Computers and People Hao-Chuan Wang Department of Computer ScienceInstitute of Information Systems and Applications National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan http://www.cs.nthu.edu.tw/~haochuan 1
From Laboratory to Everyday Computing• The use scenario of computers is changing over time. – Very few professional users in early days; Billions of professional and non-professional users today. – Increasing connections and inter-dependence between computers and people. Robotron Computer (1970s) Today (2012) 2
Computers & People• Since the inception of CS, there’s no lack of interest in studying people, and linking computers to people. – One founding father of Artificial Intelligence, Herbert Simon won Turing Award and Nobel Prize for this line of work.Shakey Robot (1970s) IBM Deep Blue (1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916-2001) ACM Turing Award, 1975 3 Nobel Prize in Economics, 1978
Computers & People (cont.)• Since 1990s, computers are becoming serious part of people’s everyday lives. – Computing with human purposes: communication, socialization, collaboration, education, health, entertainment etc.• CS concerns these issues too, and considers their implications to the design of interfaces and interactions between computers and people. 4
HCI- Human-Computer Interaction Collaboration VisualizationHuman-Robot Interaction 5 Social Networking
User Interface Designs Are Not All The Same; Some Designs Can Be Confusing What’s different between “Don’t Save” and “Cancel”? Powerful but unusable. 6
Using Scientific Methods to Improve UI DesignsEyetracking Studies Commercial Google Search Results 7
Some Interfaces Involve More Than One Person• Using computers to mediate communication in new ways. Twitter Plurk 8
From Communication to Social Networking• People now can not only communicate with one another, but also network with them online. 10
MC Studying Social Networks CYWhich person is more important,SC, CY or MC?SC is likely more important. Why? GHSC knows more people, and maymediate more informationexchange.How to pass informationfrom one person to another? SCSC to GH: SC->TD->PQ->GHSC to MC: noneWhich sub-network (group) aperson belongs to?
Identifying the Group a Person Belongs To • Insight: People in the same group stay close together. People in different groups are further apart. – Edges (“roads”) with heavy traffic are more likely for inter-group transportation. • Steps for identifying groups (clustering) – Compute the betweenness value, the extent a node is required by the transportation between any two people in the network, for each edge. – Remove high-betweenness edges to identify groups.Pinney, J. W., & Westhead, D. R. (2007).Betweenness-based Decomposition Methods for Social and13Biological Networks. Interdisciplinary Statistics and Bioinformatics.
Edge Betweenness-based Clustering MC CY GH SC 14
Concluding Remarks• The range of topics that computer scientists look at may be much wider than one considers – Plenty of diversity – Plenty of scientific challenges – Ex. Sustaining tradition and interest in studying people, such as individual behavior and social organization.• Computing is more and more user-dependent and socially relevant – Usable and useful HCI designs are more essential – “Computational social sciences”- new opportunities and ways to understand people even more, e.g., the analysis of online social networks. 15