JAD Workshops

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Joint Application Design (JAD) was developed by IBM in the late 1970s. It is a requirements determination method that brings together business and IT professionals in a structured workshop to determine and discuss system requirements

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  • JAD Workshops

    1. 1. Gather data to identify business requirements JAD Workshops
    2. 2. JAD Workshops <ul><li>There are two main types of workshops that we are interested in as information gatherers: Joint Application Design (JAD) - or Joint Requirements Planning (JRP) - and Brainstorming . </li></ul>
    3. 3. JAD <ul><li>Joint Application Design (JAD) was developed by IBM in the late 1970s. </li></ul><ul><li>method that brings together business and IT professionals in a structured workshop to determine and discuss system requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits received from adding JAD to currently used information gathering tools include savings on time and resources, and systems requirements written through cooperation of future users and IT development teams. </li></ul><ul><li>(what are some of the methods looked at last week) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Systems development process <ul><li>The systems requirements identification stage is one of the most important integral parts of the process, that can &quot;make or break&quot; the project. Results of reviewing industry statistics are there to prove it: &quot;60% to 80% of errors originate in the user requirements and functional specification&quot; stage. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Traditional requirements elicitation techniques <ul><li>The most common techniques of requirement elicitation are interviews and questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>These techniques allow IT professionals to get feedback on the processes of the organisation as they are now, and get a sense of what is lacking in the current system. </li></ul>
    6. 6. The following disadvantages are evident: <ul><li>It is hard to set convenient time for interviews with all the people able to provide insight into the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually many follow-ups are necessary for clarification, making the process more expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Not as many people from various parts of the company are interviewed, because of cost, so there exists high possibility for bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Even with structuring interview questions, analysts have to do a lot of guesswork when choosing aspects most beneficial for business needs of the organisation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Questionaires- Cheaper option <ul><li>A cheaper way to get feedback from users is a questionnaire. Questionnaires can reach a large number of users in a short period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>They are easier to analyse than interviews, because they consist of multiple-choice and true and false questions created with an interpretation system in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not as time consuming as interviews are. </li></ul>
    8. 8. questionnaires disadvantages: <ul><li>It is hard to create questionnaires that will give all possible answer options customer wants to give </li></ul><ul><li>There is always a high risk of question ambiguity. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to emotional feedback is impossible, unless follow-up interviews are scheduled, subsequently adding to the cost. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Therefore, these traditional information-gathering techniques need a counterpart or a substitute that will eliminate, at least in part, problems plaguing the analysis process. Joint Application Design (JAD) is a great addition to the usual requirement determination processes. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Joint Application Design (JAD) <ul><li>The old saying - &quot;Two heads are better than one&quot;- gives a great basis for understanding on importance of group work. Teamwork makes one modern technique of systems requirement identification very successful . </li></ul>
    11. 11. Joint Application Design (JAD) <ul><li>JAD brings team approach into play gathering users from various departments and IT specialists together in 3-to-1 ratio for a structured work session </li></ul><ul><li>It allows users to share their opinions on the current system, and gives a chance through shared purpose to come to a consensus on what needs to be changed </li></ul>
    12. 12. Joint Application Design (JAD) is a technique ensuring that <ul><li>requirements that are received in outcome are approved by all participants, and not only by decision of system analysts collecting the requirements </li></ul><ul><li>JAD systematizes the systems requirement process, solving project managers dilemma of uniting disciplined approach to systems analysis with flexible user coordination </li></ul>
    13. 13. JAD Workshops <ul><li>Usually JAD workshops last for 3-5 days with several sessions, and require several key participants to be present : </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Sponsor - owner of the systems that is being discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Members of IT team that will be working on the project, mainly systems analysts, but possibly programmers, database administrators, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Business Users - people who have expertise of business operations. Users should be represented in two types: employees that will use the system in their day-to-day operations, and employees who are &quot;responsible for standards and methodology for business functions they represent </li></ul>
    14. 14. JAD Workshops continued <ul><li>During JAD session users contribute their views on current processes and on what will have to be changed. </li></ul><ul><li>All the information received during the discussion is recorded by a scribe. </li></ul><ul><li>And finally, a facilitator - a person who runs the machine of requirement gathering process. It is facilitator's goal to direct and sustain discussion, make sure that goals of the session are achieved. &quot;Good facilitators listen, recognize issues as they arise, and provide leadership and direction to help people come together&quot; </li></ul>
    15. 15. Pre JAD Workshop preparation
    16. 16. 1-3 weeks before workshop executive team must identify : <ul><li>Project and its objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of workshop and its deliverables </li></ul><ul><li>Participants that will be most beneficial to the project </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative agenda of JAD sessions, and choose place, time, tools to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Without good preparation, without clear plan of action workshop can become a disorganised waste of resources. </li></ul>
    17. 17. Reasons why JAD is effective in the requirement identification process: <ul><li>JAD decreases time and costs associated with requirements elicitation process . </li></ul><ul><li>During 2-4 weeks information not only is collected, but requirements, agreed upon by various system users, are identified. </li></ul><ul><li>JAD sessions help bring experts together giving them a chance to share their views, understand views of others, and develop the sense of project ownership </li></ul>
    18. 18. Reasons why JAD is effective in the requirement identification process: <ul><li>The techniques of JAD implementation are well known, as it is &quot;the first accelerated design technique available on the market and probably best known&quot; and can easily be applied by any organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>Easy integration of CASE tools into JAD workshops improves session productivity and provides systems analysts with discussed and ready to use models. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Disadvantages of JAD <ul><li>Systems analysts always have to keep in mind that none of techniques they use are a full-proof way to acquire the information, neither is JAD. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Quality system requirements provide a foundation for success of any project. <ul><li>Good requirements should be verifiable and attainable, and to achieve this is impossible without user input </li></ul><ul><li>However, to use a cliché - &quot;Time is money&quot;, therefore JAD as a rapid information-gathering technique, should be learned and used by systems analysis teams. </li></ul><ul><li>JAD sessions offer organisations ability to get detailed information in a short period of time, which means it saves money and resources that could be used elsewhere. </li></ul>

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