Leaders – Start to Finish A Road Map For Developing and Training Leaders at All Levels AUTHOR: Anne Bruce PUBLISHER: American Society for Training and Development DATE OF PUBLICATION: 2001 NUMBER OF PAGES: 229 pages Book pic
THE BIG IDEA Nowadays, leadership is not limited to the level of the senior managers. At every level in the career ladder, employees are expected to work towards this particular goal - of becoming a leader in the future. In order to properly do this, it is important to identify certain things with regard to the employees and the organization as a whole. There is no hard and fast training program to create and mold future leaders. Each organization and each employee has their own individual requirements. Development programs must be tweaked to tailor to the differing needs.
THE BIG IDEA Whether an organization has an existing development program or is planning to develop a new one from scratch, these basic building blocks will serve as tools in order to come up with an effective curriculum.
Chapter 1: Authentic Leadership Without authenticity, a person will simply go through the motions of becoming a good leader but will lack the substance needed in order to really develop into a significant leader figure. Authenticity is that which gives peace of mind, ensuring a person that something is indeed the real thing. An authentic leader is someone who is genuine and honest - not only with his subordinates but also with himself. This type of leader exudes self-respect and self-esteem, and does not compromise his principles. It must be understood that authentic leadership is not what the individual does, but what he or she is made of.
An authentic leader is also one who has and continually develops self-mastery, by acknowledging his or her emotions and intuition or gut feel, by showing his or her human side, and by never asking others to do what they themselves would not do. Chapter 1: Authentic Leadership
Chapter 2: Taking Stock in the Human Side of Leadership Business is not just about making a profit. Taking care of your people is one of the most important aspects in successfully running any business. Nowadays, it is important for people to not only love their work but also the people they work with everyday. Without this kind of passion, they will treat their work as just a job, something that keeps them going financially. Leaders must understand that in order to successfully lead people, they must not only appreciate what their subordinates do; leaders must be able to appreciate subordinates as people.
Treating people in an organization as persons instead of just seeing them as the positions they are filling are two entirely different things. Treating people in an organization as persons instead of just seeing them as the positions they are filling are two entirely different things. Starbucks, for example, took this a step further, by treating their employees like family. In the late 1980s, Starbucks became the first company that offered full health benefits to their part-time employees, taking into account that these people are doing everything they can to make ends meet. The Body Shop, on the other hand, focuses on giving back to the community, with employees that are not only concerned about having a regular job, but finding meaning and purpose. Chapter 2: Taking Stock in the Human Side of Leadership
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies Just because a person possesses the expertise and technical know-how does not necessarily make him or her a good leader. What is important is that the person has the qualities needed for him or her to effectively manage and positively influence the people around him. How can one determine if a certain person is competent enough to become a good leader? It is important that this person not only possesses the required skills, but also that he or she is aligned with the company's values and objectives.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies It is important to note that regardless of the challenges that people face in their professional lives, what is important to them is that they know where they fit in with regard to the bigger picture. There are two basic categories when talking about competencies: (1) human capability and soft-skills intelligence; and (2) cognitive ability or technical skills and expertise. Though these two types of abilities go hand-in-hand, studies have shown that in order to ensure a person's success, it is important that he or she hone his or her soft-skills intelligence.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies In a study involving 500 organizations, it was concluded that emotional intelligence is more important than a leader's IQ, in which it distinguishes the world's best leaders. There are ten competency areas in which potential and present leaders must concentrate on: (1) Integrity Integrity shows everyone else what a person is really made of and what the person prioritizes, which are easily analyzed through the ways a person makes use of his or her time and how he or she spends his or her money.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies (2) Trust and Values Trust is shown when a person does what he or she says that he or she is going to do, respects others, appreciates people's differences, communicates openly, and acknowledges that trust is a mutual exchange. Values keep an organization's integrity in check. A company's values are essential to its corporate culture. It is important that the leader's values are in line with the company's, in order to ensure that everyone is working toward the same goal in the same manner.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies (3) Team Building Team building is essential, as a leader is nothing without his or her team. Teams give employees a sense of belonging and at the same time, energize and motivate the individuals to perform well. (4) Listening A great leader is also a great listener. They focus on other people, making others feel important. (5) Influencing and Persuading It is important for a leader to know when and how to influence and persuade, by using sound reasoning, writing clearly and convincingly, using body language, and being tactful, among other things.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies (6) Competitive Spirit This is what drives a leader to be the best in everything that he or she does. With this kind of disposition comes energy and enthusiasm, eventually influencing those around him or her. (7) Passion and Intuition Passion is what keeps people going. They inspire other people around them. They do what it takes, even if it means going against all odds. They strive to achieve their dreams and their goals. A person who trusts his or her gut feeling will be able to develop his or her sense of perception and judgment. This type of person will be able to take risks and leaps of faith, believing in one's self and putting complete trust in that voice from within.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies (8) Priority Setting and Decision Making Just like the relationship between a leader's values and the company's, it is important that one's priorities are in line with the company's. A leader must know how to handle his or her employees' personal agendas, which will in turn determine the success of the company. (9) A Sense of Humor A leader with a sense of humor appears more human, in effect becoming more approachable. A person with enough sense of humor will be able to relieve one's self of the pressures of work, thereby infecting the people surrounding him or her. This does not necessarily mean that one is not taking his or her work seriously. It only shows that he or she knows when to take things lightly.
Chapter 3: Understanding Leadership Competencies (10) Vision and adaptability These two competencies go with each other, enabling a leader to not only initiate changes but accept them as well. Besides having a vision in their hearts and minds, these leaders make everyone else a part of it, inspiring others to work toward a common goal.
Chapter 4: Elements of Leadership Development: Creating a Leadership Plan Instead of just setting goals for the organization, a leader must also come up with new ways in order to advance his competencies in order to become a better leader. In order to do this, a leader must challenge the status quo, stretch people, model the example, and take action. A good leader always pushes the envelope. They do not let failures stop them, nor are they afraid to take risks. They understand that overcoming such obstacles will only make them a better leader, and help everyone else around them grow in the process.
Chapter 4: Elements of Leadership Development: Creating a Leadership Plan By stretching people, a leader will help their employees improve, making sure that they are continually motivated and energized to perform well. However, this entails giving them more power, so a leader must be able to let go of certain responsibilities and delegate them to the employees. A leader must be able to do whatever it is they ask other people to do, making sure that their actions and their words are consistent. That is why in all things, they go first. They model by personal example, and not by anything else. This is what inspires other people to follow their lead.
Chapter 5: Leader’s Guide to Developing a Strategic Plan The approach to strategic planning is not the usual top-down or linear procedure. It does not only involve the people in the key positions. Nowadays, strategic planning means setting realistic goals with a purpose. In order to come up with a successful strategic plan, it is important that the process is straightforward, with these three components: (1) shift the responsibilities for strategic planning to the lower levels; (2) put together multilevel planning teams; and (3) don't just roll out a completed plan.
Chapter 5: Leader’s Guide to Developing a Strategic Plan First, it is important to create strategic partnerships within the organization, employing the mission and vision statements. Each leader at every level of the company is considered a partner. With these in line, employees must be able to grasp clearly and completely what the organization is all about - its mission, vision, goals, and objectives. Second, all departments and its people must be in alignment. Even if only a single department is out of sync, the organization as a whole will not get the support it needs in order to implement its strategic plan properly.
Chapter 5: Leader’s Guide to Developing a Strategic Plan Third, the plan must be put into writing, not only in the literal sense but, more importantly, in the figurative sense. Each individual that comprises the organization will have a part in developing the company's strategic plan, which is important because these people are the ones that will be implementing it in the future. Lastly, put the plan into action. Since each individual took part in the planning and development of the company's strategies, then it should not be as difficult to put everything into action.
Chapter 6: Succession Planning: The Key to Developing Tomorrow’s Leaders More than just leading his or her team, a leader must be able to develop and mold the individuals under his or her wing to become potential leaders in the future while doing his or her part in the organization. This is one of the keys to success of an organization. From the beginning of his or her "term," a leader must be able to condition him or herself that eventually, the baton must and will be passed, and he or she must be able to do so without hesitation. There are three important components of succession planning that must be kept in mind during the entire process: (1) attracting and retaining the best talent; (2) building leaders from within the organization; and (3) developing the careers of potential successors.
Chapter 6: Succession Planning: The Key to Developing Tomorrow’s Leaders A leader must be constantly on the lookout for new and upcoming leaders. Nowadays, organizations adhere to the belief that it is more beneficial to hire relatives of current employees. Companies believe that when families are working together, the organization as a whole receives a more effective retention advantage. There are certain practices to be observed when creating a successful hiring model. First, you hire for attitude and train for skill. It is easier to train an individual with the right mindset and attitude.
Chapter 6: Succession Planning: The Key to Developing Tomorrow’s Leaders Second, you have to believe in the Popeye Principle. Candidates for a position must not be taken at face value. Third, you must use behavior to predict behavior. Though this does not mean that a leader should not give an individual the benefit of the doubt or a second chance, the best predictor of a person's future behavior is still his or her past behavior. Fourth, you must implement peer hiring. One of the best ways to assess an individual's performance is to take into consideration his or her evaluation courtesy of the people he or she has established professional and personal relationships with in the organization.
Chapter 6: Succession Planning: The Key to Developing Tomorrow’s Leaders Lastly, you must try simulating the job. The goal of this process is to be able to identify which ones among the current employees can be leaders in the future. By developing a system, one will be able to easily replace leaders in key positions with qualified employees, identifying them even before the need arises.
Chapter 7: Leadership and the Corporate Culture: Strategies for Managing Human Capital An organizational culture, much like its mission and vision statements, characterizes an organization’s personality. In this light, a leader's personality will be affected by the culture of the organization he or she is in. Therefore, it is important that the company's culture must be molded properly. The culture of the organization together with its human capital comprises a very powerful tool that can be used to influence and empower.
There are five leadership strategies for managing human capital and culture: (1) use the organization's environment to design the perfect workplace around the people and talent you want to attract and keep; (2) practice and prominently display the organization's core values and principles for all the world to see; (3) encourage heroism and develop situational heroes who personify the culture, its values, and its principles; (4) pass along the rites and rituals of the organization; and (5) build a culture network that keeps the organization's spirit alive and honored. Chapter 7: Leadership and the Corporate Culture: Strategies for Managing Human Capital
The notion of integrity nowadays has transformed into the highest form of human intelligence. More than anything, a leader must possess integrity. Integrity is not only about an individual's honesty or trustworthiness, but more of a person's principles and values. When an individual leads by example, his or her integrity plays a crucial role, and will spell either success or failure. Chapter 8: Leading with Integrity, Values, and Intuition
Chapter 8: Leading with Integrity, Values, and Intuition It is important that an organization and its individuals remember that values and moralities should not be sacrificed for anything else, most especially material things like profits. If the entire company shares the same values, then its individuals are able to represent the organization in such a way, being able to conduct themselves properly in their professional and personal relationships. There are four facts of value-led leadership: (1) our values reflect how we see ourselves; (2) to reach people and touch them, our values must have heart and soul; (3) our values determine how we make our decisions; and (4) our values determine how we behave and how we spend our time and money.
Chapter 9: Building and Leading Teams A person cannot be a leader without his or her team. And even then, he or she is not supposed to take control of everyone and treat them as robots, existing only to follow his or her commands. Team members should be able to think for themselves and are delegated responsibilities. There are eight highly effective practices for building a team: (1) select and hire superstar players for your team; (2) communicate openly and honestly with team members at all times; (3) ask for and expect feedback from team members; (4) commit yourself to delegating decision making to the team; (5) care about your people; (6) provide the tools and resources needed for success; (7) coach team players at their own levels; and (8) promote esprit de corps!
Chapter 10: Coaching at all Levels <ul><li>In order to achieve coaching success, keep in mind these commandments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely and frequently share knowledge and expertise with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and then ask for the same in return. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect and appreciate the differences in others and coach them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>accordingly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage employee suggestions whenever change is being </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implemented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure employees understand what is expected of them. </li></ul></ul>
Chapter 10: Coaching at all Levels <ul><ul><li>Be up-front and honest with people at all times. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate openly and honestly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep employees focused on the team's effectiveness and goals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and value personal contributions as well. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give genuine praise and recognition for a job well done. </li></ul></ul>
Chapter 10: Coaching at all Levels <ul><ul><li>Look for new ways to help others develop their full potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage team members to understand, respect, and support one another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walk the talk and model the standard of performance that is expected in others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With these in mind, a leader can adopt one of the eight primary coaching styles, and modify to suit his or her requirements: (1) key influencer, (2) formal and structured, (3) relaxed and informal, (4) hands-on, </li></ul><ul><li>(5) hands-off, (6) visionary, (7) group or team, and </li></ul><ul><li>(8) coaches in disguise. </li></ul>
Chapter 10: Coaching at all Levels A key influencer is a dominant figure in the organization, one who leads by example, and someone the others look up to. Formal and structured is an approach wherein employees go through an established system, with an option of one-on-one support. The relaxed and informal approach may simple mean having guidance made available when it is needed. A hands-on approach teaches certain things that cannot be easily learned from a book. Conversely, the hands-off approach is when a leader lets an individual try something by themselves first, and then teaches him or her how to do it right. The visionary approach , which is probably the most frustrating of all, employs a coach that sees the big picture and merely focuses on his or her vision.
With the group or team approach , one has at his or her side a group of people that support each other and, at the same time, set certain goals for the betterment of the team, the company, and each individual. Lastly, the coaches in disguise approach , which is the most influential, happens when an individual is influenced by someone he or she least expects. While there is no “correct” way to coach, there are certain guidelines for coaching that must be followed in order to ensure success: (1) prepare to meet the expectations of the people you are coaching; (2) respect and value your time; (3) get employees to take action; (4) pass the baton; (5) decide ahead of time how you will measure your coaching effectiveness; (6) look beyond the walls to find a great coach; (7) encourage peer coaching and teach-backs; and (8) encourage virtual coaching. Chapter 10: Coaching at all Levels
Chapter 11: Performance Management Through Communications Excellence Every single day, a leader will face different challenges in the workplace. In order for them to be prepared for such, it is important that they know how to think on their feet and, at the same time, learn how to use their communication skills. Timing is of the essence, as things will be much more complicated once irreversible damages take place. There are two main objectives when it comes to performance management, especially when overcoming relationship barriers - whether professional or personal: (1) quickly identify and uncover obstacles to an employee's performance; and (2) quickly give both parties what they need to eliminate the obstacles that stand in the way of an employee's improved performance and success.
Chapter 11: Performance Management Through Communications Excellence With the different types of performance scenarios (dealing with peer-to-boss resentment, managing conflict and resistance to change, productivity affected by personal problems, raising the bar on complacency, dealing with the rumor mill, and handling defensive attitudes), a leader must know what he or she is "confronting" in order to know how to properly, effectively, and successfully deal with the matter at hand.
Chapter 12: Becoming an Influential Leader Just because a person is not in a position of power does not mean that he or she is not capable of influencing the people around him or her. Being influential is not a particular facet of any specific occupation or position; rather, it is dependent on the individual him or herself. As long as a person has touched another person's life in ANY way, then the former is considered as a person of influence, because he or she has affected the life of another.
Chapter 12: Becoming an Influential Leader A leader can follow a four-step path in order to develop influence: (1) model the behavior, in order to set the stage for your followers; (2) communicate on an emotional level, in order to motivate your members; (3) offer continuous coaching, in order to establish a long-lasting and profound effect; and (4) produce more influencers, which is the most important step, in order to positively affect more lives. As soon as a leader has learned to expand his or her sphere of influence, he or she will be able to get the support that he or she will need in order to successfully do anything.
Chapter 13: Building Hope and Trust – The Path To Empowerment Empowerment is one of the more important characteristics of a leader. Without it, he or she risks losing his or her credibility and trustworthiness. This is what binds the individuals in an organization together. Once a leader is able to delegate real responsibilities to his or her team, then he or she can expect exceptional results. One of the requirements of successful empowerment techniques is making each individual feel like they are not just part of the team, but partners in the organization. But in order to do so, a leader must possess hope and trust. It is the responsibility of any leader to have high hopes for the organization as a whole and the individuals comprising the company.
Chapter 13: Building Hope and Trust – The Path To Empowerment Trust is the most important factor of any relationship, both professional and personal ones. This is one of the building blocks of an organization's integrity and ensures the high performance of the company. If the employees do not trust and believe in their leader, it will be much more difficult for these employees to follow them. On the other hand, when a leader puts his or her trust in the people around him or her, then he or she is practically saying to them, "I believe in you. I believe you are trustworthy. I respect you."
Chapter 14: Managing Knowledge While Learning Faster Than the Competition A leader is ultimately in charge of educating his or her subordinates. Managing knowledge is the first step toward becoming a successful leader. In order to do this, any development material must be modified in order to adapt and work with an organization's objectives and strategies. First, one must take into consideration the skill levels and competencies of the company's leaders. Second, an assessment of one's real-world experience must come into play. And third, one must fire up and continually challenge those leaders who have experienced more than most people.
Chapter 14: Managing Knowledge While Learning Faster Than the Competition There is no real substitute for the ‘learning by doing’ strategy. The more opportunities given to a potential leader, the higher the chance of him or her developing the skills and competencies he or she will need in order to lead successfully. Training programs should be regarded as perishable. Therefore, it is important that information be up-to-date and, whenever possible, ahead of the rest. A successful leadership program does not just happen. It is the result of planning and innovation.
Chapter 14: Managing Knowledge While Learning Faster Than the Competition If one is in the process of planning for the ongoing education and development of an organization's leaders, here are a few significant suggestions: (1) align all your organization's training and employee development programs to its most critical business goals and competencies; (2) implement teach-back methods of training by using your organization's existing leadership facility; (3) use your organization's corporate university and training programs to gain increased competitive advantage in the marketplace; (4) build strategic partnerships with higher-learning institutions worldwide; and (5) combine technology with traditional training for increased learning solutions.
Chapter 15: Leading With Vision Everything begins with a vision, which perfectly describes the capacity of a leader to look forward. To be able to inspire others to have their own visions, a leader must have in him or herself a strong desire to always make something happen, to become an advocate of change. Vision should be coupled with a great deal of creativity and imagination. Not only that, but a leader must also bring others to "see" his or her vision. People will not follow a person whose dreams aren't their own. Each member of the team must have the same vision, the same goal in mind. Once they know that their leader has their best interests and understands their needs, and then they will follow. This is what a leader should instill in each of his or her employees: everything begins with a vision.
Chapter 16: New Ways to Measure Performance and Continuous Improvement Usually, performance reviews are done at around the same time every year, the goal of which is to encourage individuals to push themselves further, to work harder. Leadership is not about telling people what to do. It's about selecting the right people for the right job, and continually helping them to grow and training them to advance their skills and competencies. One must devise a means to measure performance, in order to find out what is being done and what else can be done.
Chapter 16: New Ways to Measure Performance and Continuous Improvement There are ten characteristics of effective performance measurement: (1) relates to and supports the client's goals and objectives; (2) blends balance among employees, customers, and the bottom line; (3) focuses on just a few important areas at one time; (4) indicates where performance can be improved; (5) indicates if training is needed; (6) is flexible and easy to revise when necessary; (7) aligns measurement with the organization's systems; (8) was established by the people who are performing the jobs; (9) ensures the well-being of everyone in the organization; and (10) has tools and techniques that translate strategy into action.
Chapter 16: New Ways to Measure Performance and Continuous Improvement The process for measuring performance includes the following "steps": (1) define what performance means to you as a leader; (2) with your employees, establish clear and specific performance expectations; (3) stretch your employees and help them buy into improving performance; (4) be clear about the scope of responsibility you are giving: (5) document what's been agreed on; (6) follow up; (7) offer "speedback" and rewards, and keep your promises; (8) provide your employees with the necessary training and resources to be successful; (9) help employees calculate return-on-investment; and (10) expect the best from your employees and don't be surprised if that's what you get.
Conclusion Leaders are not born, but made. They are constantly trained and developed. An individual in a key position that creates future leaders is in an influential state. Whatever he or she does will affect the organization and its individuals in the long run. Developing leaders is never a walk in the park. One trait that individuals should possess in order to develop leaders and successful leadership programs is passion - for his or her own job, for the vision, for the organization as a whole, and for its people.
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