Managers believe they are success in doing group decision making , goal setting, problem solving. Dynamics of group decision making. More than consensus, take decision by authority. Minority rule or by majority rule.
Decision by lack of response: also called plop method. Some one suggest an idea and without any deliberations it is rejected. Decision by Authority rule: leader will make the ultimate decision. This method produce minimum involvement of the group. Leader must be very proficient. Decision by minority rule: a single person can enforce the decision. Two or more members come to a quick and powerful agreement and implement it through chairman or powerful members of the group.
Decision by majority rule: if majority of participants feels the same way, then that decision is the best. Difficult to implement this decision. 2 kinds of psychological barriers. Minority feels that voting results in two camps and their camp has lost. Insufficient discussion or their point of view were not understood properly.
More complete information and knowledge. Increased diversity of views. Increased acceptance of a solution. Increased legitimacy.
Time consuming. Pressures to conform and fit in. Domination by the few. Disagreements may delay decisions and cause hard feelings.
Good technique for generating alternatives. Generates as many ideas as possible. It is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives. No criticism is allowed. Think the unusual
Problems: Production blocking Evaluation apprehension
Restricts discussion or the interpersonal communication during decision making. Members operate independently.Steps in Nominal group technique. Each member independently writes down his or her ideas on the problem. Each member presents one idea to the group. Group discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them. Ranks the ideas. Final decision is based on highest rank.
Itis good when members fear criticism from others. Permits the group to meet formally but not restrict in independent thinking.
Time consuming. Similar to nominal group technique.Steps in delphi technique. Problem is identified and members are asked to provide solutions through questionnaires. Each member anonymously and independently completes the first questionnaire.
Resultsare compiled at a central location, transcribed and produced. Each member receives a copy of the results. Members are again asked for the solutions. Steps are repeated until a consensus is reached.
The Delphi technique is valuable in its ability to generate a number of independent judgements without the requirement of a face-to-face meeting. used for decision making among geographically scattered groups. The cost of bringing experts together at a central location is avoided.
Time consuming. Not applicable where a speedy decision is necessary. May not develop the rich array of alternatives as the interacting of nominal group technique does.
Blends the nominal group technique with sophiscated computer technology. Participants type their responses on the computer screen. Advantages: Participants can anonymously type any message they want and it flashes on the screen. It allows people to be brutally honest without penalty. It is fast because discussions dont go off the point and many participants can "talk“ at once.
Disadvantages: Those who can type fast can outshine those who are verbally eloquent but poor typists; Those with the best ideas dont get credit for them. The process lacks the information richness of face-to-face oral communication.
Beforechoosing a group decision making technique, the manager carefully evaluates the group members and decision situation. Then the best method for accomplishing the objectives of the group decision making process can be selected.