1. Unit 1 Question:
To What Extent Does our Health Depend on
Area of Interaction (AOI):
Health and Social Education
Our health is only as good as our health service
For this unit, I need to provide a video or an animation to educate a certain group on the health
benefits of a particular technology. My task is to make my video (or animation) interesting and
entertaining to help educate a certain target audience better, and during that process I am supposed to
obtain a good understanding of the unit question: to what extent does our health depend on technology?
Firstly, I have chosen percutaneous coronary intervention to be the technology that I will promote.
The percutaneous coronary intervention, also known as coronary angioplasty, is a non-surgical
procedure used to treat the stenotic coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease.1 The
reason that I am choosing it is because this technology has become more and more widespread today,
and this does not decrease its importance at all. I think it is a good example of how our health depends
on the modern technologies.
I decide to do a video rather than to do an animation. I will choose some suitable software to make
this video and try to make it attractive to my target audience. I will also look for if there is any similar
videos as what I am going to do, and take them as references to help me do the video promoting the
technology. Furthermore, I want to choose my target audience at a certain age group, which will be the
ages above forty. I decide that because the older people will have a much higher risk of getting acute
myocardial infarction, therefore it is very helpful to tell them what a percutaneous coronary
intervention is, and how it can benefit them.
This technology that I have chosen relates to me because one of my grandparents did the
percutaneous coronary intervention some years ago, and the result shows obvious evidence of how this
technology can benefit people. In this case I can say, our health depends on technology. If he did not do
the percutaneous coronary intervention, he will get very high risk of having an acute myocardial
infarction in the later time of his life, and he might get some other diseases that relate to the vessels.
From that I can see how our health depends on modern technology, and how we are benefited from it.
This problem links to the Area of Interaction which is Health and Social Education because people
need to be educated on this kind of problems. They do not trust the technologies sometimes; even the
technologies will help them to keep their health much longer. Our task of this unit is to educate a certain
group of people about a particular technology which can benefit them on health.
Q1. What is percutaneous coronary intervention?
Percutaneous coronary intervention, commonly known as coronary angioplasty or simply
angioplasty, is a non-surgical procedure used to treat the stenotic coronary arteries of the heart found in
coronary heart disease.2 Angioplasty was introduced to the world by Dr. Andreas Gruentzig in the mid to
late 1970's and is widely used today.3 During this procedure, a cardiologist feeds a deflated balloon or
other device on a catheter from the inguinal femoral artery or radial artery up through blood vessels
until they reach the site of blockage in the heart. At the blockage, the balloon is inflated to open the
artery, allowing blood to flow. A stent is often placed at the site of blockage to permanently open the
artery. The term balloon angioplasty4 is commonly used to describe percutaneous coronary intervention,
which describes the inflation of a balloon within the coronary artery to crush the plaque into the walls of
A coronary stent is a tube placed in the coronary arteries that supply the heart, to keep the arteries
open in the treatment of coronary heart disease.6 It is used in the percutaneous coronary intervention.
It is mounted on a balloon catheter in a "crimped" or collapsed state. When the balloon of is inflated,
the stent expands or opens up and pushes itself against the inner wall of the coronary artery. This holds
the artery open when the balloon is deflated and removed. 7 Coronary stents were designed to
overcome some of the short comings of angioplasty.
The angioplasty procedure usually consists of most of the following steps:
Access into the femoral artery in the leg (or, less commonly, into the radial artery or brachial artery
in the arm) is created by a device called an "introducer needle". This procedure is often termed
Once access into the artery is gained, a "sheath introducer" is placed in the opening to keep the
artery open and control bleeding.
Through this sheath, a long, flexible, soft plastic tube called a "guiding catheter" is pushed. The tip
of the guiding catheter is placed at the mouth of the coronary artery. The guiding catheter also allows
4. for radiopaque dyes (usually iodine based) to be injected into the coronary artery, so that the disease
state and location can be readily assessed using real time x-ray visualization.
During the x-ray visualization, the cardiologist estimates the size of the coronary artery and selects
the type of balloon catheter and coronary guidewire that will be used during the case. Heparin (a "blood
thinner" or medicine used to prevent the formation of clots) is given to maintain blood flow.
The coronary guidewire, which is an extremely thin wire with a radio-opaque flexible tip, is inserted
through the guiding catheter and into the coronary artery. While visualising again by real-time x-ray
imaging, the cardiologist guides the wire through the coronary artery to the site of the stenosis or
blockage. The tip of the wire is then passed across the blockage. The cardiologist controls the movement
and direction of the guide wire by gently manipulating the end that sits outside the patient through
twisting of the guidewire.8
While the guidewire is in place, it now acts as the pathway to the stenosis. The tip of the
angioplasty or balloon catheter is hollow and is then inserted at the back of the guidewire—thus the
guidewire is now inside of the angioplasty catheter. The angioplasty catheter is gently pushed forward,
until the deflated balloon is inside of the blockage.9
The balloon is then inflated, and it compresses the atheromatous plaque and stretches the artery
wall to expand.
If an expandable wire mesh tube (stent) was on the balloon, then the stent will be implanted (left
behind) to support the new stretched open position of the artery from the inside.10
Q2. How can the percutaneous coronary intervention benefit people and what are the advantages and
disadvantages of this technology comparing with the other technologies used in the same area?
The percutaneous coronary intervention is beneficial for those people with unstable coronary
Stents reduce chest pain and have been shown to improve survivability in the event of an acute
Although introduced over two decades ago, angioplasty continues to be the most frequently
employed procedure in the cardiac cath lab (either by its self, or in conjunction with other procedures
5. such as coronary stenting). The percutaneous coronary intervention is also known as coronary
angioplasty or simply angioplasty, therefore we can notice that it is the most common form of
angioplasty. The percutaneous coronary intervention has proven to be as effective as and less costly
than coronary artery bypass graft in patients with medically refractory myocardial ischemia.12 Moreover,
the coronary revascularization by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) is associated with an increased
risk of stroke. It means the percutaneous coronary intervention is safer. With availability of modern day
technology, it is estimated that the risk of death is during an angioplasty procedure is usually less than
1%, while the chance of requiring emergency bypass surgery is around 2% or less.13 It is a relatively safe
procedure and is carried out all over the world.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), which bypasses stenotic arteries by grafting vessels from
elsewhere in the body, is an alternative treatment. Most studies have found that CABG is better than
percutaneous coronary intervention for reducing death and myocardial infarction. Coronary angioplasty
is widely practiced and has a number of risks 14 ; however, major procedural complications are
Q3. How can I make a video to explain the percutaneous coronary intervention to my target audience?
Firstly, I should collect all the information that I will need in the video, and then I need to try to put
them together and make my target audience interested in my product. My idea is to make a video of the
procedure of the percutaneous coronary intervention. However, it must not only talk about the
procedure, therefore I need to put the other facts of the percutaneous coronary intervention into it. For
example, the video should show the advantages of the chosen technology compared to the other similar
technologies. Moreover, I should think carefully about how I can put all the information in a video that
lasts 3~6 minutes. In the video, I want to use some short animations to explain the technology in more
details, since the animation can show the audience about how coronary stent will work inside human
bodies, and how it can affect the hearts. I will tell a story to my target audience instead of showing too
many serious facts, which therefore may let they find it more interesting.
Q4. Is there any similar product that I can get suggestions from?
There are many similar products that I can get suggestions from. Firstly, I searched on YouTube,
and I found a lot of videos about percutaneous coronary intervention. After that, I looked for the videos
^ Stroupe KT, Morrison DA, Hlatky MA, Barnett PG, Cao L, Lyttle C, Hynes DM, Henderson WG (September 2006). "Costeffectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafts versus percutaneous coronary intervention for revascularization of high-risk
patients". Circulation 114 (12): 1251–1257. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.570838. PMID 16966588
UK's NHS endorsed 'Best Treatments' advice on 'clinical evidence for patients from the BMJ' on Coronary angioplasty
6. which had the lengths approximately at 3~6 minutes, and tried to learn the way they introduced the
technology. One of the videos that I think it’s really good and may give suggestions to my design is called
“PCI percutaneous coronary intervention /primary angioplasty”15: it mixes up the procedure of the PCI
and the explanation. In this video, we can see how the doctors are working throughout the procedure,
and there are also some people like professors introducing and explaining in details about the
percutaneous coronary intervention. This video gives me suggestions because it tells me how to add
enough information to the video. Moreover, it can help me a lot because I am also going to show the
procedure of PCI in my own video, therefore I can compare my product to this video later on to find the
differences and try to improve it more.
Percutaneous coronary intervention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Coronary stent - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Menu of available cardiac tests and diseases
UK's NHS endorsed 'Best Treatments' advice on 'clinical evidence for patients from the BMJ' on Coronary
冠状动脉血管成形术_视频在线观看 - 56.com (percutaneous coronary intervention_video online)
血管成形术 3D 动画演示_HeJQ_新浪播客 (percutaneous coronary intervention 3D animation)
专家为你解密心脏支架术 疏通血管恢复供血-生活视频-爱奇艺 (the expert telling you about PCI)
8. ▶ PCI Percutaneous Coronary Intervention / Primary Angioplasty - YouTube
Stroupe KT, Morrison DA, Hlatky MA, Barnett PG, Cao L, Lyttle C, Hynes DM, Henderson WG (September
2006). "Cost-effectiveness of coronary artery bypass grafts versus percutaneous coronary intervention
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.570838. PMID 16966588
Interview of Hefeng Xiyu (a Chinese short film maker) 10.12.2013
9. Evaluating the sources
In general, the sources I have used in the research section are unbiased, valid and reliable. I have
looked through many other sources, and then I chose these sources because they have better qualities
compared to the other sources I have read.
As we know, Wikipedia is the biggest free encyclopaedia in the world. It is usually unbiased; and it
is valid because it updates the information frequently and has clear references. However, it is not so
reliable as some other sources since everyone can edit it. Sometimes its information might not be
professional or not even be exactly correct. Nevertheless, I think Wikipedia is still reliable for my
researches because I only use it to find the definitions of the words, such as PCI, stent, and angioplasty.
Therefore it is reliable and unbiased. Furthermore, I think the Wikipedia has given too many details
which I don’t need to use. Therefore I only choose to read and reference a part of it.
And then I found a really good website that introduces angioplasty (which is also called the
percutaneous coronary intervention), coronary stent and heart diseases. It is a reliable source, because
the facts that is includes are rigorous; and I can find evidences from other sources to prove that they are
true. However, this source is not unbiased in general. It has its own opinion: you can see it is supporting
one of the statements and disagree with another. At the research section, I think I should collect all the
different information about my chosen technology. Nevertheless, this website called heartsite.com is a
valid and reliable source for me, and it is more professional than Wikipedia.
The videos are valid and reliable because they introduce correct scientific information. In these four
videos I have used as sources in my research, I think the 3D animation helps me the most. It is because
this source is really valid and reliable: it clearly shows how the coronary stent works inside the vessels.
The video on YouTube which is introducing the procedure of percutaneous coronary intervention is also
valid, since it teaches me how to put the information into a video. The video of the expert telling PCI is
reliable but not so unbiased. It is professional, but it does not talk about the other side of the truth.
The interview was very interesting. I talked to a Chinese short film maker, and he taught me a lot
about how to make a good short video. I think it is a valid and reliable source, although it would not be
one hundred per cent unbiased, since we could not think so critically while we were talking instead of
writing or reading.
10. Design brief
Defining the goal
My goal of this unit is to educate a certain age group of people on the health benefits of a particular
technology by making a video. My chosen technology is percutaneous coronary intervention. I need to
make a video which will be attractive to my target audience, while it can describe the applications of the
percutaneous coronary intervention and how this technology will benefit people. I also need to consider
how to make a good video. For achieving my goal, I should do lots of researches on my chosen
technology, and how it is beneficial to a certain group of people. Moreover, I should look for some
examples of similar products so that I can identify necessary and desirable characteristics. I will also do
some studies on how to make a good video and what software that i am going to use, since that my goal
is to make a video introducing my chosen technology to educate a target audience.
My target audience will be the people above forty years old. The people at this certain age group
have higher risks to gain heart diseases and coronary diseases, such as acute myocardial infarction. My
chosen technology, percutaneous coronary intervention is particularly beneficial to the people who have
those diseases. I will introduce this technology to the people above forty years old, educating them
about what a percutaneous coronary intervention is, how it works, how it will benefit them and what
their advantages compared to the other technologies using to solve the same type of problem. I choose
this group of people to be my target audience because I think the information in my product is useful for
them, and they may find it interesting that what I am going to introduce them.
There are many different constraints that will limit me on design. I should take care of laws (such as
copy rights), time I will have to make the product, the software I use and my skills to use this software,
my knowledge of the technology that I am going to introduce, and many other things. I think the major
constraints for me to design the product are time and knowledge.
11. Design specification
It must not talk about the other technologies
It must not contain too large/small font size
The information must not be too difficult to understand
The content of the video must not let the audience feel too serious
It must not be only text on the screen
The background sound must not be uncoordinated to the video
It must not be longer than 6 minutes
It must give a clear description of the chosen technology
It must have good control of colour on each page/scene
It must contain at least 10 facts
The information in it must be useful for the target audience
12. It must contain a combination of text, images, scene in a video
It must have sound
It must have different scenes
It must be at least two minutes long
It should compare the chosen technology to its similar technologies (to show the advantages of the
It should have a combination of colour
The general style of the video should make the audience feel and comfortable
It should contain a scene showing the procedure of the chosen technology
It should include enough scientific information
It should contain more than 15 facts
It should include at least three different scenes
It should contain a combination of video and animation
The length of background sound should accurately fit into the length of the video
It should have a good control of the length of each scene
13. Test plan
Does it give a clear description of the Yes
percutaneous coronary intervention?
Does it contain at least 10 facts?
Does it have a good control of the Yes
length of each scene?
Does it contain a combination of text, Yes
image and scene?
Does it have sound?
Does it have a background sound Yes
which lasts throughout the video?
Do the texts have too large/small font No
Does it last longer than two minutes? Yes
Does it last longer than six minutes?
Is the information too difficult to No
Is it scientific enough?
It there only text on screen?
Do you think that the background No
sound is uncoordinated to the scene?
Does it compare the percutaneous Yes
coronary intervention with the other
Does it talk about another technology No
Do you think the video is too serious? No
Is the information in the video Yes
First of all, I think I have made improvement on the investigation stage. Throughout this section, I
have learned a lot of things about doing researches, testing product and evaluating the work.
I was a little struggled with the design specification part in this section, because I could not think
about enough demands and limits to the product that I am going to make. Therefore the design
specification could be one thing that I need to add more details to. Moreover, another thing I need to
add more details on is research. I have done enough research on the chosen technology, but I could also
spend more time to explain how I can make the video and what techniques I am going to use.
Furthermore, I don’t think there is something that I missed out, but I really still have a lot of things to
My design brief and specification are OK. For the design brief, I have identified my chosen
technology and my target audience, and also the type of my product. Moreover, I may need to explain
more on each small section. The design specification, as I said, is where I am struggled with. I could not
think about many demands or limits of making my product; however, I did write at least one for each of
the small title. Then I think the testing ideas are sufficient because I have used all the limits and
demands that I wrote in the specification section; but I also put some wishes into the test plan when I
think they are necessary.
I still need to add more details on the research section, but I think for this stage my research is
enough. I have answered all the guiding questions and collected enough information about my chosen
technology. Moreover, I have used five different kind of sources which are website, book, video,
magazine article, and interview. Most of the sources I have used are unbiased, valid and reliable.
For the next product, I will make a better time plan for this large section. I should not hastily do the
work at the end of the stage, and I should make sure that I have time to check through what I have done
before the deadline. Moreover, I need to do more research, and try to make it exhaustive. I will also try
to use a range of sources, and different kinds of sources. As for the design specification, I should think
about it carefully and add a few more to each of the demand, limit and wish part.