  24. 32. Conti… <ul><li>Provision of audio/ visual red light alarm in case of overfilling </li></ul><ul><li>Printed history for measurement of each toner is available </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of secondary check by the supervisor on its computer </li></ul><ul><li>Online filling cut off system is in case of excess filling </li></ul><ul><li>Recording and monitoring tare weight, gross weight & net weight with references to date and time </li></ul><ul><li>Computer screen continuously indicates online weight of all weigh machine at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure & temp. gauge arrangement in Cl2 system line. </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging on tonners indicating the precautions for safe handling of Cl2 </li></ul>
  25. 33. DESPATCH OF FILLED TONNERS/CYLINDERS <ul><li>Storage for filled tonners for 24 hrs. to observe room temp. & check for any leakage. </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage test by ammonia torch. </li></ul><ul><li>Valve cap fitting. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover hood fitting. </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging/labeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Painting. </li></ul><ul><li>In house QCD check of filled tonners. </li></ul>
  26. 34. QUALITATIVE CHECK <ul><li>Tonners/cylinders are rechecked for gross weight. </li></ul><ul><li>If any weight variation, immediate correction and re offering to QCD. </li></ul><ul><li>100% re-checking of Cl2 tonners/ cylinders for leakage test by Ammonia torch, valve cap fitting, cover hood fitting & labeling by QCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Final checking and recording of weight of filled tonners with hanging crane weigh scale and loading into the truck for dispatch as per the dispatch order. </li></ul>
  27. 35. INTENSIVE TRAINING PROGRAMME <ul><li>Various awareness drive by intensive training programmers at customer and has been undertaken. </li></ul><ul><li>Training programme are organized for transporters, drivers & cleaners to handle emergency during transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Technical assistance to various industries which are consuming chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Plant personnel are also given frequently chlorine handling training. </li></ul>
  28. 36. EMERGENCY & EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT <ul><li>Emergency kits are available </li></ul><ul><li>Provision is made for online air mask-cylinder mounted trolley </li></ul><ul><li>Self Contained Breathing Apparatus are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Series of safety showers provided </li></ul><ul><li>Foam type fire extinguisher provided </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement made for flexible/fixed suction hood to hypo system. </li></ul><ul><li>Installed wind indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement made for cl2 toner hood </li></ul><ul><li>Water curtain arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Separate vacuum blowers in Cl2 tonners area. </li></ul><ul><li>CCTV checking and recording in chlorine and hydrogen area. </li></ul>
  29. 37. Conti… <ul><li>Provision for multiple Cl2 neutralizing system backed with emergency power. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodical mock drills carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Onsite/offsite emergency planned. </li></ul><ul><li>Cl2 sensors provided at critical locations </li></ul><ul><li>Competent and dedicated employees duly approved by CCE (PESO) </li></ul><ul><li>Testing of tonners/tanks/cylinders every two years </li></ul><ul><li>Rejection of tanks after 20 years of life with third party inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly checking of pipeline by NDT test </li></ul>
  30. 38. GLOBAL MODE OF CHLORINE TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>Rail Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America – 80 Tonnes Rail Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe – 55 and some 22 Tonnes Rail Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan – 25 Tonnes Rail Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Road Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America – 16 Tonnes Trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South America – 18-22 Tonnes Trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe – 20 Tonnes Trucks and Containers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan – 10 Tonnes Trucks & some 5 Tonnes or less </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Transport </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America – 1000 Tonnes Barges </li></ul></ul>
  31. 39. GLOBAL TRANSPORTATION SCENARIO Worldwide other modes of Transportation are also being used like thro’ Barges on Water for more than 6000 kms distance in Columbia, Chile & for very short distances, Pipelines 1200 Road (100%) 51 India 1000 200 Rail (67%) Road (33%) 6 Europe 600 300 Rail (30%) Road (70%) 10 Japan 4000 (Brazil) 1500 (Chile) Road Rail (75%) 66 South America 1000 Rail (90%) Road (6%) 35 North America Max. Distance Covered (Kms) Mode of Transport Quantity of Cl2 Transported (% of Production) Country
  32. 41. STATUS OF INDIAN CHLORINE INDUSTRY <ul><li>Most Chlor-Alkali Plants : Merchant & Non-Integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Production Plants are widely spread </li></ul><ul><li>Most Consumers widely spread </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Cl 2 transported in small Cylinders / Tonners by road (51%) with max. 1200 Kms. Avg. distance covered; Safety on road of prime importance </li></ul><ul><li>Wide no. of transporters with drivers / helpers, not necessarily dedicated </li></ul>
  33. 42. CHECK POINTS FOR TRANSPORTATION <ul><li>Every one engaged in handling gas cylinders must follow following legal/ safety requirements . </li></ul><ul><li>Certificate of fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Display of distinct mark </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of techno graph for time & speed and satellite tracking system. </li></ul><ul><li>Spark arrester </li></ul><ul><li>Training of driver </li></ul><ul><li>First aid facility </li></ul><ul><li>Competent driver to handle any emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency panel for information- Chemical/ Class of hazards goods/ Contact No./ Sticker </li></ul><ul><li>Registration of vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Road worthiness </li></ul><ul><li>MSDS </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><ul><ul><li>Ascertain the condition of the road prior to loading of material. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the travel route before starting the journey. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to find out in advance whether the road through which chlorine has to be transported is closed or has any diversions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shortcuts should never be preferred. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the speed limits. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never consume intoxicating substances during driving. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always carry the fitness certificate of the vehicle while transporting chlorine from supplier to consumer or vice-versa. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The validity of such fitness certificate is only for two years so it is essential to renew the same after every two years. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Always keep the Vehicle License and Fitness certificate in the vehicle transporting Chlorine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAFETY PRACTICES OF TRANSPORTATION- DRIVERS </li></ul></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles should be fit and road worthy for transportation of chlorine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that the brakes of the vehicle are working properly so that the vehicle can be stopped any time on the route. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The drivers transporting chlorine should be trained to verify the labels pasted/marked on the truck is as per the dangerous & hazardous nature of the goods being transported and is also marked with appropriate color codes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary first aid kit, safety kit, tool box should always be available with the driver in the truck itself. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers are to be provided with written instructions regarding hazardous nature of chlorine being transported by him and also the precaution to be taken during transportation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is necessary to install a spark arrestor device in the vehicle. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Panel for information-chemical/class hazardous public control should be pasted on 3 sides of the truck </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 46. SAFETY PRACTICES OF TRANSPORTATION- MANUFACTURER <ul><li>Loading of the chlorine tonners should be done under the supervision of experienced and trained persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Filled chlorine tonners are required to be placed horizontally in a single layer with valves of all tonners facing in the same direction. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to prevent the tonner from falling during transportation, they should be supported with wooden wedges. </li></ul><ul><li>The loading of all the tonners in the truck/vehicle should always be within its loading capacity. It should also be noted that no tonners or any part of it should dangle out of the truck. </li></ul><ul><li>It should be ensured that neither any other goods should be loaded in the truck along with chlorine nor any passenger should be transported in the truck loaded with chlorine tonner. </li></ul>
  37. 47. <ul><li>The vehicle on route if required to be parked then it should be parked in an open the place should be shadowed, windy and open area. Vehicle should not be parked under direct sunlight. </li></ul><ul><li>Ascertain in advance, availability of safe & proper parking places en route or at customers place so that in case of emergency the vehicle can be park in such safe place. </li></ul><ul><li>Driver remembers the preventive measures required to be taken during adverse weather condition. </li></ul><ul><li>After the chlorine tonner reaches at the customer end, always use mechanical or electrical devices for unloading the tonner. Magnet or Sling should never be used for unloading the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonners should never be thrown directly on the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Even through all safety measures taken and all preparation had to be done for safe journey, yet it is also essential to remain prepared to face any emergency situation. </li></ul>
  38. 48. SAFETY PRACTICES OF TRANSPORTATION- TRANSPORTER <ul><li>Transporter must be fully acquainted with nature of Cargo, its General Properties, transportation, Safety Kits, emergency Kits, etc. before accepting the Tonner from supplier. </li></ul><ul><li>It is preferable to use the Tucks open able from sides to enable easy approach to attend any leakage. </li></ul><ul><li>Transporter must carry Gas Mask, Emergency Kits and Fire Extinguishers while transporting Chlorine Cylinders </li></ul><ul><li>Never transport Cylinder in Multi Layers on the Truck, Lay them in a Single Layer Only. Do not load Truck with any other cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>All containers must have valve caps and hoods fitted on them during transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinders / Tonners should not project outside the frame of the vehicle. </li></ul><ul><li>No passenger must be taken on the way and allowed to travel in the truck carrying liquid chlorine. </li></ul>
  39. 49. <ul><li>The driver must keep in mind that he is carrying Hazardous Cargo and should drive cautiously. He should avoid over speeding, sharp turns, and overtaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Use wooden wedges to support the toners firmly, to ensure that there is no free movement of tonners, if the journey is through such a rout, the container should be securely tied to truck with a strong rope, so as to prevent rolling. </li></ul><ul><li>Tonner should be layed in horizontal position with valve in a Vertical Plane and small Cylinder in Vertical Position with Valves Upside. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trucks should not to be parked in direct sunlight or near the Fire, & should never be parked near residential/ crowded locality. </li></ul><ul><li>Never allow water to come in contact with the Tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>Always keep a bottle of dilute Ammonia in the cabin. In case of smell or doubt of chlorine leakage, wet a cloth tied on wooden baton with Ammonia solution an take it near each end of the container, white fumes indicates Chlorine leak. </li></ul>
  40. 50. <ul><li>In case of Chlorine leakage from Tonner Valve, bring the leaky valve in upside position by rolling Tonner so that any Leaky points will come on top, thus only gas will come out. </li></ul><ul><li>Never drop/throw the containers from the vehicle. Slightly roll it on a slope. Avoid striking containers against any hard object. </li></ul><ul><li>No transshipment should be done unless required in emergencies such as vehicle breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of leakage of the chlorine tonners during transportation, driver should not park the vehicle in any residential area. The driver should park the vehicle in the open area at an isolated place. Contact the local police station, transporter or manufacturer on phone. If the driver is trained, than he can identify the leaking tonner & plug the leak by placing the safety kit properly. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaking tonner should not be transported </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid gathering of crowds near the leaking truck. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid spraying water over the leak. </li></ul>
  41. 51. Control Measures In Case Of Chlorine Leakage During Transportation <ul><li>Do not panicky in case of chlorine leakage. Remain calm during such situations. </li></ul><ul><li>If the leakage is detected with in the plant itself, then such incidents should be reported immediately to the concern officers/ staff of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>If the leakage is detected on the way, then the vehicle should be taken to an open area so that the loss of life and property is minimum as far as possible. Inform the supplier, police and transporter immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>During leakage place, the driver of the vehicle should cover the nose with a wet handkerchief in place the handkerchief even if it is not wet. Don’t inhale direct chlorine contaminated air. </li></ul>
  42. 52. <ul><li>If there is burning sensation in the eyes, then immediately spray water on the eyes with the given Portable Eye Washer Unit. If required a bath can be taken under the shower provided in the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>If any person is affected severely with chlorine, then take him to an open windy place. Press his chest gently or give him artificial respiration (mouth to mouth resuscitation). </li></ul><ul><li>If the chlorine content in the air is 3PPM or more, then burning sensation in eyes, neck and nose will be felt </li></ul><ul><li>If remained exposed in such an environment for long time then, uneasiness, and irritation in neck, sneezing or accumulation of fluid in and around lungs are common symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Persons equipped with personal protective equipment should entire the affected area to the leaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t allow unconnected crowd near the affected area. </li></ul>
  43. 53. TRANSPORT PRACTICES IN OTHER COUNTRIES <ul><li>Vehicle Inspection – “Check List” </li></ul><ul><li>Support basis along the routes to be covered. </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking of Vehicles by Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Response Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership with Emergency Support Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership among Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers’ training </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Equipment (Respiratory Protection, Emergency Kit) </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Datasheet </li></ul><ul><li>MSDS – Material Safety Datasheet </li></ul><ul><li>Greater Supervision of Vehicles carrying Hazardous Substances </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers’ Companies & Transportation Companies to adopt Responsible Care </li></ul><ul><li>More restrictive legislation for chemicals transportation by highways </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring, Reporting and Proper Actions for incidents prevention and reduction avoiding recurrence </li></ul>
  44. 54. BENEFITS OF BULK TRANSPOTATION <ul><li>Safer, as risk is far less </li></ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul><ul><li>Energy saver (low fuel consumption) </li></ul><ul><li>Less maintenance and less time required for loading/unloading. </li></ul><ul><li>Less approval from regulatory authorities and less number of testing like hydraulic testing/radiography. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk tankers turn over rate is better as compared to tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated drivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Less no. of truck on the road. </li></ul><ul><li>Bulk transportation is recommended with a requirement of 1000T/month. </li></ul><ul><li>New regulation or comprehensive code of good practice required . </li></ul>
  45. 58. Straps & logistic rail for securing cylinders
  46. 59. Load bars & logistic rail for securing cylinders
  47. 60. Palletizing cylinders
  48. 61. Ground level loading & unloading cylinders
  49. 62. Ton container blocking
  50. 63. Front bulkhead reinforcement for ton containers
  51. 64. C clamp on two end ton containers of truck load
  52. 65. Telescopic boom mounted on ton container trailer
  53. 66. Ton container lock-down devices
  54. 67. PRACTICES OF CHLORINE WITHDRAWL AT CUSTOMER END <ul><li>Shift the tonner to desired location, check leakage, testing date, provide wooden wedges. Keep record of each tonner. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep valves in vertical plane, gas from upper valve and liquid from lower valve. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep tonner on weigh scale to know the exact consumption pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Connection by experience, competent persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible connection (Cu tubes), led gasket to be used, never make forced connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Threaded type connections to be avoided, use clamp connection. </li></ul><ul><li>Open valve slowly and check for any leakage. </li></ul>
  55. 68. <ul><li>Open one full turn valve after no leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard and approved tools </li></ul><ul><li>Tonner is not to be used as a process vessel </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the spindle key fitted on the valve </li></ul><ul><li>Cl2 tonner valve is not to be used as Cl2 flow control valve </li></ul><ul><li>Separate valve for flow to be provided </li></ul><ul><li>Do not heat the tonner/ spray water/ steam to withdraw more chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>Use barometric leg in chlorine line to avoid back flow of liquid .Preferably cut off the tonner at 0.5 Kg/ cm2 pressure. Compensate for level, gravity and pressure in the reactor. in barometric leg of 10.3 Mtrs. to be maintained at atmospheric reaction from inlet of chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>In Emergency chlorine should be disconnected from consumption point and released to hypo system </li></ul><ul><li>PPE to the available at site </li></ul><ul><li>For higher chlorine consumption, evaporator can be used </li></ul><ul><li>4 tonners can be connected in 1 manifold . chlorine withdrawal rate from the Tonner is limited. Depends on room temp. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher flow withdrawal leads to fall in temp. and re liquefaction of chlorine below 10oC chlorine flow is not uniform. </li></ul>
  56. 72. Withdrawal rate of Chlorine ( Room Temp. – Threshold temp.) * withdrawal factor withdrawal factor for Tonner = 8/ Cylinder= 1 Threshold temp. is the temp. where minimum required gas pressure is reached Temp. Deg. C Tonner (900 Kg.) Cylinder (67 Kg.) Day Hr. Per Day Per Hr. 4 45 1.87 4.08 0.17 10 110 4.58 9.50 0.39 15 130 5.41 16.10 0.67 20 254 10.58 21.54 0.90 27 315 13.12 20.12 1.17
  57. 73. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>Following rules / acts are to be followed as applicable for storing chlorine in storage and transportation of tonners/cylinders in truck </li></ul><ul><li>Factories Act 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Cylinder Rules 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>SMPV (U) Rules 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rule 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991, amended in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>The Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Central Motor Vehicles Rules 1989 (amended 95) </li></ul><ul><li>Note:- Gas Cylinder Rules (GCR), 2004 is applicable for Chlorine Tonner and SMPV (U)R, 1981 is applicable for Chlorine Bullets. Both the rules have been framed under the Explosives Act, 1884. So offenses and punishment are regulated as per the Explosive Act, 1884 . Both the above said regulations are administered by Petroleum and Explosive Safety Organization (formerly Department of Explosive). Govt. of India. </li></ul>
  59. 75. Remember <ul><li>AN EMPTY CYLINDER IS </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER 100% EMPTY!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Handle, Store, and Transport an ‘empty’ </li></ul><ul><li>cylinder as if it is a full cylinder </li></ul>
  60. 76. Activities for which Licenses is required <ul><li>a. License is required for: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possession (storage) of more than 5 (five) chlorine tonners. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filling of even a single tonner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possession (storage ) of chlorine bullets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Note :- Prior approval necessary for license and also for alteration in licensing premises. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Licensing Period </li></ul><ul><li>Under Gas Cylinder Rule, 2004 license is required for : </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum of ten years up to 30th day of September of the year up to which the license is granted or renewed. </li></ul><ul><li>Under SMPV(U)R, 1981 license is required for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum three years up to 31st day of March </li></ul></ul>
  61. 77. Other requirement under the Regulations: <ul><li>Chlorine tonners shall be regularly painted with golden yellow Colour as specified in IS: 4379. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not change the Colour and / or fill with any gas other than chlorine. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior approval from the Chief Controller of Explosive must be obtained for any repairing and conversion of other gas cylinders for filling of Chlorine tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine tonners showing leaks at any place other than the welded seams shall not be repaired and shall be rendered unserviceable. </li></ul>
  62. 78. <ul><li>Owner’s record:- The owner of Chlorine tonners shall keep for the life of each tonner, a record containing the information as required in rule 27 of Gas Cylinder Rules, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Filling Ratio:- Cylinders tonners shall not be filled in excess of the filling ratios specified in IS: 3710. Bullets shall be filled as per the license capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>Filling capacity and filling pressure – The Maximum quantity of liquefiable gas filled into any vessel shall be limited to the filling density of the gas and shall be such that the vessel shall not be liquid-full due to expansion of the contents with rise of the temperature to 55 deg C. </li></ul><ul><li>Competent person will be the in charge of the handling system. </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture level in chlorine should be less than 0.02% in tonner/cylinder </li></ul>
  63. 79. Condition for no licence for filling and possession <ul><li>No licence shall be necessary under following condition……. </li></ul><ul><li>Possession of any cylinder filled with a compressed gas by a carrier or other person for the purpose of transport. </li></ul><ul><li>LPG when the total quantity of gas does not exceed 100 kg at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Any other flammable but non toxic gas when the total number of cylinders containing such gas does not exceed 25 or the total weight of gas does not exceed 200 kg, whichever is less, at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Any non-flammable non-toxic gas when the total number of such cylinders does not exceed 200 at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Any toxic gas when the total quantity of such cylinders does not exceed 5 at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery or dispatch of cylinder to be done to the holder of a licence to possess such compressed gas cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>Defence forces of the union, port authorities or railway administration is exempted under this rules to possess such compressed gas cylinders without a licence. </li></ul>
  64. 80. Examination and testing of Chlorine tonners and bullets <ul><ul><li>Periodic hydro-testing and examinations of chlorine tonners and bullets : Chlorine tonners and bullets must be hydro-tested at their marked test pressure and thoroughly examined once in two years, as specified in IS: 8868 (in case of Chlorine tonner) and as per the design code (in case of Chlorine bullet) by competent persons, who are approved by Chief Controller or Explosives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relief valves shall be tested by a Competent Person for correct operation not less than once in a year and a record of such test shall be maintained. The test certificate shall be issued in the prescribed preformed. Relief valves shall be tested for correct operation not less than once in a year and a record of such test shall be maintained. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The competent person carrying out the test shall issue a certificate of test in prescribed preformed. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 81. <ul><li>Condemning of cylinders: Chlorine tonners which fails to pass periodic examination or test or which loses on its tare weight by over 5 per cent or which for any other defect is found to be unsafe for use shall be destroyed by flattening it as a whole or after being cut into pieces in such a manner that the pieces cannot again be joined together by welding or otherwise to from a cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>History sheets or records of such cylinders shall be closed and kept on record for a period of one year. Reports of the details of such closed history cards or records shall be sent to the Chief Controllers, in writing, on the 1st of January, April, July and October every year. History sheets or records of such cylinders shall be closed and kept o record for a period of one year. </li></ul>
  66. 82. Important Additional Conditions of licenses <ul><li>Neutralize system of adequate capacity to be provided . </li></ul><ul><li>In case of tonner, a tank with lime solution equipped with additional suction hood and blowers to neutralize total failure chlorine tonner shall be provided </li></ul><ul><li>In case of bullet the capacity of neutralizer shall be adequate to neutralize the load from the safety valve in addition to the load from other parts of plant. </li></ul><ul><li>At least one BA set and 2 canister type gas masks in readily accessible position should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency kit to combat chlorine leakage should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia torches for detection of chlorine leak should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of closure / lock-up of premises, no stock should be retained </li></ul><ul><li>Weather cock at suitable location should be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Separate Additional conditions in GCR : (i) Platform level should be 2 feet above the ground level with ramp </li></ul><ul><li>Separate Additional conditions in GCR : (i) Roof should be of Asbestos </li></ul><ul><li>The gases shall be as dry as possible and in no instance shall the aqueous phase separate when a liquefied gas cooled to 0 deg. C. </li></ul><ul><li>The moisture shall be less than 0.02% g/ m3 of gas at N.T.P. </li></ul><ul><li>Cylinder subjected to the action of fire are not to be used. </li></ul>
  67. 83. Notice of accidents <ul><li>As per rule 67 of the Gas Cylinder Rules, 2004 the notice of an accident shall be given forthwith </li></ul><ul><li>To the Chief Controller or Controller under whose jurisdiction the area falls by Fax, E-mail or telegram (Telegraphic Address – Explosives, Nagpur, E-mail: [email_address] ) followed by a letter giving particulars of the occurrence within 24 hours; </li></ul><ul><li>District Magistrate concerned and </li></ul><ul><li>To the officer-in-charge of the Chief Controller or Controller or until instruction is received from the Chief Controller or Controller that he does not wish to make any further investigation or inquiry, all wreckage and debris shall be left untouched except insofar as its removal may be necessary for the rescue of the persons injured and recovery of the bodies of any persons killed by the accident or in the case of railway or road for the restoration of though communication or traffic. </li></ul>
  68. 84. Provisions under Factories Act 1984 <ul><li>Section 41 A: - Constitution of Site Appraisal Committee </li></ul><ul><li>(Preparation of On Site Action Plan, List of Hazardous Chemicals, Preparation of Safety Report & Updating of Safety Report, notification of Major accidents/ Incidents) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 41 B: - Compulsory disclosure of information </li></ul><ul><li>Section 41 E: - Permissible Exposure Limits to be communicated for toxic substances. </li></ul><ul><li>Section 41 H: - Right of worker to warn about imminent danger. </li></ul><ul><li>(Disclosure of information to public, DISH (Chief inspector of factories) </li></ul><ul><li>Section 41 F: - Permissible exposure is defined </li></ul><ul><li>Time weighted Average (TWA – 8 Hrs) </li></ul><ul><li>PPM : 1 </li></ul><ul><li>mg/ M3 : 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Short term Exposure limit (STEL – 15 Minute) </li></ul><ul><li>PPM : 3 </li></ul><ul><li>mg/M3 : 9 </li></ul>
  69. 85. Provisions under Manufacture, Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules – 1989 <ul><li>As per schedule 3, Rule 5 to 7 are applicable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold quantity : 10T/ 25 T </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approval and notification in schedule 7, three months before commencing the activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updation if any change in threshold quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule 14 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of onsite emergency plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Updating of offsite emergency plan </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(Also comes under factories Act 1984) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As per schedule 1 of Rule 2, Chlorine is a hazardous chemical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under Rule : 5 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Schedule 5 describes : Notification of major accident within 24 hours to chief inspector of factory (DISH) in format for notification –Sch 6 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule no 15 :- Information to be given to persons liable to be affected by a major accident </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule no 17 :- Maintaining MSDS as per Sch. 9 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold quantity is 10T for applicability of Rule 4 & 25 T for quantity of Rule 10 to 15. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 86. Provisions under Chemical Accidents (Emergency Planning, Preparedness and Response) Rules, 1996 <ul><li>Rule no 3 :- Constitution of Central Crisis Group </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 6 :- Constitution of State Crisis Group </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 8 :- Constitution of district & local crisis group </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 12 :- Aid & assistance for functioning of district crisis group. (Participation in Off site mock drills, rendering the services on demand from district administration) </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 13 :- Information to Public (provide information regarding possible chemical accident at a site.) </li></ul>
  71. 87. Provisions under Central Motor Vehicle Rules 1989 <ul><li>Rule no 82 to 90 :- Permit of Vehicles (Both Central & State) </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 129 :- Transport of Hazardous Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 130 :- Class Labels are to be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 133 to 136 :- Drivers’ training for carrying Hazardous goods </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 134 :- Display of Emergency Information Panel. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule no 137 :- Chorine comes under hazardous goods </li></ul><ul><li>No person shall tender or transport any leaky cylinder. </li></ul><ul><li>In case of leakage during transport. It will be removed to an isolated open space where there is min. loss of property and human being and contact the filler for necessary advice. </li></ul>
  72. 88. EMERGENCY HANDLING FROM POSSIBLE LEAKAGE POINTS OF TONNER Close the valve -      Provide O/L brass seal nut. -      Provide additional valve with Clamp. -      Use emergency kit Sr. No. Particular Problem Action 1 Gland leakage - Gland nut loose Tighten the gland nut with suitable spanner 2 Chlorine valve passing Pitting on the spindle seat - Pitting on valve seat -  3 Chlorine valve damage - Valve broken - Use emergency kit to control leakage 4 Leakage from tonner surface - Pin hole on the surface - Use emergency kit to control leakage 5 Leakage from blind plug - Thread damaged - Use emergency kit to control leakage 6 Leakage from O/L of the Cl2 Valve - Thread damaged - Pin hole in the outlet nozzle - Gasket not properly fitted - Dosing line leakage - Close valve - Rotate Tonner to 180 deg., Use 2 nd valve - Replace gasket   - Replace the dosing line
  73. 90. LIQUID CHLORINE SPILLAGE AND CONTROL <ul><li>Liquid chlorine spillage to be avoided by bringing the leaky portion on top so that only gas comes out which can be attended. Gas reduction by 20 times. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of the total spillage of liquid chlorine shall flash in to vapour immediately. A film of solid chlorine hydrate will be formed as top layer reducing rate of evaporation.Neutralise the evaporated chlorine in chlorine neutralizing system with the help of suction blower pipe lines. </li></ul><ul><li>CONTAINMENTS OF LIQUID CHLORINE LEAKAGES </li></ul><ul><li>1)Material and equipment, include plastic sheet to contain chlorine leakages should be readily available. </li></ul><ul><li>2) A supply of sand may be useful for containment of liquid chlorine spillages. </li></ul><ul><li>3) Provision of protinex foam can contain chlorine leakage to some extent. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Liquid chlorine spillages can be reduced by bringing leaky portion on top </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum incidences of chlorine leakage have been found from the joints of connections made with chlorine cylinder valve. This is mainly due to use of improper accessories, improper operating tools and faulty connections. If the connections are made proper tools are used. 90% of the problem is solved. </li></ul><ul><li>In other cases leakages from valve are most common type encountered in handling chlorine container. There are basically 4 types of valve leaks, these can be adequately controlled with use of emergency kits. </li></ul>
  74. 93. CHLORINE ABSORPTION SYSTEM <ul><li>There should be provision of chlorine neutralization system in case of emergency </li></ul><ul><li>breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Caustic soda, soda ash, lime slurry can be used for chlorine absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>The quantity of reagents available in the absorption system need to be adequate to </li></ul><ul><li>deal with foreseeable emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>For 900 kgs chlorine-caustic soda/soda ash/hydrated lime requirement is as under. </li></ul><ul><li>Cl2 Qty Caustic soda Water Soda Ash Water Lime Wt. Water </li></ul><ul><li>Kgs Wt. (Kgs) Vol. ltr Wt.(Kgs) Vol. ltr. Kgs Vol. Ltr </li></ul><ul><li>900 1160 3680 2770 9050 1160 11350 </li></ul><ul><li>Caustic soda is the most convenient reagent for the absorption of chlorine in waste </li></ul><ul><li>gases. the conc. Caustic soda should not exceed 20% NaOH conc. because of risk </li></ul><ul><li>of salt deposition causing the blockage in absorption system. </li></ul><ul><li>Various types of absorption are used for the chlorine absorption. Suitable types </li></ul><ul><li>are packed towers, vent injectors sparger absorbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The container itself should not be immersed in the tank. </li></ul>
  75. 94. FIRST AID FOR CHLORINE EXPOSURE <ul><li>GENERAL </li></ul><ul><li>There is no known specific antidote for acute chlorine exposure . </li></ul><ul><li>Prompt action is essential. Remove exposed person to uncontaminated area. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove contaminated clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Wash contaminated body parts with cool, running water. </li></ul><ul><li>Give nothing by mouth if person is unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Call a physician as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Firmness and assurance will help alleviate anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Milk, butter, lime juice may be given to mild cases. </li></ul><ul><li>For relief from throat irritation, cough mixtures and common tablets Like vox, Vicks tablets, halls can be given. </li></ul>
  76. 95. Cont… <ul><li>Begin artificial respiration immediately if person is unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>Trained personnel should administer oxygen by inhalation as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to a physician. </li></ul><ul><li>Flush eyes/skin immediately with copious amounts of tepid running water for 15 min. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not attempt chemical neutralization of any kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Humidify air. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen therapy should be considered in all individuals who continue to be </li></ul><ul><li>symptomatic after chlorine inhalation. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen level in blood should not be less than 92 %, checked by use of oximeter </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing is not harmful but a cough suppressant may be helpful for apersistent, non – productive and irritating cough. </li></ul>
  77. 96. LIQUID CHLORINE STORAGE <ul><li>STORAGE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid chlorine is generally stored in horizontal pressure vessels. These are installed as per the static and mobile vessel rules 2004 and this installation is approved through Dept. of explosive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanks are to be designed as per IS 2825 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MOC is low temperature carbon steel SA 516 grade 60/70 (-35 o C to 55 o C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valve of forged carbon steel & spindle of monel metal or SS 316 with bellow hastalloy C 276. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure Gauge with Haste alloy C diaphragm, Haste alloy C/ SS316 dip pipe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% stress relieved and X-rayed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 mm corrosion allowance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection by Lloyd & approved by CCE, Nagpur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design pressure 19.9 Kg/ cm2 at 65 o C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic test pressure 23.0 Kg/cm2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retesting after two years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average life 20-25 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bolts, nuts & studs of proper MOC strictly to be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><li> (Stud - A320 L7), (Nut – A194 grade-4) </li></ul>
  78. 97. SAFETY CONTROLS ON BULLETS <ul><li>Low and High level alarm, 20% low & 80% high & provision of load cells in individual tank. </li></ul><ul><li>High & low pressure alarm, 2.5 Kg/cm2 low and 11.5 Kg/cm2 </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature alarm –15 o C low and 30 o C high. </li></ul><ul><li>Double Rupture disc, 13.5 Kg/cm2 </li></ul><ul><li>Double Safety valve opens at 13.0 kg/cm2 & closes at 12.7 kg/cm2 </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm pressure for rupture disc puncture 1.0 kg/cm2 </li></ul><ul><li>Double valve of each line of international standards </li></ul><ul><li>Remote type valve in liquid chlorine line </li></ul><ul><li>One tank is always kept empty </li></ul><ul><li>Connection with emergency release line to neutralize the system </li></ul><ul><li>Cl2 detector in the storage area </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate distance between two storage tanks </li></ul><ul><li>Tanks locations at sufficient distances away from hazardous processes or storage with potential fire/explosion risk to minimize risk of damage </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of dyke wall, impervious flooring with 1:100 slope </li></ul>
  79. 98. Containment system in case of toxic release at tank area <ul><li>Transfer of liquid Cl2 to empty tank. Time for transfer – 2 hrs by dry air compression at 10.8 kg/cm2. Tank volume – 100 M3 </li></ul><ul><li>Foam is used to contain chlorine, expansion factor probably in range 75-250. </li></ul><ul><li>Chilled water below 10 o C can be used to control liquid Cl2 spillage. </li></ul><ul><li>Very cheap but effective cover for toxic liquefied gas pool is, large sheet of poly ethylene. Vapor evaporating from pool below cover can be withdrawn by large bore hose to a destruction system with on line connected vacuum hose. </li></ul><ul><li>Neutralization of chlorine with caustic soda (3 stage system) </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine gas sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyke wall is deeper rather than long for less liquid evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of substrate is impervious. </li></ul>
  80. 99. Contd… <ul><li>Preventing passage of liquid chlorine into drainage system. </li></ul><ul><li>Dyke wall kept dry during rain fall season. </li></ul><ul><li>Substrate or bottom surface of dyke is of low heat transfer material for less evaporation. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid percolation, a steep slope is provided leading to a sump with small pumps or airlifts. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of prevention free access of wind and airflows to pool area. </li></ul><ul><li>The storage tanks may be fitted inside a close room with emergency exhaust blower. Exhaust blower leads to neutralization system. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of high capacity blowers in storage and bottling area connected with neutralizing system in open storage. </li></ul>
  81. 100. MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>WET CHLORINE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LOW PRESSURE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1)Stone ware </li></ul><ul><li>2) Porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>3)hard rubber </li></ul><ul><li>4)Unplasticised PVC </li></ul><ul><li> 5) Glass fiber (FRP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH PRESSURE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1)Titanium </li></ul><ul><li>2)Tantalum inert up to 150 deg.c </li></ul><ul><li>3)Haste alloy ‘C’ </li></ul><ul><li>4)Monel metal ‘B’ </li></ul><ul><li>DRY CHLORINE GAS OR LIQUID </li></ul><ul><li>1) Seamless carbon steel </li></ul><ul><li>2) Corrosion allowance 1 mm </li></ul><ul><li>3) Service temp –35 to 65 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>4) Pressure- 19.9 kg/cm 2 </li></ul><ul><li>5) Tongue and groove flanges </li></ul><ul><li>6) Gaskets-CAF/Lead </li></ul><ul><li>7) Nut Bolts-Alloy Steel. </li></ul><ul><li>VALVES </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1) Drop forged steel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2) Monel spindle/haste alloy ‘c’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3) Cast steel seat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4) Teflon Gland packing. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  82. 101. <ul><li>Carbon Steel is suitable for try chlorine and can stand Temperature up to 120 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>The resistances to chlorine at higher increases with the nickel content. </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel Content less than 10% the upper temperature limited is 150 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel Content more than 10% can be used up to maximum temperature of 250 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>Monel is suitable up 350 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>Nickel, Inconel, Hastalloy C can work up to 400-500 0 C </li></ul><ul><li>Hastalloy C is also used when resistances to chlorine is required in the presences of a traces moisture </li></ul><ul><li>BOLTS AND NUTS </li></ul><ul><li>Bolt studs to ASTM specification A-320 Grade L7, with ally-steel. Hexagonal nuts to ASTM </li></ul><ul><li>specification A-194 Grade 4. </li></ul><ul><li>RUPTURE DISKS </li></ul><ul><li>Hastalloy and monel are widely used. </li></ul><ul><li>Tantalum, Platinum and silver have special applications </li></ul>
  83. 102. PIPING DESIGN/MAINTENANCE <ul><li>DESIGN: </li></ul><ul><li>Piping arrangements simple with min. flange joints/ screwed joints </li></ul><ul><li>Above ground layout </li></ul><ul><li>Well supported and adequately sloped </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion vessel in liqcl2(20% vol) </li></ul><ul><li>Min 20 mm pipe diameter to be utilized </li></ul><ul><li>Lines cleanly labeled and painted as per color code (yellow) </li></ul><ul><li>Linseed oil and graphite,linseed oil and white lead ,litharge and glycerin can be used for permanent joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Seamless schedule 80 pipeline upto 6 inches above that schedule 40 is acceptable </li></ul><ul><li>Regular NDT testing of chlorine pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity to be maintained 2 m/sec </li></ul><ul><li>100% stress relieving & radiography for liquid Cl2 service pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>MAINTENANCE: </li></ul><ul><li>All pipelines are to be cleaned. </li></ul><ul><li>No oil/grease/hydrocarbon/alcohol is to be used for cleaning </li></ul><ul><li>Cleaning can be done with trichlorethylene /carbontetrachloride </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine line can be washed, steam heated and dried before use </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine lines to be hydro tested before drying (Dry Air –400c Dew point) </li></ul><ul><li>After drying lines to be tested with </li></ul><ul><li>1)Dry Air-/nitrogen - check for leak with soap solution </li></ul><ul><li>3)Dry Air + chlorine - check leakage with Ammonia solution </li></ul><ul><li>4)chlorine - DO - </li></ul><ul><li>Never attempt to repair leak by welding until all chlorine has been purged. </li></ul><ul><li>The line to be retested after repair </li></ul><ul><li>Contact of Ammonia with Brass is to be avoided </li></ul><ul><li>All old & unused pipelines must be identified and removed. </li></ul>
  84. 103. REFERENCE FOR SAFE OPERATION OF CL2 <ul><li>INDIAN EXPLOSIVE ACT 1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Cylinder Rules 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>IS 8867 - Hydraulic Stretch Test – test pressure </li></ul><ul><li>IS 3710 - Values of saturated VP of different gases. (FILLING RATIO) </li></ul><ul><li>IS 3224 - Specifications of Industrial gas cylinders. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 5903 - Details of safety devices in cylinder valves fitted with safety devices. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 4379 - Identification colours for industrial gases. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 356 - (IS Standard Colour No. 356) Colour of gas Non-flammable but toxic. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 5844 - Hydrostatic stretch test – Procedure (welded cylinder) </li></ul><ul><li>IS 3196 - Specification of low pressure liquefiable gas service. </li></ul><ul><li>ASME - Specification of Cl2 tonners </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(SEC. VIII WITH LATEST AMENDMENT CHIMED ENDS SPECIFICATION NO. 179.300 OF CFR 49) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  85. 104. Contd… <ul><li>State & Mobile Vessel Rules 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>IS 2825 - Design code of pressure vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 4263-1967 - Code of safety for chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>IS 10553 - Withdrawal of Cl2 from tonn container. </li></ul><ul><li>PART:I, 1983 - (Requirements of chlorination equipments, general Guidelines for chlorination plant and safety of chlorine. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 2379-1963 - Colour code for identification for pipelines. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 10553 Part(2) – Vacuum feed type chlorination. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 10553 Part(4) – Gravity feed gaseous chlorination. </li></ul><ul><li>IS 646 - Chlorine purity. </li></ul><ul><li>USA Chlorine Institute pemphlates. </li></ul><ul><li>Eurochloro guidelines. </li></ul><ul><li>World Chlorine Council guidelines. </li></ul>
  86. 105. LEARNING AND SHARING INCIDENT REPORT <ul><li>1. Cases of Improper storage, unattended storage for long time etc. </li></ul><ul><li>I. Chlorine Off-site Emergency at Bhiwandi Municipal Corporation Sewage Treatment Plant, Kataigaon on 23rd & 24th July, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>II. Incident of Chlorine Leakage at Mumbai Port Trust (MBPT) on 14thJuly, 2010 </li></ul>
  87. 106. Incident of Chlorine Off-Site Emergency at Bhiwandi Municipal Corp on 23rd & 24th July 2010 <ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>On 23rd July 2009 in the Bhiwandi Nizampur Municipal Corp. Sewage Treatment Plant, One of the Chlorine Tonner leaked. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 5 Tonners lying in the shed with 2 Tonner valves in badly deteriorated condition. </li></ul><ul><li>The sewage Treatment Plant was not in operation since many years and the Tonners were not used and were lying unattended. </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Control </li></ul><ul><li>The Chlorine Emergency Kit was brought to site and the leaking Chlorine was diverted to lime solution. At around 19:00 hrs, the gasket of the Emergency Kit hood got dislocated and there was heavy Chlorine leakage to the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>The gasket was readjusted and the outlet pipe tubing was connected to 25 Mtrs. long PVC pipe, the other end of which was dipped in a nearby pond. </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine Emergency Kit’s hood valve was opened and Chlorine was left off in the pond. Soda lime was added at frequent intervals to this pond. The tonner was emptied by 15.00 hrs on 24.07.09 </li></ul><ul><li>The other 4 Chlorine Tonner was shifted to an isolated place near M/s Arhasn AnmolProjects Pvt. Ltd., Nasik Mumbai bypass road, Valshind Village. Dilute Caustic tanker was brought and the neutralization was started using Chlorine Emergency kit. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Learnt </li></ul><ul><li>Tonner not in use. Should not be left unattended </li></ul>
  88. 107. Incident of Chlorine Leakage at Mumbai Port Trust (MBPT) on 14th July, 2010 <ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>104 Chlorine Tonners were imported in 1997 by some importers for refilling & export purpose. But the importers did not take delivery of these tonners and were lying idle in the open yard outside the Mumbai Port Trust (MBPT) office. </li></ul><ul><li>On 14th July 2010, at about 03:15 A.M. One of the chlorine tonner leaked from it’s body near the valve and the chlorine gas escaped to the atmosphere affecting students, MBPT office and local residents. In all 118 persons were affected by inhaling chlorine gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Control & Rescue Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Rescue team from Fire Brigade (BPT), National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), Police, Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and Experts from Century Rayon, SI Group & RCF reached the incident site at about 01:00 P.M. </li></ul><ul><li>The Team segregated the filled & unfilled tonners. Four Tonner were for found filled with 900 kgs chlorine and Some were found to contain about 30-50 Kgs chlorine. </li></ul><ul><li>Three filled tonners were neutralized with caustic soda solution with in 36 hrs </li></ul><ul><li>One filled tonner (900 Kgs) and one partially filled (about 50 kgs) tonner could not be neutralized at site due to choking of both the valves of these tonners. </li></ul><ul><li>The remaining partially filled tonners were neutralized by the MBPT staff. </li></ul>
  89. 108. <ul><li>Root Cause of the Incident </li></ul><ul><li>The above 104 tonners were lying in the open yard since 1997. The tonners were supposed to be empty but actually 4 tonners were found fully filled & few other tonners were partially filled (about 30-50 Kgs). Due to long storage, the tonner valves & body got corroded resulting leakage from one of the Tonners’body . </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Learnt from the Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorine Tonners should not be stored in open yard for long time. </li></ul>
  90. 109. <ul><li>2. Incident during Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>I. Incident of Hydrochloric Acid Leakage due to damage of the HCL Tanker Valve on 4th August, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Incident of Chlorine Gas Leakage from Tonner during Transportation at Village Chhattar on Rajkot-Morbi Highway (Gujarat) on 5th September 2010 </li></ul>
  91. 110. Incident of Hydrochloric Acid Leakage due to damage of the HCL Tanker Valve <ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>On 4th August, 2010 at about 09:20 Hrs in the morning heavy leakage of HCL from a Tanker at Ulhasnagar Octroi Naka near the Temple at Shahad, Mumbai were reported. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tanker No. MH05 2851 filled with 35% HCL was coming from M/s. Meridian Chemicals, Anklershwar, Gujarat and was going to Turbe, Mumbai. </li></ul><ul><li>The tanker was hit by a Dumper from behind and its’ valve came out and HCL started leaking heavily from the damaged valve causing heavy emission of HCL fumes. </li></ul><ul><li>This created panic in the vicinity and caused traffic jam. </li></ul><ul><li>Control of Incident </li></ul><ul><li>A Team from M/s Century Rayon reached the incident site immediately and guided the tanker to an isolated place near M/s I.D.I. Company, which is closed and has no population in the vicinity. </li></ul><ul><li>The HCL, which was spilling on the road was flushed with water & neutralized with Lime. </li></ul><ul><li>The tanker was emptied & the spilled Hcl was neutralized by 11.00 Hrs. The situation was brought under control by the team. Police & Fire Brigade personnel rendered their help. </li></ul>
  92. 111. <ul><li>Root Cause of the Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Tanker valve was of PVC and was protruding outside the trucks frame. It was without protection guard and therefore got easily broken with the impact of the Dumper. Since there was only one valve and as it got damaged, the acid started coming out of the Tanker. Since HCL evaporates easily, the fumes from the spilled HCL spread to the locality. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Learned from the Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber lined MS valves will have better strength a PVC valves </li></ul><ul><li>As far as possible the Tanker valves should not be projected out of the Truck Frame. </li></ul><ul><li>A protection guard to protect the valve may from external impact maybe provided </li></ul><ul><li>Driver should be trained to place the truck at an isolated place away from the populated locality. </li></ul>
  93. 112. Incident of Chlorine Gas Leakage from Tonner during Transportation On 5th September 2010 at Village Chhattar on Rajkot-Morbi Highway (Gujarat) <ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>A truck (GJ15Z1981) carrying 19 filled Chlorine tonners was on way to one of the consumer in Gandhidham (Gujarat), got toppled down on the side line of main highway road in the early hrs at about 12:15 a.m. of 5th September, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to sudden hitting impact of tonners, one side of the truck broke down and 11 tonners slipped out of the truck, on the muddy surface. </li></ul><ul><li>One tonner (No. 0892 tested on Oct.2009) valve got damaged and Chlorine leakage started. Approx. 59 minor affected people were taken to near by hospital and discharged after First Aid. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential Root Cause: </li></ul><ul><li>All of sudden one unknown four wheeler comes in front of truck from wrong side and driver lost his control in view of avoiding head on collision. </li></ul>
  94. 113. <ul><li>Control & Rescue Operation </li></ul><ul><li>On receipt of information at midnight, emergency control team from the supplier’s factory along with marketing person rushed to the incident site. Mean while two rescue teams from Rajkot and Morbi fire brigade also rushed to the site and undertook the rescue operations. Consumer Rescue Team also reached to the incident site for taking control of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaky cylinder was brought back to the supplier premises after fixing valve hood over leaky valve. </li></ul><ul><li>Remaining 18 cylinders were sent to the consumer site after thorough checking and ensuring that they are fit for transportation and use. </li></ul>
  95. 114. <ul><li>Lesson Learnt from the Incident </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling and more vigorous refresher trainings to be organized for chlorine truck drivers so that they should be more vigilant during driving on main high ways. </li></ul><ul><li>A GPS tracking device shall be installed on trucks to determine the precise location of a vehicle and to record the position of the vehicle at regular intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of strong belts with tension adjusting device shall be made compulsory in place of conventional ropes. </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks shall have the large space on the sides so that in case of any leakage in the tonners during transportation can be attended on truck itself. </li></ul><ul><li>A System to verify the suitability of the trucks for transportation of Chlorine tonners shall have to be devised and followed. </li></ul>
  96. 115. 3. Incident due to storage of incompatible material <ul><li>I. Tank Failure at Chlor-Alkali Division, on June 7, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>II. Incident of Hydrochloric Acid Leakage due to product spillage on31st July, 2010. </li></ul>
  97. 116. Tank Failure in one Chlor-Alkali Plant, On June 7, 2010 In Thailand <ul><li>Incident: </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium Hypo Chlorite tank of 100 Cubic meter capacity ( 3.8 M dia and 8.85 M height ) made in FRP lined with PVC construction fell down leading to the spill of 10 % Hypo Chlorite solution which could be contained within the dyke wall of the tank. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of Hypo tank broke the near by Hydrochloric acid storage tank line and HCl leaked and mixed with sodium Hypo contained in the Dyke Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction of Hydrochloric Acid with Sodium Hypochlorite resulted in liberation of Chlorine gas which crossed over to the nearby factories and community up to a distance of 1.5 KM in the wind direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Total 299 people including 10 from the plant premises and rest from outside were affected by Chlorine exposure. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of 299 affected person, 89 affected persons were admitted to the hospital, mostly for observation and rest were released after primary check up. </li></ul>
  98. 117. <ul><li>Root Cause: </li></ul><ul><li>Inner 4 mm PVC inner corrosion protection liner of FRP tank was found cracked around manhole inside neck weld joint resulting in Sodium Hypo Chlorite to leak through FRP layer weakening the tank at bottom portion which caused tank to collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>This was a premature failure as tank was commissioned only in 2007 when old tank was replaced after 10 years of service. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking of Hydro Chloric Acid pipe line attached with nearby Hydrochloric Acid Tank caused mixing of these two chemicals which are not compatible and Chlorine gas was liberated </li></ul>
  99. 118. Incident of Hydrochloric Acid Leakage due to product spillage <ul><li>Incident </li></ul><ul><li>In the early morning of 31st July 2010 at about 05:00 A.M. gas leak was reported from the storage tank of A S Chemo Pharma in Mharal village, near Kalyan, Maharashtra. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Residents complained of throat and eye irritation and also experienced nausea. Many fled from the area to escape from the strong fumes of hydrochloric acid (HCL) and from the fear of getting affected from the same,”. </li></ul><ul><li>A S Chemo Pharma is a chemical company which uses sulphonic acid & Toluene as raw material, to make Para & Ortho Sulphonic Chloride, Sulphuricacid and HCL. These products were transferred to the hold up tank, which started leaking as a hole developed at its bottom. </li></ul><ul><li>The products Sulphuric acid and Para & Ortho Sulphonic Chloride spilled on the floor & HCL fumes started emitting from the spill which spread into the atmosphere as dense white fumes causing panic in Mharal village </li></ul><ul><li>The team from M/s Century Rayon as a member of the KAMA MARG, attended the above incident after getting the information at around 08:30 A.M. The spill was neutralized with lime and mud was spread over the spilled product and the emergency was controlled by 09: A.M. </li></ul>
  100. 119. <ul><li>Root Cause of the incident </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatible products were stored side by side. Perhaps these product storage tanks had not been isolated properly with Dyke Walls to avoid mixing, if there is any spillage. The spilled products are reacting with each other and forms HCL which evaporates to the atmosphere easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Lesson Learned from the incident </li></ul><ul><li>Incompatible product to be stored separately </li></ul><ul><li>Proper Dyke Walls to be provide for the storage tank </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of material / material of construction of the storage tanks should be proper. </li></ul><ul><li>Under take schedule periodically inspection of the storage tank. </li></ul>
  101. 120. CONCLUSION <ul><li>BREADTH AND DEPTH OF DEFENCE FOR CHLORINE SAFETY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PREDICTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PREVENTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DETECTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUDITNG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVEMENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REFRESHER TRAINING TO OPERATING PERSONNEL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>THINKING GLOBALLY AND WORKING LOCALLY </li></ul></ul>