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Waste disposal
 

Waste disposal

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Solid waste disposal methods and excreta disposal methods.

Solid waste disposal methods and excreta disposal methods.

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  • madiha plz dont call any one except allah, this is kofr in our rellegion
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  • Wow! may God Bless you

    The slide show is really loaded with different terms, which are very simple to understand.

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    Waste disposal Waste disposal Presentation Transcript

    • Just pay attention to the lecture. The slides can be downloaded from http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SOLID WASTE
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Some terms we need to know
      REFUSE:
      Solid or semisolid waste matter produced in the normal course of human activities. Generated from street sweepings, markets, stable litter, industrial refuse, commercial refuse, etc.
      RUBBISH:
      Solid wastes originating in houses, commercial establishments, industries, excluding garbage and ash.
      GARBAGE:
      Animal & vegetable wastes resulting from the handling, storage, sale, preparation, cooking and serving of food.
      ASH:
      Residue from burning of wood, coal, charcoal and other combustible materials used for cooking and heating purposes in houses, industries etc.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Sources of solid wastes
      Street refuse
      Market refuse
      Stable litter
      Industrial refuse
      Domestic refuse
      In most of the countries the per capita daily solid waste produced is between 0.25 to 2.5 Kg
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Galvanized steel dust bin with cover (for households) – 0.05 to 0.1 cubic feet per capita per day.
      A bin with capacity of 1.5 cubic feet for a family of 5 members if collection is done every 3 days.
      Public bins.
      Storage of solid wastes
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • House-to-house collection
      Mechanical transport
      Dustless refuse collector
      Collection of solid wastes
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Methods of solid waste disposal
      INSANITARY METHODS
      Hog feeding
      Dumping
      SANITARY METHODS
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Methods of solid waste disposal
      SANITARY METHODS
      Sanitary landfill/ Controlled tipping
      Composting
      Incineration
      Manure pits
      Burial
      Biogas plant
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • INSANITARY METHODS
      Hog feeding
      Dumping
      Refuse dumped in low lying areas
      Bacterial action over time, decreases volume of refuse which is gradually converted into humus
      Disadvantages
      Smell
      Unsightly appearance
      Free access to flies, rodents, hogs, dogs etc.
      Dispersal by wind
      Pollution of surface and ground water
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Dumping
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      1. Sanitary landfill / Controlled tipping
      Laying of dry and condensed refuse in a trench or other prepared area with intervening earth coverings.
      Anaerobic digestion of the refuse takes place. The process takes 4-6 months to complete.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 4-12 meter
      2-3 meter
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Trench method
      Level ground
      Trenches 4-12 m wide, 2-3 m deep
      Refuse is compacted and then covered with excavated earth
      Ramp method
      Sloping terrain
      Area method
      Land depressions, disused quarries, pits
      May need soil from outside sources to cover the compacted refuse
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      2. Composting
      Method of combined disposal of refuse and nightsoil or sludge.
      Organic matter breaks down under bacterial action, producing “compost” – used as manure.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Three methods of composting
      BANGALORE METHOD
      MECHANICAL COMPOSTING
      VERMI-COMPOSTING
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Bangalore method
      • Anaerobic composting; also called “Hot fermentation process”
      • IISc, Bangalore – Indian Council of Agriculture Research
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 800 metre
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 4.5 – 10 m
      1.5 – 2.5 m
      90 cm
      A Trench excavated for composting
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Earth
      25 cm
      REFUSE
      5 cm
      NIGHTSOIL
      15 cm
      REFUSE
      NIGHTSOIL
      5 cm
      NIGHTSOIL
      15 cm
      REFUSE
      4-6 months
      Humus
      Anaerobic decomposition
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Mechanical composting
      Refuse
      Screening
      Pulverizing equipment
      Pulverized refuse + Sewage/Sludge/Nightsoil
      Incubation
      (Temperature, pH, Aeration, Moisture controlled)
      4-6 weeks
      Complete composting
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Vermicomposting
      • A method of garbage disposal
      Garbage
      Earthworms
      2-3 months
      Compost
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      3. Incineration
      Suitable for areas where land is not available for sanitary landfill
      Example: Hospitals
      Disadvantages:
      Expensive
      No useful by-product
      Air pollution
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      4. Manure pits
      Used in rural households
      Covered with earth after each days dumping
      Two pits
      Within 5-6 months decomposed refuse which is used as fertilizer
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      5. Burial
      Suitable for small settlements/camps
      Decomposed matter may be ready for use as manure within 4-6 months
      1.5 m
      40 cm
      1 m
      200 persons
      1 week
      2 m
      20-30 cm
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS
      6. Biogas plant
      Biogas is produced by the anaerobic breakdown of solid waste /excreta.
      Biogas (Methane, CO2, Hydrogen) can be used as a fuel for any heating purpose, such as cooking.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • EXCRETA
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Spread of disease from excreta
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Sanitation barrier
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Methods of excreta disposal
      INSANITARY METHODS
      Open defecation
      Conservancy system/Cartage
      SANITARY METHODS
      WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Methods of excreta disposal
      SANITARY METHODS
      1. Pit latrine
      2. Pour flush/Water seal latrine
      a. Simple pit latrine
      b. VIP latrine
      c. ROEC
      3. Composting latrine
      Direct (Shelter over pit) & Indirect (Offset pit)
      Single pit & Double pit
      PRAI & RCA latrine
      4. Aquaprivy
      5. Septic Tank
      6. SulabhShauchalya
      7. Chemical closet
      8. Biogas plant
      Trench latrine
      Shallow trench latrines
      Deep trench latrine
      Bore hole latrine
      9. Latrines suitable for camps and temporary use
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • INSANITARY METHODS OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 1. Open defecation
      2. Cartage (Conservancy system)
      • Example: Bucket latrine
      • Disadvantages:
      • Smell
      • Flies
      • Health risk to people handling the excreta
      • Health risk from food crops fertilized with raw excreta
      Bucket latrine
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SANITARY METHODS OF EXCRETA DISPOSAL
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 1a. Simple pit latrine
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Location of a pit latrine
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Advantages:
      Easy and cheap to construct
      Slab and shelter can be reused
      Excreta are isolated
      Disadvantages:
      Unpleasant odors
      Flies
      Advantages & Disadvantages
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 1b. VIP latrine & 1c. ROEC
      Ventilated Improved pit latrine
      Reed Odorless Earth Closet
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 0.5 m
      Semi dark
      Shelter
      Ventilated Improved Pit Latrine
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Windshear effect drawing air up the vent pipe
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 2. Pour Flush/Water-seal Latrine
      Pour flush latrines use a pit for excreta disposal and have a special pan provided with a “water-seal” of 20-30 mm.
      They need 1-3 liters of water for flushing each time they are used.
      Advantages:
      No fly or smell problems
      Easy maintenance
      Disadvantages:
      Water is needed for their operation
      More expensive than pit latrines
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Water seal latrine
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • The Water Seal
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 2a. Direct & Indirect WS Latrine
      Direct
      Indirect
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Double pit WS Latrine
      2b. Single & Double pit WSL
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 2c. PRAI & RCA Latrine
      PRAI Latrine was developed by the Planning, Research & Action Institute, Lucknow
      RCA latrine was developed by the Research Cum Action project of the Ministry of Health
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • The RCA Latrine
      Location
      Squatting plate
      Pan
      Trap
      Connecting pipe
      The pit
      Superstructure
      Maintenance
      Modifications
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Location
      • Depends on porosity of soil and ground water level
      • Usually, at least 15 m away from water source
      Squatting plate
      • Made of impervious material (cement concrete)
      • 3’x3’x2”
      • Raised footsteps
      Pan
      • Receives nightsoil, urine and water
      Trap
      • A bent pipe connected to the pan
      • Holds water and serves as a water seal (2 cm depth)
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Connecting pipe
      The pit
      Maintenance
      • Needed when pit is sited away from squatting plate
      • Not needed in Direct type RCA Latrine
      • 3.5” diameter with a bend at the end
      • Covered, rectangular/circular
      • 75 cm diameter, 3-3.5 m deep
      • Underneath squatting plate(Direct) or offset (Indirect)
      • Regular cleaning of the squatting plate
      • Flushing with 1-2 lts of water after every use
      Superstructure
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Modifications
      • Using prefabricated squatting plate/pan made of china clay
      • Using a septic tank instead of the pit
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 3. Composting Latrine
      Composting latrines are shallow vaults, into which excreta, kitchen waste and similar wastes are added.
      The waste & excreta breakdown together to produce compost – fertilizer.
      Two shallow vaults are usually provided - when one is full it is covered with soil and left for at least two years – compost.
      The vaults must not receive water
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Advantages:
      Does not need to be moved and new vaults do not have to be dug.
      Produces compost used as a fertilizer
      Disposes kitchen waste as well
      Disadvantages:
      More expensive and more difficult to build than VIP or WS latrine
      Advantages & Disadvantages
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 4. Aquaprivy
      The aquaprivy is a water tight tank filled with water into which excreta fall via a drop pipe, connected to a seepage pit (soakaway) to dispose of sullage and effluent.
      Drop pipe must reach below surface of the water.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • The AQUAPRIVY
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Advantages:
      Cannot be blocked with bulky anal cleaning material
      Nil problem with odor or flies
      Can be connected to a sewerage system at a later date
      Disadvantages:
      Expensive to build
      Need large volumes of water to work
      Water seal may be hard to maintain
      Tanks must be emptied about every 3 years
      Advantages & Disadvantages
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 5. Septic Tank
      Septic tanks are watertight chambers (single, double or multi chambered) which receive excreta and wastewater.
      They are connected to a soakaway which receives liquid overflowing from the tank.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Solids (“sludge”) settle down and are purified by anaerobic digestion.
      The liquids (“effluent”) undergoes aerobic oxidation in the upper layers of the soil, outside the septic tank proper.
      Working of Septic Tank
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Advantages:
      Isolation and treatment of excreta
      No odor or fly problems
      May be connected to sewerage system at a later date
      Disadvantages:
      High cost of construction
      Need for periodic mechanical emptying
      Need for large volumes of flushing water
      Only suitable where flush toilets are used
      Advantages & Disadvantages
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 6. SulabhShauchalaya
      A low cost, water seal type of latrine connected to a 3’x3’x3’ pit. It is a modified handflush latrine with a specially designed pan and trap – needs very little water for flushing.
      Sulabh International, an NGO, maintains Sulabh Community Latrines – ‘pay-and-use system – in many parts of India.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 7. Chemical closet
      It consists of a metal tank containing a disinfectant fluid (Formaldehyde). A seat with cover is placed directly over the tank.
      Water should not be thrown into the tank.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 8. Biogas Plant
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 9ai. Shallow Trench latrine
      Poles to attach screening
      Security screening
      Trench depth approx. 1.5 m
      Access path
      Handwashing facility
      Dug soil (for back filling)
      Superstructure
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 5 m
      4 m
      Approx. 300mm
      1.5 m
      Plan View
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 9aii. Deep Trench latrine
      Superstructure
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 9b. Bore Hole Latrine
      Introduced in India by Rockefeller Foundation in 1930’s as a component of hookworm control programme.
      Consists of a circular hole dug by an equipment called “auger”.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • 20 feet
      16 inches
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Just pay attention to the lecture. The slides can be downloaded from http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • WATER CARRIAGE SYSTEM
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • The Water Carriage System or Sewerage System implies collecting and transporting of human excreta and wastewater from residential, commercial and industrial areas, by a network of underground pipes called “SEWERS” to the place of ultimate disposal.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Elements of a Water Carriage System
      • Household sanitary Fittings
      House drain
      Public Sewer
      Sewer Appurtenances
      Manholes
      For inspection, repairs and cleaning
      Traps
      To prevent foul gases entering the houses.
      Water Closet
      • Indian Squatting type
      • Western Commode type
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SEWAGE
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • “SEWAGE” is wastewater from a community containing solid and liquid excreta
      “SULLAGE” is wastewater which does not contain human excreta
      “DRY WEATHER FLOW” is the average amount of sewage that flows through the sewerage system in 24 hours
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Strength of Sewage
      BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
      COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)
      Suspended Solids
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • BOD
      Amount of oxygen absorbed by a sample of sewage during a period of 5 days at 20°C.
      BOD≥ 300 mg/L – Strong Sewage
      BOD< 100 mg/L – Weak Sewage
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • COD
      The amount of oxygen (in mg) required for the complete chemical oxidation of organic and inorganic material in 1 litre of an effluent
      The result of a chemical oxygen demand test indicates the amount of water-dissolved oxygen consumed by the contaminants, during two hours of decomposition from a solution of boiling potassium dichromate.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SUSPENDED SOLIDS
      <100 mg/L – Weak Sewage
      >500 mg/L – Strong Sewage
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • MODERN SEWAGE TREATMENT
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SLUDGE DIGESTER
      Or
      Compost etc.
      SLUDGE
      GRIT REMOVAL
      SCREENING
      PRIMARY SEDIMENTATION
      REMOVAL OF BULKY SOLIDS
      REMOVAL OF DENSE SOLIDS
      SEDIMENTATION OF SUSPENDED MATTER
      Basic Treatment … Primary stage
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • AEROBIC OXIDATION
      ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
      TRICKLING FILTERS
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SECONDARY SEDIMENTATION TANK
      AEROBIC OXIDATION
      ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • SLUDGE DIGESTER
      Or
      Compost etc.
      EFFLUENT
      To Disposal by:
      • Dilution
      • To Land for Irrigation
      SLUDGE
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • OTHER METHODS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Sea outfall
      River outfall
      Sewage Farming/Broad Irrigation
      Waste Stabilization Pond/Oxidation Pond
      Oxidation ditches
      Aerated Lagoons
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Sewage farming/Broad Irrigation
      Sewage is applied to land after screening, grit removal and a short period of settlement.
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Waste Stabilization Pond / Oxidation Pond
      Other names: Redox pond, Sewage lagoon
      Open shallow pond, 1-1.5m deep, with an inlet and an outlet
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Oxygen
      Algae
      CO2
      O2
      Aerobic
      Bacteria
      Bacteria
      Solids Settled
      Anaerobic
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal
    • Thank You
      http://www.slideshare.net/haqinaam/waste-disposal