مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
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مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي

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رساله دكتوراه في مجال ادارة الفنادق
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مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي في منتجعات البحر الاحمر

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مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي Document Transcript

  • 1. Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management Hotel Management Department Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest in the Red Sea Resorts Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Hotel Management By Hany Atef Kouzmal B.Sc., Hotel Management, 2000 M.Sc., Hotel Management, 2009 Under the Supervision of Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nour El-Din Elias Professor, Hotel Management Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Prof. Dr. Dalia Mohammed Soliman Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University 2013 1
  • 2. Approval Sheet Thesis Title: Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest in the Red Sea Resorts Name: Hany Atef Kouzmal This thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Hotel Management Department has been Approved by: Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nour El-Din Elias Professor, Hotel Management Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Prof. Dr. Dalia Mohammed Soliman Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Committee in Charge Degree Conferred / / 2013 2
  • 3. Dedication I would like to dedicate this work to my dear wife who has supported me all the way and has been a great source of motivation with my deep love. 3
  • 4. Acknowledgements I would like to praise and thank ALLAH, the most Gracious, the Greatest and The Most Merciful who gave us the ability to complete this work. I would sincerely like to express my utmost gratitude to many people, without whom this thesis would not have been possible to achieve. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Professor. Ahmed Nour EL-Din Elias, Ex. Dean, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for his outstanding help and supervision throughout the research, also for his patience, professional guidance, endless support and valuable input continuing during this journey. I am very grateful to him, for giving me a lot of his time, support and unlimited assistance. I would like also to gratefully thank Professor. Dalia Mohammed Soliman, Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for her cooperation and sympathy, also her encouragement and kind remarks will always be remembered. Her directions were a valuable guide in accomplishing this study. I sincerely appreciate her efforts and patience over all the stages of the study. I would like to thank DR. Sameh Gamal Saad, Lecturer; Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for his outstanding help and support throughout the research. I would like to express a lot of thanks to all Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management team, Helwan University for their wonderful help and support throughout the research. Sincere appreciation also goes to the managers of the investigated hotels and travel agents for their support. They were so helpful during the field study, and to my colleagues who contributed a lot of their time to this research. Finally, I am deeply indebted to my parents and my dear wife to whom I dedicate this work. They gave much of their time and efforts to facilitate for me preparing this thesis for me words cannot give them their due. 4
  • 5. Abstract There is no doubt that tourism represents an important aspect of human activity not only as one of the fastest growing sectors, but also because it has become an important component of the economic structure of large number of countries. The hospitality and tourism industry is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. One of the most exciting aspects of this industry is that it is made up of so many different professions. Tourism means the business of providing services such as transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services, and entertainment for people who move from one location to another to change the routine of everyday life. This research aims to study the Russian market requirements for hospitality services which a view to increasing the Russian guest satisfaction and increasing the number of Russian travellers to Egypt. The literature review covers three main points, the first of which is how far the hospitality services appeal to the Russian guest. The second part focuses on trying to understand guest perception, satisfaction and loyalty. The third part focuses on trying to understand Russian guests' characteristics and needs. The field study is accomplished through survey and self- administered questionnaire, which includes some attributes that may influence guests’ choices and Russian guest expectations and perceptions regarding hospitality services in the Red Sea. The results show the characteristics of Russian guests, as well as their needs and requirements, and Russian guest expectations and perceptions concerning hospitality services. A major contribution of this study is the development of models for resort managers to better meet the Russian needs and requirements in regard to hospitality services in order to achieve and exceed guest satisfaction and profitability. 5
  • 6. Table of Contents Approval Sheet i Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii Abstract iv Table of Contents v List of Tables xi List of Figures xiii List of Abbreviations xiv CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview of the Study 1 1.2 The Research Importance 6 1.3 The Research Aim and Objectives 12 1.4 The Research Questions 13 1.5 The Research Limitation 13 1.6 Thesis Structure 14 Continued 6
  • 7. Table of Contents (Continued ) CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest 2.1.1 Requirements of Russian Guest in Terms of Hospitality 15 Services 2.1.2 Hospitality Services Offered in the Resorts 17 2.1.3 Accommodation Services in Resorts 22 2.1.4 Food and Beverages Services in Resorts 23 2.1.5 Recreational Services in Resorts 24 2.1.6 Hospitality Services Delivered in the Red Sea Resorts 25 2.2 Guest Behaviour, Expectations, Satisfaction and Loyalty 2.2.1 Guest Behaviour 28 2.2.2 Guest Requirements 30 2.2.3 Guest Expectations 31 2.2.4 Guest Perception 33 2.2.5 Guest Satisfaction 34 2.2.6 Guest Loyalty 35 2.2.7 Discrepancy between Guest Expectations and Perceptions 37 2.2.8 Relation between Guest Satisfaction and Loyalty 38 Continued 7
  • 8. Table of Contents (Continued ) 2.3 An Overview of Russian Market 2.3.1 Market Segmentation 39 2.3.2 Russian Market Characteristics 40 2.3.3 Russian Tourism Demand in Egypt 43 2.3.4 The Relations between Egypt and Russia 49 2.3.5 Russian Guests' Characteristics and Requirements 50 2.3.5.1 The Geography of Russia 52 2.3.5.2 General Information about Russia 54 2.3.5.3 Russian Characteristics 54 2.3.5.4 Russian Famous Souvenirs 55 2.3.5.5 Russian Famous Regional Food and beverages 57 2.3.6 Types of Tourism in Russia 59 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Method 3.1.1 Secondary Data 60 3.1.2 Primary Data and Research Instrument 61 3.1.2.1. Survey Study 62 3.1.2.2 Questionnaire Pre-testing 62 3.1.2.3 Questionnaire Design 62 3.1.2.4 Semi-structured Interviews 64 3.1.2.5 Interviews Design 65 3.2 Research Population and Sampling Techniques 66 3.3 Pilot Study 69 Continued 8
  • 9. Table of Contents (Continued) 3.4 Data Analysis 70 3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Scale 71 3.5.1 Validity 71 3.5.2 Reliability 72 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 The Survey Study Results 75 4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Questionnaire 78 4.3 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance to the 107 Russian Guests Expectations in the Red Sea Resorts 4.4 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance to the 111 Russian Guest’s Perception in the Red Sea Resorts 4.5 Comparison between Five and Four Star Resorts 115 4.6 Semi-Structured Interviews 125 4.7 Ranking Hospitality Services in regard to the Managers’ 150 Perception of Guests’ Expectations Regarding Hospitality Services 4.8 Analyses Gaps One and Five 154 4.9 General Findings 158 4.10 The Process of Developing Models 164 4.10.1 The Russian Guests’ Preferences from the Hospitality 165 Services Model. 4.10.2 A Model of the Hospitality Gaps 168 Continued 9
  • 10. Table of Contents (continued) 4.10.3 The Russian Guests’ Cycle Model. 170 4.10.4 Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model 173 4.10.5 A Good Practice Model for Resort Managers to Enhance 178 the Russian Guest’s Satisfaction and Profitability 4.10.6 Setting a Strategy for the Russian Tourism Flow versus 182 Hospitality Services Changeable Positions Model 4.11 Summary 186 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Review of Study Aims 187 5.2 Recommendations 189 5.3 Recommendations for Further Researches 198 5.4. Personal Reflections 199 REFERENCES 200 APPENDICES Continued 10
  • 11. Table of Contents (Continued) Appendix A: Questionnaire Form Appendix A1 English Version of Questionnaire Form 220 Appendix A2 Russian Version of Questionnaire Form 225 Appendix B: Interview Form 230 Appendix C: Database 235 ARABIC SUMMARY 11
  • 12. List of Tables Table Title Page Table 1.1 Gaps Details 4 Table 1.2 Tourism Indicators (Tourist - Tourism Nights - Income) 6 for the (Year 2010) Compared with (2009) Table 1.3 Primary Ten Markets for Incoming Tourism to Egypt 9 through the Year of (2007) Compared with (2008) Table 1.4 The Russian Association of Travel Agencies Report the 10 Export Tourism Directions from 2006 to 2010 Table 2.1 Breakdown of Hotels and Tourist Villages Capacity By 27 Governorates Areas (2009) Table 2.2 Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet 41 Users Table 2.3 Russian Federation Tourist Arrival to Egypt and Tourism 43 Night during the Period (2002-2009) Table 2.4 Tourism Nights for All the Regions during the Period 44 from (2006 to 2009) Table 2.5 Tourist Numbers from All the Regions during (2006 to 46 2009) Table 2.6 Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Number of 47 Tourists (2010) Table 2.7 Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Tourism Nights 48 (2010) Table 2.8 General Information about Russia 52 Table 2.9 Russian Famous Souvenirs 55 Table 2.10 Russian Famous Regional F&Bs 57 Table 3.1 A Summary of the Research Samples 68 Table 4.1 The Investigated Resorts 76 Table 4.2 Number of Guest Questionnaire forms Distributed to 80 Each Resort in the Investigated Destinations Table 4.3 The RG Preferences to Visit the RS 83 Table 4.4 Guest Preferences Regarding Food Kinds 84 Table 4.5 Guest Preferences Regarding Types of Cuisine 85 Table 4.6 Guest Preferences Regarding Kinds of Beverages 86 Table 4.7 Guest preferences regarding Kinds of Entertainment 87 Shows Continued 12
  • 13. List of Tables (Continued) Table 4.8 Expectations versus Perception Concerning the HSs offered to RGs in the RSRs Table 4.9 Guest Perception Table 4.10 Respondent’s Demographic Data Analysis Table 4.11 Ranking HSs in Accordance to the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs 91 102 103 108 Table 4.12 Ranking HSs in Accordance to the RG Perception in the RSRs 112 Table 4.13 A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between The Four and Five Star Resorts in Terms Of Guest Expectations Regarding HSs 115 Table 4.14 A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between The Five and Four Star Resorts in Terms of Guest Perception Regarding HSs 120 Table 4.15 Guest Expectations versus Management Perceptions in Regards of HSs 135 Table 4.16 Ranking HSs in Reference to Managers’ Perception of the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs 151 Table 4.17 Gaps one the Positioning Gap and Gap five the Perception Gap 155 Table 4.18 The RG Preferences Model Table 4.19 A Model of the Hospitality Gaps (Gap one: the Positioning Gap and Gap Five: the Perception Gap) 166 168 Table 4.20 The RG’s Cycle Model Table 4.21 The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Table 4.22 A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance the RG’s Satisfaction and Profitability 171 175 180 Table 4.23 Application of Strategies in the Russian Tourism Changeable Market Compared to HSs Changeable Situations. 185 13
  • 14. List Of Figure Figure Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 3.1 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 5.1 Title Tourist Number for the Year 2010 Compared with (2009) Tourism Nights for the Year 2010 Compared with (2009) Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourist Capacity of the RS and South Sinai Average from the Total of the Hotels and Tourist Villages’ Capacity (2009) Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Millions Russian Federation Tourism Nights to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Russian Federation Tourist Arrive to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Ttourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009) Tourist Number from Russia Compared to All the Regions During ( 6002to 2009) Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists (2010) Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights (2010) Map of Russia Primary Data The RG,s Preferences The RG’s Cycle Model The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Applications A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance RG's Satisfaction and Profitability The Summary of the Theoretical and Practical Objectives 14 Page 7 7 11 27 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 61 89 172 176 177 181 188
  • 15. List of Abbreviations To achieve the clarification in this study, the following abbreviations are defined for better understanding. These abbreviations are as follows: AI ATOR B&Bs CIA CDWS CTE ECTC ECTE EHA ETAA ETF FB F&B GCCs HB HSs ISO MFA RATA RG RS RSRs RT SERVQUAL SIS SPSS TV UK UNWTO USA USSR UWIC WEB All-Inclusive Daily travel and tourism news portal for the international travel trade market since 1999 Bed And Breakfast Central Intelligence Agency Chamber of Diving and Water Sports Chamber of Tourism Establishments Egyptian Chamber of Tourists Commodities Egyptian Chamber of Tourist Establishments Egyptian Hotel Association Egyptian Travel Agents Association Egyptian Tourism Federation Full Board Food and Beverage Guest Comment Cards Half Board Hospitality Services International Organization for Standardization Ministry of Forign Affairs Russian Association of Travel Agencies Russian guest Red Sea Red Sea Resorts Russia Today Service Quality (A Multiple Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality) Egyptian State Information Service Statistical Package for Social Sciences Television United Kingdom United Nation World Tourism Organization United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics University of Wales Institute, Cardiff An Evaluation of the World Wide Web 15
  • 16. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview of the Study Tourism is one of the most remarkable success stories of modern times. The industry, which began on a massive scale only in the 1960s, has grown rapidly and steadily for the past 30 years in terms of the income it generates and the number of people who travel abroad (William, 2005). Tourism has become an integral component of lifestyle and it has also become a major component of the economic success of almost all countries (Kandampully, 2000). Meanwhile, Weaver and Lawton (2006) argued that tourism is most often associated with people who are on holiday. Also, it is considered as one of the leisure activity forms that take place away from home and place of work. The Russian market is assuming to play a vital role in the Egyptian tourism industry. Dittmer and Griffin (1997) stated that the word of hospitality is derived from the Latin word hospitare, meaning to “receive as a guest”. Several related words came from the same source, including hospital, hospice, and hostel. In each of these terms, the principal meaning focuses on a host who receives, welcomes, and caters to the requirements of people who are temporarily away from their homes. These requirements of a guest have been food, beverage, and lodging. Moreover, the hospitality industry is made up of two different services as pointed out by Jones (2002) these services are overnight accommodation for people staying away from home and sustenance for people eating away from home. Both of these services meet very basic guest needs and requirements which are the need to sleep and to eat as well. While Abraham (2009) stated that the hospitality industry is an industry that is made up of businesses that provide accommodation, F&B and meetings to tourists. Moreover Brey (2009) reported that a full-service lodging facility provides access to or offers a range of amenities and recreation facilities to emphasize a leisure experience. Resorts serve as the primary provider of the guests’ experience, often provide services for business or meetings, and are characteristically located in vacation-oriented settings. In addition, Powers and Barrows (2006) added that the hospitality industry today has been recognized as a universal industry; with procedures and guests spread over most of world. 16
  • 17. Hospitality industry classified into three main segments which are: accommodation services, F&B services and leisure and recreation activities. Williams (2006) pointed that the tourism and hospitality industry has become a major economic activity through the use of leisure time. The importance of tourism to the hospitality industry is clear. This is because some parts of the industry such as resorts receive almost all of their sales from guests (Powers and Barrows, 2006). Moreover Abraham (2009) stated that the tourism and hospitality business are neither identical nor interchangeable. While tourism is comprised of many goods and services that are produced by hospitality enterprises, these hospitality businesses also provide goods and services to non tourists (local residents and non-tourist travellers) as well. Parasuraman et al. (1985) stated that service quality is a function of prepurchase guest expectations, perceived process quality and perceived output quality. SERVQUAL is a service quality measurement model that has been extensively applied. The SERVQUAL model was developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985). Wisniewski (2001) argue that, with minor modification, SERVQUAL can be adapted to any service organization, and that information on service quality gaps can help administrators to make a judgment where performance development can be targeted. Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1993) in Mehta, Lobo and Khong (2002) propose that a “gap” known as the zone of tolerance exists between desired and adequate service, and is subjected to changes by factors affecting both desired and adequate service expectations (Parasuraman et al., 1988, 1991). Moolla et al. (2001) argues that satisfaction is related to a service encounter, whereas service quality relates to the superiority of service. This gap is as a measure of service quality rather than a measure of satisfaction on the basis of the nature of expectations included and the timing involved. The SERVQUAL model as stated by Parasuraman et al. (1985) identifies main five gaps related to managerial perceptions of service quality and tasks related to service delivery to customers. Four of these gaps (Gap 1, Gap 2, Gap 3, and Gap 4) are focused on the way in which service is delivered; while, Gap 5 is related to the guests’ expectations against perceptions (Table 1.1). The following paragraphs explain each gap in details as follows: 17
  • 18. Gap 1 (the positioning gap): Guests’ expectations versus management perceptions. “Management does not understand how the Service should be designed and what support or secondary services the guest requires, i.e. what the right quality for the guest is”, (Moolla and du Plessis, 2001:3). This gap is the result of lack of a marketing research and poor communication (Shahin, 2004). Gap 2 (the specification gap): Management perceptions versus service specification. “Often in an attempt to reduce costs, management places internal restrictions on how a service is to be performed, restrictions which deprive the staff of the opportunity to meet the guest’s expectations”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). This gap is the result of the poor service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, inadequate task standardisation as well as an absence of goal setting (Shahin, 2004). Gap 3 (the delivery gap): Service specification versus service delivery. “Even if the quality of service is carefully specified in a company, the result in practice may be different from what was intended. Service quality is difficult to standardize since it is often dependent on personal contact between the guest and company staff”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). The reason for this gap is the result of the role of uncertainty and conflict; poor employee level and poor technology; unsuitable administrative control system; lack of control and lack of teamwork (Shahin, 2004). Gap 4 (the communication gap): Service delivery versus external communication. “It is important not to promise the guest more than the company can deliver. At the same time, it is important for the company to inform 18
  • 19. guests about the efforts being made to elevate the quality, which would otherwise not be visible to the guest”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). This is because of poor level of communications and prop overpromise (Shahin, 2004). Another reason for this gap is when the promises do not match the guests’ expectations (Douglas and Connor, 2003). Gap 5 (the perception gap): The discrepancy between the guests’ expectations and their perceptions of the service delivered. “This is the most crucial gap. This gap is a function of other gaps: i.e. Gap 5 = f (gaps 1, 2, 3, and 4). It is this gap that Parasuraman et al. (1985) seek to measure using the SERVQUAL instrument”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). As a result of the influences exerted from the guest side and the gaps on the part of the service provider. In this case, the guests’ expectations are influenced by (1) Personal requirements, (2) word of mouth recommendation and (3) past service experiences (Shahin, 2004). 19
  • 20. Table 1.1: Gaps Details The Gap Number Between First Part Gap 1 Guest expectations Raison Remarks Versus Management perceptions lack of a marketing research orientation; poor communication and too many level of management Positioning Gap Gap 2 Specification Gap Gap 3 Management perceptions Service specification Service specification Service delivery Delivery Gap Gap 4 Service delivery External communication Communication Gap Gap 5 Perception Gap Guest expectations of the service delivered Guest perceptions of the service delivered poor commitment to service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, poor task standardisation and absence goal This gap is the result of the role of ambiguity and conflict; poor employee and poor technology; unsuitable supervisory control system; lack of control and lack of teamwork. Poor level of communications and overpromise. Another reason for this gap is when the promises communicated by the business to guests do not match the guests’ expectations. As a result of the influences exerted from the guest side and the gaps on the part of the service provider. In this case, the guests’ expectations are influenced by the extent of personal requirements, word of mouth advice and past service experiences. Adapted from Douglas and Connor. (2003) and Shahin. (2004). 20
  • 21. Application of SERVQUAL: The SERVQUAL model can be used in a many situations evaluating quality of service such as:  Allowing the service manager to assess current service quality and quantify gaps that exists. (Wisniewski, 2001a).  Understanding of the broad areas where guests have particularly high or low expectations and an assessment of where there may be relatively large gaps (Wisniewski, 2001a).  Allowing focus on particular problem areas through a breakdown of a dimension into its constituent statements (Wisniewski, 2001 a).  Comparing different guest groups, where guests will have varying requirements and who do not use services in exactly the same way (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Comparing different parts of the same service on a geographical basis (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Comparing different parts of the service: Gap analysis also allows comparisons to be made across different parts of the same service on a geographical basis, so that comparison of expectations of guests within each area becomes possible; so does the classification of similar, or different, service quality gaps across areas, (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Measuring the gap between expected service levels and perceived service levels as an ultimate solution “to better measure service quality rather than performance” (Kolb, 2005: 1). In this study, gaps model will be used to determine the relationship between Russian guest (RG) requirements and hospitality services (HSs) offered in the Red Sea resorts (RSRs) through discrepancy between guests’ expectations versus management perceptions and the discrepancy between the guests’ expectations and their perception of the service in order to meet guest requirements and to achieve guest satisfaction as well. This chapter briefly reflects the study in sections from the background and overview of the study to research problem, aim, objectives, limitation, and finally thesis structure. 21
  • 22. 1.2 The Research Importance Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry overall the world and it is widely regarded as a growth vehicle which able to generate more income as international tourism becomes a global trend and its volume increases rapidly, tourism industry occupies an advanced rank on the international level among the important income-generating industries and will remain so in the future because of its great economic importance in the balance of payments for different countries , the increase of foreign exchange earnings as well as providing job opportunities in different fields (Theobald, 2004, *Ayman Munir, 2007, and *Ezat, 2009 ). Moreover (Table 1.2) the * the ministry of Tourism (2010d) stated a report of the tourism indicators (Tourist – Tourism nights – Income) for the year 2010 Compared with 2009 (see Figure 1.1, and 1.2). Table 1.2: The Tourism Indicators (Tourist – Tourism Nights – Income) for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Tourism Indicator 2010 2009 Deference Deference % Russian Tourist Number 2855723 2035330 820393 40.3% Total Tourist Number 14730813 12535885 2194928 17.5% 19.4 % 16.2 % Russian Nights 25037045 17917730 7119315 39.7% Tourism Nights 147385089 126533535 20851554 16.5% 17 % 14.2 % Percentage from the Total (%) Percentage from the Total (%) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) ________________________ * In Arabic 22
  • 23. 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 Russian Tourist Number 8000000 Total Tourist Number 6000000 4000000 19.4 % 16.2 % Linear (Russian Tourist Number) 2000000 0 Tourist Number (2009) Tourist Number (2010) Figure 1.1: Tourist Number for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 160000000 140000000 120000000 100000000 80000000 Russian Nights 60000000 Total Tourism Nights 40000000 20000000 14.2 % Linear (Total Tourism Nights) 17 % 0 Tourism Nights (2009) Tourism Nights (2010) Figure 1.2: Tourist Nights for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 23
  • 24. Understanding cultural differences and similarities provides destinations marketers in a host country with strategic policies upon which any planning and marketing efforts should be grounded. Moreover the tourism destinations itself is a core part of the tourism product, and each destination possessed an image that differentiates it from others. Diverse literature on travel behaviour research has supported the proposition that the destination image plays a significant role in travellers’ destination behaviour (Lee and Lee, 2009). Understanding the different segments of guests and their behavior may be especially important because some market segments are stronger destination advocates than others and some travel segments are more influenced by word of mouth than others (Pritchard et al. 1998; Penny and Judy 2008). For that the research will be focused on the Russian market. Wei-Chia (2003) stated that operations have to recognize and understand the requirements of the guests in order to survive. In terms of the importance of leisure as one of the major RG purposes today, Lee and Tideswell (2005) declared that leisure and recreation have a positive influence on the lives of the majority of people and in particular their satisfaction with life. They also added that the interests and desires of the majority of people are satisfied today through leisure and recreation activities. Moreover each culture contains smaller subculture groups of people with shared value systems based on common experiences and situation. People within a given level tend to present the similar behaviour, including buying behaviour (Kotler, 2001; Wei-Chia, 2003). This means that the hospitality providers should meet the requirements of this segment of the RG in order to achieve their satisfaction. Therefore, the researcher will be focused in this study on the RG requirements and satisfactions. To achieve the aim of this study which is matching degree of HSs offered in accordance to the RG requirements in the RSRs. 24
  • 25. According to the forecast of the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Russia will hold the tenth position of the major exporting country of tourism (about 30 million guests) in year 2020. The Russian market is assuming to play a vital role in the Egyptian tourism industry. There is increase from eleven thousand visitors in the 1990 up to one and half million visitors in the 2007 to hold the first destination for the tourism in Egypt by 11% of total imported tourism to Egypt (*The ministry of Tourism, 2007). Moreover (Table 1.3) The ministry of Tourism stated a report of the primary ten markets for incoming tourism to Egypt through the year of 2007 compared with 2008. Table 1.3: Primary Ten Markets for Incoming Tourism to Egypt through the Year of (2007) Compared with (2008 ) 2007 2008 Country Number of % Country Number of NO. tourists tourists 1. Russia 1,516,561 2. 3. Germany United Kingdom 1,085,930 1,055,012 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Italy France Libya Saudi Arabia Ukraine Poland The United States Total The Primary Ten Markets Total Incoming Tourism Percentage of Russia from Total Incoming Tourism 21.9% Russia % 6,923,478 22.3% 15.7% Germany 1,202,509 15.2% United 1,201,859 Kingdom 14.2% Italy 1,073,159 6.7% Poland 598,928 6.3% France 586,861 6.0% Ukraine 506,453 5.2% Libya 481,548 4.8% Saudi Arabia 402,287 3.9% The United 319,112 States 100% 8,198,028 983,293 464,239 439,469 412,466 358,969 335,016 272,523 1,825,312 14.7 % 14.7 % 11,090,863 12,835,351 13.7% 14.2% Adapted from * The ministry of Tourism, (2009). __________________ * In Arabic 25 13.1 % 7.3 % 7.2 % 6.2 % 5.9 % 4.9 % 3.9 % 100%
  • 26. In addition RATA, (2011) The Russian Association of Travel Agencies stated a report about the export tourism directions from (2006 to 2010) pointed out that Egypt is the second destination for the RG through the period 2006 to 2010 and shows that there is a continued growth in the export tourism from Russia to Egypt achieve 2198.3 guest in year 2010 with a percentage of 17.4% from total export tourism (Table 1.4 and Figure 1.3). Table 1.4: The Russian Association of Travel Agencies Report about the Export Tourism Directions from (2006 to 2010) NO Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 1. Turkey 1475.6 1923.4 2212.8 1966.7 2. 1255.4 1426.7 Egypt 902.8 3. China 4. Finland 5. Germany 6. Thailand 7. Italy 8. Spain 9. Greece 10. UAE 11. Czech Republic 12. Bulgaria 13. Cyprus 14. France 15. Ukraine 16. Israel 17. Tunisia 18. Montenegro 19. Austria 20. Switzerland Total Tourist Departures 1307 562.6 225.7 144.8 245.8 246.1 198.8 173.9 136.2 148.3 113.1 138.6 511.7 23.7 93.0 65.8 53.4 44.4 7752.8 1651.7 2059.3 657.1 666.9 231.3 330.3 232.2 258.8 334.1 398.1 318.6 365.4 244 349.2 207.2 228.1 178 227.0 173.1 207.5 150.5 172.4 170.7 229.2 249.1 309.8 45.3 98.7 129.7 149.0 66.5 84.6 767 102.1 57.6 83.0 9369.0 11313.7 999.2 1440.4 556.3 709.0 363.3 470.7 233.1 464.8 336.1 451.5 296.3 411.4 282.3 386.7 214.3 286.9 213.9 267.5 207.4 263.2 155.1 234.3 200.1 222.7 219.5 205.4 134.7 184.8 123.2 180.1 108.1 143.3 96.6 135.5 106.4 123.3 9555.2 12605.0 The Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourism 11.7% 13% 17% 12.6% 1615.4 2010 2367.6 Adopted from the Russian Association of Travel Agencies (RATA), (2011). 26 2198.3 17.4%
  • 27. 14000 12000 Egypt 10000 Total tourist departures 8000 6000 4000 2000 11.7% 13% 12.6% 17% 17.4% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Figure 1.3: Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourist Adopted from (RATA) the Russian Association of Travel Agencies, (2011) The top three in absolute numbers didn’t change at all – Turkey, Egypt and China. After 2011 Egypt is likely to fall back sacrificing the growing tourist inflow from Russia to the revolution. Just a few steps were keeping Egypt from taking over Turkey’s first place. Both countries put on, but Egypt added 36% (17th place in terms of growth rate), while Turkey added only 20.4% (36 th place). Here are some other interesting figures: comparing to successful 2008 Turkey showed 7% increase in 2010, Egypt – 36%. As a result Egypt almost caught up with Turkey, losing a bit more than one hundred and sixty nine thousand. Compare these figures: in 2008 the difference between the numbers of arrivals from Russia was more than seven hundred and eighty six thousand, in 2009 –three hundred and fifty one thousand. The total number of departures from Russia for various purposes was 39,323,000 – 14% more compared to 2009 (RATA, 2011). 27
  • 28. 1.3 The Research Aim and Objectives The overall aim of this study is matching degree of HSs offered in accordance to the RG requirements in the RSRs, to develop suggested practice models in order to increase the RG satisfaction and maximizing profitability. This aim will be achieved through the following objectives: 1) Undertake a critical literature review on matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG, and studding the RG behaviour, expectations, satisfaction and loyalty, as well as Russian market overview. 2) Assess the magnitude of the RG in the Red Sea (RS) destinations through Survey study for a sample of the RSRs to find out the percentage of RG and the size of Russian market segment as well as to find out which meal plan applies the most to the RG. 3) Investigate guest preferences, expectations, and perceptions regarding HSs offered in a sample of five and four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh, and Hurghada. 4) Investigate managers’ perceptions towards the RG expectations regarding HSs in a sample of five and four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh, and Hurghada. 5) Developing suggested practice models regarding of the RG preferences from HSs, the hospitality gaps, the RG cycle, and for the resort managers regarding the RG preferences and requirements from HSs in order to increase the RG satisfaction. 6) Develop a set of recommendations to improve internal and external guest satisfaction and maximizing the profit. 28
  • 29. 1.4 The Research Questions To achieve the main aim and objectives of this study the research investigates set to answer these questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What are the RG behaviour and attitude? What are the affective factors in the RSRs that attract the RG? What are the RG requirements from HSs? What are the perceptions of the hospitality managers in terms of the requirements of RG from HSs? What is the matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG in the RSRs? What is the level of satisfaction of the RG toward HSs offered in the RSRs? How the resort managers meet the requirements of RG? What are the strategies to achieve the RG satisfaction and maximize the Russian market share in Egypt? 1.5 The Research Limitation The study originates matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG. Indubitably, it was difficult to assess most of the RSRs due to, costs, time involved, and the accessibility to these resorts. For these reasons, the ones which were investigated at were limited to forty samples from Sharm El Sheikh Resorts, as well as forty from the famous Hurgada Resorts. The research was inspected at the ministry of Tourism and Russian Impasse to collect historical data about the RG. 29
  • 30. 1.6 Thesis Structure This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the Introduction which provides the basic framework of the study. Its components include: an overview of the study, the research importance, the research aim and objectives, the research questions, research limitation, and the structure of the study. The second chapter is entitled “The literature review”, which provides a theoretical framework of the study. It includes matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG, guest perception, satisfaction and loyalty, Russian market. The third chapter is concerned with study methodology. It illustrates the instrument used to achieve the research aims, the population and sample size, as well as the methods used to analyze the collected data. The fourth chapter includes the results and discussions of questionnaire and the semi-structured interviews in order to identify the RGs’ requirements for HSs in a sample of four and five star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurgada. Moreover, it provides a descriptive analysis of the questionnaire by using weighted average, gap analysis and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The chapter ends with developing models for resort managers in order to better meet the RGs’ requirements and requirements to increase the RG satisfaction and maximize the profit for HSs in Egypt. The fifth chapter is entitled conclusion, summary, and recommendations. It provides the recommendations of the study based on the guests’ and managers’ perspectives regarding HSs. 30
  • 31. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest 2.1.1 Requirements of Russian Guest in Terms of Hospitality Services Lewis (1985) noted that quality, security and image were perceived as important factors in affecting accommodation choice. Leisure guests were more concerned with quietness, service quality and location. Moreover, Knutson (1988) suggested some consistent criteria apply across different classes of resorts, such as cleanliness, location, and a safe as well as secure environment. Simon (2004) stated that there is an increase in family travel. Now children are travelling with their parents more than ever. Visiting a resort for a family vacation is certainly appropriate. There is also travel with grandparents, parents, and children all vacationing together. Resorts need to be equipped to serve all markets. Guest Requirements Elements are:  Ambiance or resort feel.  Lodging features/amenities.  Guest service quality.  Cost of stay given value.  Property condition/physical characteristics.  Resort information accuracy.  Resort’s reputation.  Geographic location.  F&B services.  Surrounding community.  Outdoor recreation.  Indoor recreation  Having diverse activities or options for everyone. 31
  • 32. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Entertainment activities.  Well-being-related services.  Family services.  Technology availability.  Business services. While all together provide an insight into the importance positioned on other secondary resort elements such as shopping outlets, guest service personnel, and information technology resources (Fallon and Schofield , 2003; Brey et al ., 2008 ). The RG Requirements 1. Many Russians prefer to spend their leisure time in exercise sports such as football games, which have a large audience as well as ice hockey, tennis, skiing, and golf. 2. Russians love and enjoy television (TV) channels especially the first and second Russian national channels have high watching rate. 3. There is also a national mania by cinema, where the citizens attend the cinema in large numbers. 4. The Russians also like reading as it was noted that the average Russian read books three times as much as the Americans (Michell, 1998, and *Elias, 2002). Russian cuisine is one of the most popular and widely spread in the world. Russian cuisine is healthy, delicious and taste beautiful. Russian dishes are easy to cook and they do not demand much skill and special ingredients, they do not need exotic equipment and tool and everybody who knows how to hold a cooking knife and how to peel potatoes can cook most delicious Russian dishes such as Plemeni, Borcht, and Russian salad, and from dessert ice cream (*Elias, 2002, and Russian crafts, 6006). ___________________ *In Arabic 32
  • 33. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1.2 Hospitality Services Offered in the Resorts The hospitality industry is built in the relationship between hosts and guests, which has existed since the first human societies. The relationship is defined in terms of honour and respect. It is an honour for someone to visit you. Moreover, as a good host, you treat your guest with respect and offer him comfort, security and entertainment (Clarke and Chen, 2007). Powers (1995) defined resorts as a destinations property which invites a guest to spend a week or more and provides the wide leisure facilities a vacationer expects. Some destinations resorts offer a mix of activities suited to the sports enthusiast. Moreover, Powers and Barrows (2003) stated those resorts are resorts located in a pleasing location and have 200 to 500 guest rooms. Resorts provide a wideranging selection of recreational services, depending on the geographical location. A variety of F&B outlets are available, ranging from casual to finedining restaurants. Many resorts are located in remote locations. Moreover, Dharmaraj (2004) added that the resort provide special services to the visitors. The type of services and amenities in the resort property include recreation facilities such as a swimming pool, a golf course, tennis courts, skiing, boating, surf riding and other indoor sports. The other important amenities like coffee shops, restaurants, conference rooms, lounge, shopping arcade and entertainment. Factors that Attract Resort Guests Ninemeier and Perdue (2005) explained that guests who utilize resorts do so primarily for pleasure. They are typically attracted to a specific property for one of four reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. Location. Reputation. Property activities. Local activities. 33
  • 34. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Types of Resorts By seasonality:  All-year round resort.  Summer resort.  Warm winter resort.  Cold winter resort (Powers and Barrows 1999). By designation: • Spa resort. • Golf resort. • Ski resort. • Guest ranch. • Diving resort. • Fishing resort. • Marina resort. • Casino resort. • Conference resort. • Camp-site. • Eco resort. • Theme park resort. By location: • Urban resort. • Beach or seaside resort. • Lake resort. • Mountain resort. • Island resort • Desert resort. • Tropical rainforest resort (sensitive and restrictive). • Farm-related. By size: • Mega-resort. • Boutique resort. By form of ownership: • Conventional. 34
  • 35. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE • • • • • Syndicate. Interval/timeshare. Condo resort. Vacation club. Luxury destination club (American hotel and lodging Educational institute, 2010). Difference between Resorts and Non-Resorts According to Van Hoof et al. (1996) the difference between resorts and nonresorts can be discerned in two aspects: 1. Location: resorts are normally located in the most desirable physical locations, as compares to urban hotels, islands, mountains, deserts, and lakefront sites are usually the prime locations for resort development. 2. Function: resorts offer more than just lodging and F&B services to their guests. They provide guests with luxury accommodations, numerous F&B outlets, lavish entertainment, and exciting recreational activities, such as golf, tennis, skiing, and various water sports. Resorts are a unique segment within the resort industry because of the seasonality of their business (in many cases), a dependence on location, and the availability of leisure activities beyond those normally provided by resort. There are a number of benefits to operate resorts. Guests are much more relaxed in comparison to those at transient resorts, and the resorts are located in beautiful areas. This frequently enables staff to enjoy a better quality of life than do their transient resort counterparts. Returning guests tend to treat associates like friends. This adds to the overall party-like atmosphere, which is prevalent at many of the establishment resorts. Furthermore because guests are protected in the resort, they expect to be pampered. This requires an attentive, well-trained staff and that is a challenge in some remote areas and in developing countries (Walker, 2006). The variety of features, attributes, and elements that are available at a resort play a significant role in creating a satisfactory vacation experience. And definitely, prior research has shown that the onsite activities provided have a great influence on resort consumers’ perceptions of quality and satisfaction from resort vacation experiences (Costa et al., 2004; Brey et al., 2008). 35
  • 36. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Of most of the attractive elements, the most attention given includes elements relating to activity and recreation options available to resort visitors. Included were outdoor recreation facilities, indoor recreation facilities, entertainment, planned activities, family activities, services, having diverse activities, options for everyone, and health-related services. Another set of elements receiving consistent attention includes those relating to the quality of the lodging amenities, F&B services, and guest service. Other elements examined less frequently include the ambiance or feel of the resort, the physical characteristics and condition of the resort property, the cost of staying at the resort relative to the value received, and the availability of information about the resort. Elements examined least frequently in these past efforts include the resort’s reputation, geographic location, surrounding community, and the technological resources and business services available to resort visitors (Brey et al., 2008). Resort concept as applied to the operation of resort connotes the provision of facilities, services and amenities that serve individuals, families, and groups who are on holiday and vacation. Today, many resorts look to the convention and group travel business as an important secondary market to fill the troughs in their business cycle (Gee, 1995). While Walker (1996) stated that resorts became more astute in marketing to different types of guests. Many resorts began to attract conventions, conferences, and meeting this increases occupancy particularly during the low or shoulder seasons. Moreover Walker (2006) assured that to increase occupancies, resorts have diversified their marketing mix to include conventions, business meetings, sales meetings, incentive groups, sporting events, additional sporting and recreational facilities, spas, adventure tourism, ecotourism, and so on. Gee (1995) explained that operators agree to operate the resorts for three common factors to successful resorts: 1. Reputation of resort. 2. Attraction of the local. 3. Recreational facilities offered by the resort. These factors influence the marketing and management of resorts as well as building and facilities design, space allocation for guest rooms, recreation, sports, entertainment facilities, public attraction, shopping, health care, as well as special services that add to guest satisfaction and help build repeat business. 36
  • 37. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1.3 Accommodation Services in Resorts The accommodation services are one of the most important elements of the hospitality industry. This is because the basic function of these establishments is to provide the overnight services to customers. Dittmer (2002) stated that Major metropolitan areas include numerous accommodation properties of widely varying types. These range from limited service to full service; from simplyfurnished small rooms to luxuriously-furnished large rooms; from the simplest to the most elaborate décor; from very cheap prices to extremely expensive; and from these targeting bus travellers to these catering to corporate managers and show business personalities. Moreover Powers and Barrows (2006) classified it into four main categories according to: 1. Price.  Limited service hotels.  Full-service hotels. 2. Function.  Luxury hotels.  Commercial hotels. 3. Location.  Airport hotels.  Downtown hotels.  Suburban hotels.  Highway hotels. 4. Market segment.  Resort hotels.  Casino hotels.  Health spas.  Executive conference centres. 37
  • 38. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chon and Maier (2010) agreed with Dix and Baird (1992) in that the accommodation plans can be classified into four main categories as follows: 1. Room only. (European Plan) 2. Room and breakfast. (Continental Plan) 3. Half board (HB). (Modified American Plan) Include room, breakfast, and one other meal either lunch or dinner, usually dinner. 4. Full board (FB). (American Plan) Include room, breakfast, lunch, and dinner, although some hotels may also include afternoon tea in the rate. 5. All-Inclusive (AI) Include all meals, and also use of sports and social facilities of the resort. This is very attractive package for resorts, and much easier accounting. Swarbrooke and Horner (1999) mentioned that First Choice holidays have conducted limited market research on guest returning from A holidays. Overall idea of these visitors seems to be very smart. 2.1.4 Food and Beverages Services in Resorts Food is important not only for its nutritional value, but other value dimensions. Food is considered as an expression of friendship, symbolic of family traditions, related to prestige status and religious observance (Vlisides et al., 2000; Wei-Chia, 2003). Moreover, Mark (2004) declared that consumer lifestyles have changed significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in both modifications in the type of food and drinks products. Demands set by three major guest trends: 1. Convenience. 2. Health. 3. Pleasure. Price and convenience are the major factors in the decision to eat out. Other important factors were the hygiene and cleanliness of the restaurant, fast and friendly service, and the ambience of the facility. Restaurant design may effect a restaurant's environment. The dining area should be comfortable. Also the decoration of the restaurant should suit the restaurant theme. 38
  • 39. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Other studies have shown that the most frequent factors affecting consumers' satisfaction are speed of service, hour of operation, food eye appeal, and restaurant reputation. Additional factors like recommendation from friends, the availability of nutrition information, appropriate selection of regional ethnic dishes, and employee courtesy are also important (Castelo and Salay, 2001; Piyavan, 2004). MacLaurin and MacLaurin (2000) stated that the menu should be simple to understand while fitting with the theme of the restaurant. In addition, a well done menu must be attractive to guests as well as should offer a number of foods. 2.1.5 Recreational Services in Resorts The term hospitality can be expanded to cover all products and services offered to the guest away from home including travel, lodging, eating, entertainment and recreation (Knowles, 1998). Recreation is considered to be activity voluntarily undertaken, primarily for pleasure and satisfaction during leisure time (John, 1983). Horner and Swarbrooke (2005) defined recreation as activities and experiences usually carried on within leisure and usually chosen voluntarily for satisfaction, pleasure, or creative enrichment. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, and useful for society or detrimental (Bovy, and Lawson, 1998). Recreation is an activity of leisure. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun". Rechner (2010) mentioned that Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" seems to be an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun". The term recreation implies participation to be healthy refreshing mind and body. Recreational and entertainment services are other huge components of the hospitality industry segments (Powers and Barrows, 2006).It should be noted that leisure industry is encompassing a wide range of activities including cinema and travel (Mark, 2004). 39
  • 40. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Outdoor recreation has been broadly defined to include:            Just being outdoors. Creative activities. Health or relaxation. Utility journeys. Informal games and play. High adrenalin, non-competitive activities. Commercially run activities. Study of the natural environment. Educational activities and programmes. Conservation volunteering. Sustainable journeys to outdoor recreation (Alan, 2006). 2.1.6 Hospitality Services Delivered in the RSRs Cook et al. (2006) stated that guests prefer to purchase tour package rather than buy from individual tourism suppliers. The reasons are many but benefits include: 1. Convenience: Guest does not need to spend a lot of time deciding what to do and which supplier to deal with. 2. One-stop shopping: AI tours can be nearly cash free and allow the guest to know how much the trip will cost. The buying process is much easier. 3. Cost saving: Tour packages are less expensive than the cost if the guest were to by all of its advantages separately. 4. Worry-free: Guests on a resort or guide tour are able to concentrate on the experience, leaving details in the hands of tour team. Egyptian RSRs The classic RS destination is characterized with sunshine and warm waters all year round (Egypt travel association 2011). Moreover Top Hotels (2011) stated that Egypt has long been a center of attraction for travellers from all over the world. Especially this country is popular among Russians. Egyptian resorts are attractive from all points of view: lower prices for housing, food, 40
  • 41. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE souvenirs, picturesque the RS with a huge number and variety of fish and coral, the highest level of service and interesting excursions to the ancient monuments of the centuries-old civilization. Here rest is found for every taste and purse. In Egypt, there are many resort areas in Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, Dahab, El Gouna, Safaga, Soma Bay, Marsa Alam, and Taba. In Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada rests the bulk of tourists, the other resorts are a little less loaded. Sharm El Sheikh The city of Sharm El Sheikh is always referred to as the "Land of Peace" as many political, scientific and tourist conferences and meetings were held over its land. With its unique location in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, it is considered the strategic passageway, the meeting point between Asia and Africa, and the cradle of great civilizations, with its features of environment that combine together history, tourism, industry and agriculture, it has become a main attraction for tourists, travelers and businessmen (Egypt State Information Services (SIS), 2011). Sharm El Sheikh is the closest destination to Europe where tourists can soak up sun, dive amazing corals reefs, and enjoy the sea any time tourists need a break from routine. The climate is lovely and dry all year long with temperatures ranging between 20° and 25° C in the winter months, whereas in summer the temperatures go up a little reaching highs of 30 to 35° C. Sharm El Sheikh boasts the widest array of fun, exciting and even clear water and extreme sports: besides diving, snorkelling, sailing, wind and kite-surfing, even sky diving or parachuting from a helicopter. Moreover, tourists can enjoy trips and safaris into the nearby Sinai desert and discover the amazing St Catherine Monastery, or the majestic Sinai Mountains. Also head to Sharm for a wellness and pampering holiday; the town is home to Egypt’s most famous and professional Spas in Egypt (Top Hotels, 2011). Moreover (Table 2.1, and Figure 2.1) the ministry of Tourism reported the Breakdown of the hotels and tourist villages’ capacity by main governorates areas 2009 (*The ministry of Tourism 2010c). ________________ * In Arabic 41
  • 42. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.1: Breakdown of Hotels and Tourist Villages Capacity by Governorates Areas (2009) Governorate/ Area Units Rooms Beds No. % No. % No. % RS 305 26.0 70191 35.6 140382 35.6 South Sinai 343 29.3 69376 35.1 138752 35.1 North Sinai Greater Cairo Luxor and Aswan Alexandria Sector Suez Canal Cities Lower Egypt Upper Egypt 11 174 78 97 65 50 48 0.9 14.9 6.7 8.3 5.6 4.3 4.1 767 29513 8271 8869 6382 1950 2068 0.4 15.0 4.2 4.5 3.2 1.0 1.0 1534 59026 16542 17738 12764 3900 4136 0.4 15.0 4.2 4.5 3.2 1.0 1.0 1171 100 197387 100 394774 100 Total Adapted from *The ministry of Tourism (2010c) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 35.1 % 50% 40% 35.1 % Total South Sinai 29.3 % Red Sea 30% 20% 10% 26 % 35.6 % 35.6 % Rooms Beds 0% Units Figure 2 .1: Capacity of the RS and South Sinai average from the Total of the Hotels and Tourist Villages’ Capacity (2009) Adapted from* The ministry of Tourism (2010c) ________________ *In Arabic 42
  • 43. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Hurghada Hurghada is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt. It is a main tourist center and second largest city (after Suez Canal) in Egypt located on the Red Seacoast. Hurghada city was founded in the early 20th century, and since the 1980s has been continually enlarged by Egyptian and foreign investors to become the leading seashore resort on the Red Sea. Holiday villages and hotels provide aquatic sport facilities for sailboarders, yachtsmen, scuba divers and snorkelers (Wikipedia 2013). The city is served by the Hurghada International Airport with scheduled passenger traffic to and from Cairo and direct connections with several cities in Europe. The airport has undergone massive renovations to accommodate rising traffic. Hurghada is known for its water sports activities, nightlife and warm weather. Daily temperature hovers round 30 degrees Celsius most of the year. Numerous Europeans spend their Christmas and New Year holidays in the city, primarily Russians, Germans and Italians (Weather 2 travel. 2013). 43
  • 44. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2 Guest Behaviour, Expectations, Satisfaction and Loyalty 2.2.1 Guest Behaviour Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behaviour. It compromises the basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours that a person learns continuously in a society. People within a given level tend to present the similar behaviour, including buying so that marketers are interested in socioeconomic level to meet and satisfy target guest’s requirements and wants. Understanding the guest behavior is not simple. The guest behavior is a complex interaction among various factors (Kotler, 2001; Wei-Chia, 2003). Quality of service is not only related to guest satisfaction, but also to guest behavioural goal, such as the intention to stay in the same lodging and willingness to recommend the lodging (Ekinci, 2004) . The emotional attachment is important in understanding tourist behavior, including repeat visitation as an outcome, the latter helps, for example, increase tourist numbers to a destination through referrals and positive word-of-mouth (Lee, 2001; Penny and Judy, 2008). The basic beliefs about guest behaviour summarized into five premises: 1. Guest behaviour is purposeful and goal oriented. 2. The guest has free choice. 3. Guest behaviour is a process. 4. Guest behaviour can be influenced. 5. There is a need for guest study (Kotler et al., 1999; Wei - Chia, 2003). Gengqing (2005) agreed with Baloglu and McCleary (1999) in that Tourists’ behavior is expected to be partly conditioned by the image that they have of destinations. Image will influence tourists in the process of choosing a destination, the subsequent evaluation of the trip and in their future intentions. Media is the most powerful tool of communication. It helps promoting the right things on right time. It gives a real exposure to the mass audience about what is right or wrong. Even though media is linked with spreading fake news like a fire, but on the safe side, it helps a lot to inform us about the realities as well. Media has a constructive role to play for the society. Today 44
  • 45. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE News Channels and even some Newspapers is mouthpiece of some social issues, which helps us to estimate the realities of lives. Media has played an important role in order to focus on the social issues in almost every era. It is the fact that in most of the eras, media were not being given free and fair chances to explore the issues of society more openly than it is being given now; but we can't deny this fact that the issues were always raised in order to provide justice to the people (Answers. 2013). Moreover, psychologically the media effect on a large patch of human behavior, especially in a society dominated by media dramatically. Level of perceptible caught on the worlds of fun and advertisements, and their impact short-term and long-term values, attitudes and behavior. The media exercise communications influence social, tourism, educational and strategic information technology and telecommunications and on politics, sports, ideology and religion, war and peace and on foreign relations, terrorism and the mental and physical happiness. Psychology analyzes how the recent cover of a great tragic moments or turn give a definition of culture, such as the first landing on the moon or the last moments of the fall of the head of state(Stewart, 2012). 2.2.2 Guest Requirements The successful marketer will try to understand the target market’s requirements, wants, and demands. Requirements are described as basic human requirements such as food, air, water, clothing, and shelter. People also have strong requirements for recreation, and entertainment. These requirements become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need. Clearly, wants are shaped by one’s society. Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay (Philip, 2002). Wei-Chia (2003) stated that it is important to understand the relevance of human requirements to buyer behaviour. When a need is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity, it becomes a motive. Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the guest to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need. The requirements of the modern consumer set by three major consumer trends are convenience, health and satisfaction (Mark, 2004). It is generally accepted 45
  • 46. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE that tourism consumer choice is primarily purpose or activity driven (Brey et al., 2008). Recent decades have seen the development of a convenience oriented society, driven by changes in family structure, more working mothers, longer working hours. Though it has been a well-documented trend for many years now, there is little evidence that convenience will become less important for guests in the near future (Mark, 2004). 2.2.3 Guest Expectations Guest expectations as guest’s pre-trial beliefs about the product or service (McKinney et al, 2002). Furthermore, Lin (2006) defined it as the beliefs that consumers use to make predictions about what is likely to happen during a service encounter. Expectations are defined by Lin (2006:28) as “the beliefs that consumers use to make predictions about what is likely to happen during a service encounter”. Moreover, the Business Dictionary (2007) defined it as perceived-value that guests seek from the purchase of a product or service. Meanwhile, guest requirements are problems that guest intend to solve with the purchase of a product or service. On the other hand, guest requirements are particular characteristics and specifications of a product or service as determined by a guest. Understanding the guests’ expectations and meeting their requirements can increase a company’s competitive advantage (Fodness and Murray, 1999) achieving the guests’ expectations is considered as one of the most important factor to business success (Millet, 2007). Simon (2004) stated that there are more and more guests who really want to get a feel for the country or area they are visiting; there’s a much greater respect and interest. This is largely the result of literature, TV, and the internet. People are better read and have a good feel for what they want to do. They are well informed and have higher expectations. Liang (2008) agreed with Tse and Wilton (1988) in that consumer satisfaction is the consumer’s response to the evaluation of the perceived discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual performance of the product as perceived after its consumption. 46
  • 47. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Expectations are considered to have a direct influence on satisfaction levels, without any assessment of or comparison to actual performance. Expectations are aligned with the performance levels, and satisfaction is assessed based on these expectations (Oliver 1981, and 1993). Consumers will assimilate satisfaction levels to expectations levels, resulting in satisfaction being high/low when expectations are high/low (Oliver, 1997). Parasuraman (1993) pointed that service expectations are: 1. Predicted expectations (what guests believe is likely to happen). 2. Desired expectations (what guests hope to receive). 3. Adequate expectations (what guests will accept). Miller (1977) identified four types of expectations: 1. Ideal expectations (what can be). 2. Expected expectations (what will be). 3. Minimum tolerable expectations (what must be). 4. Deserved expectations (what should be). Moreover, Social media has made a huge impact on essentially every major industry across the world, and the business of travel and hospitality has reaped the rewards perhaps as well as any other commercial venture. Travel and tourism depends heavily on the use of word-of-mouth to spread opinions and recommendations, and social platforms such as Twitter and Face book allow customers to easily share tips and suggestions, which can be enormously valuable when positive. Some 92 percent of consumers said that they trusted earned media, which includes recommendations from friends and family members, more than any other form of advertising. This info graphic from four pillars takes a closer look at the impact of social media on the travel and hospitality industry (Shea, 2012). 47
  • 48. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.4 Guest Perceptions The perception can be conceptualized as a feeling developed from an evaluation of the use experience (Cadotte et al, 1987). Moreover, While Kotler (2001) defined Perception as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. So that it is important to remember that perceptions are the way an individual see the world (Kotler et al., 1999). Yanqun and Haiyan (2009) agreed with Bou-Llusar et al. (2001) in that quality perception exerts a significant direct influence on guests’ repurchases target. Liang, Yan-Mei (2008) agreed with Wong (2000) that worked out that perception is an overall emotional sensation affected by the experience effect. Moreover, Giese and Cote (2000) pointed out three common perspectives for guest perception: 1. It is an emotional or cognitive response of an individual consumer. 2. The response occurs at a particular time base; it might be repurchasing, before consumption, during consumption, or evolving. 3. The response pertains to a particular focus, such as expectations, consumption experience, product attributes and benefits, salesperson and store or information provided by others. 48
  • 49. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.5 Guest Satisfaction Guest satisfaction is a measure of how products or services supplied by a firm meet guest requirements. Satisfaction in a given situation is the sum of one's feelings or attitudes toward a variety of factors affecting that situation (Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Liang, Yan-Mei, 2008). Johnson and Clark (2005) agreed with Cooper and Lawson (2004) in that satisfaction is the outcome of the guest’s evaluation of a service, which is sometimes referred to as perceived service quality, and can be represented on a continue from delight to extreme dissatisfaction. Field (1999) pointed out that a common five – step process for developing a guest satisfaction program is: 1. Identify the attributes of your product or service that are most important to guests. 2. Measure guest satisfaction levels on these important attributes. 3. Link satisfactions levels to key guest behavior (complaints, use levels, member retention). 4. Identify and implement concrete actions that will improve guest satisfaction and correspondingly, guest behavior. 5. Track results. Satisfaction is largely a function of past experiences and current expectations (Oliver, 1997; Penny and Judy, 2008). The interaction between the actors (staff) and the audience (guests) is based on their mutually understood definition of the situation, service providers do not simply act and tourists do not only watch. Rather, through their interaction, hosts and guests perform together through negotiation, narrative completion, and embodiment (Chronis 2005; Natan, et al., 2009). Guest satisfaction is a strong judge of business success in terms of market share, return on investment, and cost reduction (Spreng et al., 1996). Schroeder (2004) told that guest satisfaction is a relative concept that varies from one guest to another. Also, a guest may be satisfied with today's products but not satisfied in the future. It isn’t enough to just satisfy your guest. Being satisfied is no longer satisfying. Companies always lose some satisfied guests. These guests switch to competitors who can satisfy them more. Resort requirements to deliver more satisfaction than its competitors (Philip, 2003). 49
  • 50. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Resorts need to observe and increase the level of guest satisfaction. The higher the guest satisfaction is the higher the retention. Here are four facts: 1. Attracting new guest can cost 5 to 10 times more than the costs involved in satisfying and retaining current guests. 2. The average company loses between 10 and 30 percent of its guests each year. 3. A 5 percent reduction in the guest satisfaction rate can increase profits by 25 to 85 percent, depending on the industry. 4. The guest profit rate lean to increase over the life of the retained guest (Philip, 2003). Carden et al. (2004) reported that guest satisfaction is a function of consumer expectations with regard to the purchase of a product or service, and the perception of the degree to which those expectations are met after the purchase. The same author defined that guest satisfaction as a post purchase attitude formed through a mental comparison of the quality that a guest expected to receive from an exchange and the level of quality the guest perceives actually receiving from the exchange. 2.2.6 Guest Loyalty Loyalty is a desire to return. That’s important to remember because that is just what are resorts trying to create: a desire to return (Simon, 2004). Yanqun and Haiyan (2009) stated that satisfaction is found to be the most important construct directly leading to guest loyalty which covers dimensions such as guest repurchase intentions, word of mouth, and price increase tolerance. Price loyalty is greater than brand loyalty (Philip, 2003). Pullman and Gross (2004) recognize that loyal guests are the key to success in the hospitality setting. A small increase in loyal guests can result in a substantial increase in profitability (Bowen and Shoemaker, 1998).Maintaining a guest is more profitable than winning a new one because: 1. The cost of serving loyal guests is less. 2. Fewer loyal guests are price sensitive. 3. Loyal guests spend more with the resort (Noon et al., 2003). 50
  • 51. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE As the main goal of any resort is to establish and maintain long-term guest loyalty guest loyalty can be achieved through a number of means: 1. Convenience. 2. Location. 3. Quality. 4. Price. (Wright and Sparks, 1999). Dick and Basu (1994) list four different types of loyalty: 1. True loyalty: guests present favourable correspondence between relative attitude and repeat patronage. 2. Superior loyalty: guests present low relative attitude accompanied by high repeat patronage. 3. Latent loyalty: guests present high relative attitude, with low repeat patronage. 4. Low or no loyalty: guests present weak or low levels of both relative attitudes combined with low repeat patronage. Moreover Sopanen (1996) took this framework to reveal six different types of loyalty: 1. Monopoly loyalty, where there are no available choices. 2. Inertia loyalty, where guests do not actively seek substitutes. 3. Convenience loyalty, where loyalty is solely defined by location. 4. Price loyalty: where guests are influenced by the lowest price. 5. Incentivised loyalty, where loyalty relates to the benefits gained from reward cards and programmes. 6. Emotional loyalty, where guests are influenced by factors such as brand. 51
  • 52. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.7 Discrepancy between The guests’ expectations and Perceptions The good service comes from building relationships with guests (Simon, 2004). Moreover, Clarke and Chen (2007) stated that these services share a common starting point in the relationship between the provider and the guest. These relations are structured in many ways, such as the expectations of the organization and the culture and customs of guests so that resorts should not have to embark on a massive research project to determine what our guests expect. Resorts know what guests want if resort team ask and listen for the guest requirements and expectations, and have a relationship with the guest. Johnson and Clark (2005) illustrated that while the expectations-perception approach to understanding service quality is extremely useful in focusing on the outcome of guest satisfaction and helps identity on mismatches between operational and guest views of quality, it does have some downsides.  Service could be perceived to be 'good' when it is 'bad'.  Service could be perceived to be 'bad' when it is 'good'.  Service that was 'good' last time may only be 'OK' this time.  Satisfied guests may switch. Moreover, Kasper et al., (2006) pointed that for each service dimension and for the total service, a quality judgment can be computed according to the following formula: Perception - Expectations = Perceived value ` Guest satisfaction is a result of what guests think will happen (expectations), interacting with what guest think did happen (perceptions). If the product’s performance falls short of the guests’ expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If performance matches expectations, the buyer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the buyer is delight (Kotler et al., 1999; Wei-Chia, 2003). Reid and Bojanic (2006) simply stated, when guests are satisfied, they are much more likely to purchase from the service provider again. Over time, if they remain satisfied, they become loyal guests. The service gap is 52
  • 53. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE the final gap that exists when there is a difference between guests' expectations of a service and their perceptions of the actual service once it consumed. This gap dealt with the difference between the guest internal perception and expectations of the service (Douglas and Connor, 2003). Smart resorts aim to delight guest by delivering service and value more than they promise. In the long term, the destination image must correspond reasonably closely to the actual characteristics of the place: otherwise guests will not be satisfied (Brian, 2009). Satisfaction levels arise by comparing actual experience with previous experiences and expectations (Oliver, 1980; Penny and Judy, 2008). When people are satisfied with their travel experience, they visit the same destinations again (Spinelli and Canavos, 2000). 2.2.8 Relations between Guest Satisfaction and Loyalty Improving guest service should be a top priority of all managers working in the hospitality and tourism industry (Reid and Bojanic, 2006). Walker (2006) assumed that we not only need to keep guests happy during their stay, but also to keep them returning-with their friends. It costs several times more to attract new guests than to retain existing ones. Tomomi (2008) agreed with Takahashi (1999) in that the level of satisfaction with department stores motivates shoppers to visit them again. The marketer’s goal is to build a mutually profitable long term relationship with its guests, not just sell a product (Philip, 2003). Today, marketers are seeking information on how to build guest loyalty. The increased profit from loyalty comes from reduced marketing costs, increased sales and reduced operational costs (John and Shiang, 2001). With today’s financial pressures, loyal and satisfied guests are essential to the success of business. Operations have to recognize and understand the requirements of guests in order to survive (Almanza et al., 1994; Wei-Chia, 2003). As products become more difficult to differentiate, a successful brand strategy will deliver a strong and trusted perception of a product that increases its guest base and ensures the loyalty of existing guests (Mark, 2004). 53
  • 54. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3 An Overview of Russian Market 2.3.1. Market Segmentation Walker (2006) defined that market segment is a smaller, identifiable group that can be defined using any set of, such as sort found in geographic, demographic, or psychographic. Van Hoof, et al. (1996) indicated that marketers go through a process called market segmentation and separate people into distinct group based on their individual characteristics and buying habits. Wade (2006) agreed with Negl (2002) in that the target market is the type of guest the resort is attempting to reach and attract to frequent the establishment. Journey characteristics and demographic segmentation are important to understand resort visitor differences. While Brey et al. (2008) agreed with Masterson and Verhoven (2001) in that differences based on demographic characteristics, limited consideration has been given with regard to the importance of resort attributes. Trip characteristic factors have also received little attention in the context of resort attribute preferences. Given that these factors can directly affect the experience or become a determinant in the decision to purchase consideration of these variables on importance ratings is needed. The marketing mix Powers and Barrows (2006) agreed with Reid and Bojanic (2006) in that the marketing mix is conventionally thought of as encompassing the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Ronald and Nykiel (2005) added that there are many different perspectives on marketing and marketing strategy especially in ever-changing environment. In the 1990s as we transitioned to a predominantly service-oriented economy and marketing environment, marketing strategies shifted to focus on the four Cs, as delineated by waterborne:  Consumer wants and requirements.  Cost to satisfy (wants and requirements).  Convenience to buy.  Communication (creating a dialogue). 54
  • 55. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.2. Russian Market Characteristics Propensity to take holidays abroad in Russia is still very low, as only about 15% of the population can afford it. Understandably, given the climate ‘Sun and Sand’ in the two main centres of wealth and purchasing power in Russia, beach holidays have been a central feature in the growth in Russian outbound tourism over the last decade. Visas can be a problem since Russians tend to book at the last minute (Macy, 2009). Therefore, the fastest-growing destinations have been those that require no visa, or where visas are available on arrival, such as Egypt which has become a year-round destination. The success of Egypt as destinations has also been due to the very aggressive marketing by its respective national tourism organisations and the budgets allocated to marketing and promotions nowadays 90% of Russian arrivals there are leisure travellers, 60% of whom stay in four- and five star/ deluxe accommodation. The average length of stay for Russians holidaying in Egypt is around ten days. About 50% arrive by charter flight and 50% by scheduled carriers (Mintel Group, 2009). Russian people like to use the internet they became the seventh country with the highest number of the internet users all over the world, with 61,472,011 users in March 2012 with a percentage 2.7 % from the total internet users over the world as illustrated in Table 2.2 the top 20 countries with the highest number of internet users and Figure 2.2 shows the ten internet users first quarter 2012 with highest number of users (Internet World Stats, 2012). 55
  • 56. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.2: Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet Users Country or Region Internet Users Year 2000 Internet Users Latest Data 1 China 22,500,000 513,100,000 22.5 % 2 United States 95,354,000 245,203,319 10.8 % 3 India 5,000,000 121,000,000 5.3 % 4 Japan 47,080,000 101,228,736 4.4 % 5 Brazil 5,000,000 81,798,000 3.6 % 6 Germany 24,000,000 67,364,898 3.0 % Russia 3,100,000 7 61,472,011 World Users percentage (%) 2.7 % 8 Indonesia 2,000,000 55,000,000 2.4 % 9 United Kingdom 15,400,000 52,731,209 2.3 % 10 France 8,500,000 50,290,226 2.2 % 11 Nigeria 200,000 45,039,711 2.0 % 12 Mexico 2,712,400 42,000,000 1.8 % 13 Korea 19,040,000 40,329,660 1.8 % 14 Iran 250,000 36,500,000 1.6 % 15 Turkey 2,000,000 36,455,000 1.6 % 16 Italy 13,200,000 35,800,000 1.6 % 17 Philippines 2,000,000 33,600,000 1.5 % 18 Vietnam 200,000 30,858,742 1.4 % 19 Spain 5,387,800 30,654,678 1.3 % 20 Pakistan 133,900 29,128,970 1.3 % TOP 20 Countries 273,058,100 1,709,555,160 75% Rest of the World 87,927,392 570,154,469 25% Total World - Users 360,985,492 2,279,709,629 Source: Internet World Stats, (2012). 56 100 %
  • 57. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Milions 600 513 500 400 300 245 200 121 101 100 82 67 62 55 53 50 0 China United States India Japan Brazil Germany Russia Indonesia United France Kingdom Figure 2.2: Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Millions Source: Internet World Stats, (2012). 57
  • 58. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.3. Russian Tourism Demand in Egypt Russian tourism demand in Egypt is high according to the Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) the Russian tourist arrival to Egypt and tourism night during the period 2002-2009 is illustrated in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.3, and Figure 2.4 showed a growth year by year which is good indicator for the Russian tourism to Egypt. Table 2.3: Russian Federation Tourist Arrival to Egypt and Tourism Night during the Period (2002-2009) Year Tourist numbers Tourism Nights 382536 497465 2002 2003 2200227 4054784 694887 2004 777665 2005 998149 2006 1516561 2007 1825312 2008 2035330 2009 Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 6785324 7317765 9764368 14324860 13382836 17917730 Tourism Nights 20000000 18000000 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 8000000 6000000 4000000 2000000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.3: Russian Federation Tourism Nights to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Adapted from; Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 58
  • 59. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Tourist numbers 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.4: Russian Federation Tourist Arrive to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) is pointed that the tourism nights for all the Regions during the period from 2006 to 2009 (Table 2.4) found that the Russian federation tourism nights to Egypt in average 12.1 % of all the region during the period from (2006 to 2009). Moreover (see Figure 2.5) illustrate Tourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009). Table 2.4:Tourism Nights for All the Regions during the Period from (2006 to 2009) All Regions 2006 2007 2008 2009 Middle East 21670371 21907966 21391309 20833755 Africa 3869249 5088137 5112829 5357057 North America 3985817 4917659 5303908 5201244 Latin America 339037 592477 684479 612297 Central and Eastern Europe 17469792 25866320 29223565 30655723 Western Europe 18825106 23499938 30591251 28480451 Northern Europe 11314200 12718713 17427199 18306200 Southern Europe 8107227 11288270 13628665 11889019 Asia and the Pacific 3652240 5318652 5185628 4825445 Others 71014 267632 685097 372344 Total 89304053 111465764 129233930 126533535 Russian Federation 9764368 14324860 13382836 17917730 Russian Federation Percentage of Total 10.9% 12.9% 10.4% 14.2% Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 59
  • 60. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Russian Federation Compared to All the Regions 140000000 120000000 100000000 Russian Federation 80000000 All the Regions 60000000 40000000 20000000 10.9% 12.9% 10.4% 14.2% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.5: Tourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009). Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 60
  • 61. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Egyptian Tourism Federation (ETF), (2011) reported that the Tourist arrival from all the Regions during the period from 2006 to 2009 is illustrated that Russian Federation tourists Percentage of all the regions in 2009 is 16.2% which is good percentage, also there is a good growth from 2006 to 2009 (see Table 2.5, and 2.6). Table 2.5: Tourist Numbers from All the Regions during (2006 to 2009) All Regions 2006 Russian Federation Percentage of Total 2009 1686953 387221 366678 63185 3024555 2285089 1339235 1287629 632070 18248 11090863 1675960 400979 420463 65636 3954385 2669649 1607857 1389847 611090 39485 12835351 1571212 455262 421593 67192 3691645 2603795 1801029 1319737 566420 38000 12535885 998149 Russian Federation 2008 1706423 301866 299079 41451 1998853 1967820 1264969 1028090 469805 4421 9082777 Middle East Africa North America Latin America Central & Eastern Europe Western Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Asia & The Pacific Others Total 2007 1516561 1825312 2035330 11% 13.7% 14.2% 16.2% Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) Russian Federation Compared to All the Regions 14000000 12000000 10000000 Russian Federation 8000000 All the Regions 6000000 4000000 2000000 11% 13.7% 14.2% 16.2% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.6: Tourist Numbers from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2002 to 2009). Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 61
  • 62. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) report the tourism indicators (the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourists 2010) illustrated that the Russian market is the first market of the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourists (2010) with a percentage of 19.4% of the Total Number of Tourists visit Egypt (Table 2.6, and Figure 2.7). Moreover (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.8) is illustrated that the Russian market is the first market of the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourism nights (2010) with a percentage of 17 % of the total number of tourism nights to Egypt. Table 2.6: The Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Number of Tourists (2010) Ranking Country Number of Tourists Percentage of Total the Primary Ten Markets 1. 6255562 2. United Kingdom 3. Germany 4. Italy 5. France 6. Poland 7. Libya 8. Ukraine 9. Saudi Arabia 10. United States Total number of tourists to the Primary Ten Markets Total Number of Tourists in 2010 Percentage of the Top Ten of the Total Number of Tourists 6..2% 0055.02 0262.20 0000220 5..222 5.25.2 050022 006022 250.02 220562 .555206 Russia 05.6% 02..% 00..% 2.2% 2.6% 0.5% 0.2% 2..% 2.2% 000% 00520202 65% Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists 19.4% Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) 62
  • 63. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 8000000 Number of Tourists 2010 6000000 Number of Russian Tourists 4000000 2000000 0 Noumber of Russian Tourists Total Number of Tourists Figure 2.7: Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists (2010) Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) Table 2.7 :The Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Tourism Nights (2010) Ranking Country Number of Tourist Nights 1. % 65025005 Russia 2. Germany 3. United Kingdom 4. Italy 5. Libya 6. France 7. Saudi Arabia 8. Poland 9. United States 10. Holland Total Number of Tourism Nights of the Primary Ten Markets Total Number of Tourism Nights in 2010 Percentage of the Top Ten of the Total Number of Tourism Nights Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights 62.2 % 00.60252 002.5.00 ..560.6 2050526 5652020 5622000 0502206 002.222 20500.0 .555206 05.2 % 05.2 % 00.2 % 2.5 % 5.2 % 5.2 % 0.2 % 0.5 % 2.5 % 100 % 147385089 63.7 % 17 % Note (%): Percentage of total number of tourists of the primary ten markets Source: The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 63
  • 64. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Total Number of Tourism Nights 17% Total Tourism Nights Russian Tourism Nights Figure 2.8: Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights (2010). Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) 2.3.4. The Relations between Egypt and Russia Bilateral diplomatic relations were established between the Soviet Union and Egypt in 1943; Later Russia has always been characterized by specificity, promotion and diversity of cooperation fields. During past decades, the Egyptian-Russian relations were prosperous, and started to flourish again since mid-nineties reaching the level of strategic partnership by virtue of the agreement signed between Egypt and Russia in June 2009 (The ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2011a). Moreover, President received Dr. Mohamed Morsi in 11.05.2012 and Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and the meeting discussed bilateral relations and review the events and the latest political developments on the regional and international arena (Egypt State Information Services, 2012). Relations between the two countries, serious changes, Russia and Egypt have become today's partners, both bilateral and international. Bilateral Presidential mutual visits are considered of the most important factors leading to their constant promotion. The two countries are linked with strategic dialogue mechanism held annually at the Foreign Ministers level alternatively between the two capitals since 2004. The two sides are keen on convening the Joint Committee on economic, trade and technical cooperation regularly. The 64
  • 65. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE committee held 8 rounds under the chairmanship of the Ministers of trade and Industry in both countries, the latest was held in Cairo, March 2010. Moreover, Ministery of Tourism is delegate with the Russian Federal Agency for Tourism within the framework of activating the joint program of cooperation between Egypt and Russia in the field of tourism in the period 2011 / 2012. Has been initiated and the Minister of Tourism, the meeting emphasized the importance of the Russian market for Egyptian tourism as a primary market exporting tourists to Egypt, pointing out that the number of Russian tourists who came to Egypt during the period January / April 2011 reached 370.983 tourists, which is a positive indicator for the continuation of the Russian to Egypt, stressing the keenness of the Egyptian side to increase Russian tourism to Egypt and expand the base of contact with the Russian side as well as diversify the tourism product to satisfy all tastes of Russian tourists (The ministry of Tourism, 2010a). 2.3.5 Russian Guests' Characteristics and Requirements 2.3.5.1 The Geography of Russia Russia which is officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the United States by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak. Russia is situated in the Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean (The United States (U.S.) Department of State, 2011). 65
  • 66. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Moreover, Russia is the largest country of the world. With its area amounting to 17 million sq. km, it covers 11.5% of the territory of the world. The territory of Russia extends for 10 thousand kilometres, from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Japan Sea in the east. It comprises 11 time zones. The capital of Russia is Moscow. Another very important administrative, business and cultural centre is Saint Petersburg, often referred to as the second, or the northern capital of Russia. There are over a thousand towns and cities in Russia (Russia Tourism, 2009a). Russia map Figure 2.9: Map of Russia Source: City guide, (2011). 66
  • 67. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.5.2 General Information about Russia Table 2.8: General Information about Russia Geography Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part Location of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 100 00 E. Total: 17,098,242 sq km (square kilometres). Area: Country comparison to the world: 1. Land: 16,377,742 sq km. Water: 720,500 sq km. Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental Climate in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast. 1. Far Eastern Federal District. Russian Regions 2. Siberian Federal District. 3. Urals Federal District. 4. Northwest Federal District. 5. Central Federal District. 6. Volga Federal District. 7. Southern Federal District. 8. North Caucasian Federal District. People 138,739,892 (July 2011 est.). Population 0-14 years: 15.2% Age structure (Male 10,818,203/female 10,256,611). 15-64 years: 71.8% (Male 47,480,851/female 52,113,279). 65 years and over: 13% (Male 5,456,639/female 12,614,309) (2011 est.). Total: 38.7 years. Median age Male: 35.5 years. Female: 41.9 years (2011 est.). -0.47% (2011 est.). Population growth rate 11.05 births/1,000 population (2011 est.). Birth rate Country comparison to the world: 173. 16.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.). Death rate Country comparison to the world: 5. Total population: 66.29 years. Life expectancy at birth Country comparison to the world: 161. Male: 59.8 years. Female: 73.17 years (2011 est.). Noun: Russian(s). Nationality Adjective: Russian. Continued 67
  • 68. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.8: Continued Ethnic groups Religions Languages Literacy Country name Government type Capital Flag description Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census). Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.). Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and nonbelievers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule. Russian (official), many minority languages Age 15 and over can read and write. Total population: 99.4%. Male: 99.7. Female: 99.2% (2002 census). School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education). Total: 14 years. Male: 14 years. Female: 15 years (2008). Government Conventional long form: Russian Federation. Conventional short form: Russia. Local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya. Local short form: Rossiya. Former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Federation Name: Moscow. Geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 35 E. Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time). Daylight saving time: +1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011. Note: Russia is divided into 9 time zones. Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red Note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolours of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors. Continued 68
  • 69. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.8: Continued The logo Exchange rates Internet country code Telephones - main lines in use Telephones - mobile cellular The double-headed eagle on a red shield (logo Russian Empire). And above the eagle are three historical crowns of Peter the Great (On top of each of the two heads there are a small crown and above these crowns there is a big crown), and the Eagle holding a sceptre and the symbol of the state by its claws. On the chest of the eagle there is a red shield and Fares Hunt dragon by his spear. Economy Russian rubles (RUB) per US dollar: 30 (2010) 31.74 (2009) 24.853 (2008) 25.581 (2007) 27.191 (2006) Communications .ru; note - Russia also has responsibility for a legacy domain ".su" that was allocated to the Soviet Union and is being phased out . 44.959 million (2010). 238 million (2010). Source: Central Intelligence Agency, (2011a) 2.3.5.3 Russian Characteristics Some of Russian characteristic are: 1. Russian People tend to smile always whether at the beginning or at the end of the conversation. 2. Smile for the Russians have profound implications not provided without discrimination. 3. Russian people believe that the body language add some kind of power they use to connect to the body language and hand movements instead of verbal communication and to express their enthusiasm or their agreement or refusal. 4. Even the Russians do not show their feelings clearly, but they are very sensitive when it comes to personal dignity or self-esteem. 5. Direct objection or exhibits of the suggestion or idea is an indicator of the failure of the relationship. 6. Russian tourist spending level is relatively high. 7. Russian market is characterized by relatively stable compared to many other tourist markets 69
  • 70. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 8. There are strong’s willingness of parents to send their children abroad to learn foreign languages or to study at other universities or to recognize the practice of youth activities to know the outside world (Russian Business and trade connection, 1999). 9. Became a famous Russian cuisine in the whole world for a long time and that arrived some foods Russian original (caviar and varieties of fish, red and cream, and some Russian dishes such as ("Stodin" and "Shi" and "Okha" and "Bellini") to the menus in restaurants in all over the world, as well as the impact of Russian art of cooking directly and indirectly, on the other peoples kitchens (Russia today, 2007). 2.3.5.4 Russian Famous Souvenirs Typical Russian souvenirs include Matryoshka and Cheburashka dolls and other handicraft, samovars for water heating, ushanka warm hate, and fur clothes among other items (Russia Today, 2009) is illustrated in Table 2.9. Table 2.9: Russian Famous Souvenirs A Matryoshka doll is a Russian nesting doll which is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside the other. The first Russian nested doll set was carved in 1890 by Vasily Zvyozdochkin from a design by Sergey Malyutin, who was a folk crafts painter at Abramtsevo. Cheburashka, also known as Topple in earlier English translations, is a character in children's literature, from a 1966 story by the Russian writer Eduard Uspensky. In Estonian the character is called Potsataja. He is also the protagonist (voiced by Klara Rumyanova) of the stopmotion animated films by Roman Kachanov (Soyuzmultfilm studio), the first film of which was made in 1969. The balalaika is a stringed musical instrument popular in Russia, with a characteristic triangular body and three strings. The balalaika family of instruments includes instruments of various sizes, from the highestpitched to the lowest, the prima balalaika, second a balalaika, alto balalaika, bass balalaika and contrabass balalaika. All have three-sided bodies, spruce or fir tops, backs made of 3-9 wooden sections made usually from maple, strung usually with three strings. Continued 70
  • 71. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.9: Continued Samovar is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in and around Russia, Since the heated water is usually used for making tea, many samovars have a ring-shaped attachment seated around the chimney to hold and heat a teapot filled with tea concentrate. An Ushanka (Literally "ear hat") also known as a trooper, is a Russian fur cap with ear flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, or tied at the chin to protect the ears, jaw and lower chin from the cold. The thick dense fur also offers some protection against blunt impacts to the head. While no match for a helmet, it offers protection far superior to that of a typical beanie cap should the wearer fall and hit his or her head against ice or packed snow. The word ushanka derives from ushi "ears" in Russian. Fur is a synonym for hair, used more in reference to non-human animals, usually mammals; particularly those with extensive body hair coverage. The term is sometimes used to refer to the body hair of an animal as a complete coat, also known as the "pelage". Fur is also used to refer to animal pelts which have been processed into leather with the hair still attached. The words fur or furry are also used, more casually, to refer to hair-like growths or formations; particularly when the subject being referred to exhibits a dense coat of fine, soft "hairs". Valenki are traditional Russian winter footwear, essentially felt boots: the name valenok literally means "made by felting". Valenki are made of wool felt. They are not water-resistant, and are often worn with galoshes to keep water out and protect the soles from wear and tear. Valenki were once the footwear of choice for many Russians, but in the second half of the 20th century they lost most of their appeal in cities, due to their association with rustic dress. Adapted from Russia Today (2009), and Wikipedia (2011). 71
  • 72. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.5.5 Russian Famous Regional F&B According to Russia Today (2009) Russian famous regional F&B are Russian vodka and caviar are among the food that attracts foreigners, along with blini, pelmeni, borsch, Selyodka and other products and dishes of Russian cuisine is illustrated in Table 2.10. Table 2.10: Russian Famous Regional F&B Vodka is a distilled beverage. It is composed primarily of water and ethanol with traces of impurities and flavorings. Vodka is made by the distillation of fermented substances such as grains, potatoes, or sometimes fruits and/or sugar. Traditionally prepared vodkas had an alcoholic content of 38% by volume. Today, the standard Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Lithuanian vodkas are 40% abv (80 proof). Russians often joke, “We eat vodka.” Since its invention, vodka has been used in Russia as a medicine, antiseptic and cosmetic remedy. Caviar, sometimes called black caviar, is a luxury delicacy, consisting of processed, salted, non-fertilized sturgeon roe. Caviar is "the product made from fish-eggs of the Acipenseridae family by treating with food-grade salt". "Fish eggs" is defined as "non-ovulated eggs separated from the connective tissue of the ovaries" or "ovulated eggs from aqua cultured sturgeons". Blin, blintze, or blintz is a thin pancake. It is somewhat similar to a crêpe with the main difference being that yeast may be used in blini, but not in crêpes. Traditional Russian blini are made with yeasted batter, which is left to rise and then diluted with cold or boiling water or milk. When diluted with boiling water. The blini are then baked in a traditional Russian oven. In fact, the process of cooking blini is still referred to as baking in Russian, even though these days they are almost universally pan-fried, like pancakes. All kinds of flour may be used for making blini: from wheat and buckwheat to oatmeal and millet, although wheat is currently the most popular by far. Pelmeni (Russian pronunciation: are dumplings consisting of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough that originated in Siberia and is a dish of Russian cuisine. Pelmeni are common in Russia and have similar names in other languages. Continued 72
  • 73. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.10: Continued Borscht (also borsch, bortsch, borstch, borsh, borshch; is a soup of Ukrainian origin that is popular in many Eastern and Central European countries. In most of these countries, it is made with beetroot as the main ingredient, giving it a deep reddish-purple colour. In some countries, tomato is used as the main ingredient, while beetroot acts as a secondary ingredient. Selyodka or Dressed herring, colloquially known as herring under a fur coat or just fur coat is a layered salad composed of diced salted herring covered with layers of grated boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise. Some variations of this dish include a layer of fresh grated apple and some don't. Dressed herring salad is very popular in Russia, Ukraine, and other countries of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). It is one of the traditional dishes served at New Year and Christmas celebrations. Adapted from Russia Today (2009), and Wikipedia (2011). 73
  • 74. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.6 Types of Tourism in Russia Russia has rich history ancestors inherited certain features of their appearances, faiths, cultures, languages and traditions. This factor stimulates internal tourism development and makes Russia’s peoples interesting for each other. Moreover domestic and external tourism in Russia are characterized by a variety of types. Russia enjoys a great potential for both in-country tourism development and foreign tourists reception. Everything is for it - a vast territory, rich historic and cultural heritage and wild nature in many of its regions (Russia Tourism, 2009C). And here are some types of tourism in Russia:              Children and youth tourism. Cruises. Ecotourism. Event and gastronomic tourism. Fishing and hunting tourism. Heritage and cultural tourism. Pilgrimage tourism. Rural tourism. Seaside tourism. Sport and extreme tourism. Wellness tourism. Ski resorts. Business tourism. 74
  • 75. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY The aim of this chapter is to assign and define the limits of the sampling of the study, and to clarify the methods that will be used in this research in order to collect the desired information and data. This chapter summarizes the research methods used to identify the RGs’ requirements for HSs in a sample of four and five star resorts located in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada and dealing with. Therefore, this study focuses on the managers' and guests' perspectives regarding HSs in order to investigate the Russian requirements and how the managers meet these requirements. The research tools are shown in appendix (A). 3.1 Research Method The data collected is divided into secondary and primary data. 3.1.1 Secondary Data All sources of secondary data have been illustrated in the previous chapter "Review of Literature”. The sources of secondary data include:  Government Publications Governmental Publications includes the data given by the Egyptian Ministry of Tourism, the Chamber of Tourism Establishments (CTE), Egyptian Hotel guide, Russian Federation, and, Russia National Tourism Administration.  Periodicals and Books Books, theses, as well as periodicals and a number of relevant journals and articles from many sources act as an important source of secondary data.  Electronic Sources Internet websites related to the subject of research have been mentioned, illustrated and discussed. Online database is used as source of secondary data. Searching in this database is done through using a number of keywords such as hospitality industry, as well as the RG, Russia today. 75
  • 76. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1.2 Primary Data and Research Instrument In this study, both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to collect the data. The chosen case study methodology was supported by three methods which are: [1] Survey Study, [2] Guest questionnaires, and [3] Semistructured interviews in order to identify the requirements of the RG in terms of the HSs. These methods help the researcher to achieve the specific research objectives (see Figure 3.1). Utilising mixed methods overcome problems associated with fallibility of measures (Johnson and Cassell, 2001; Trochim, 2001). Survey Study Primary Data Guest questionnaires Semi-structured interviews Figure 3.1: Primary Data 76
  • 77. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1.2.1 Survey Study This survey was done through telephone calls and field visits in order to find out the magnitude of the RG percentage of total guest in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada resorts compared to other nationalities that prefer to stay at the RSRs. Moreover, Magnitude of RG accommodation plans in RSRs with an emphasis on the type of room plans available whether AI, bed and breakfast (B&Bs), (HB), and (FB). In addition, the survey was done to collect the guest comment cards (GCCs) from some resorts to use it as guide to prepare the guest questionnaire and the interview. 3.1.2.2 Questionnaire Pre-testing Questionnaire is one of the most important methods used to collect the data as described by Bryman and Bell (2007). Moreover, Saunders et al., (2003) confirmed that questionnaires provide an efficient way of collecting a large amount of data from a sizable population in a highly economical way. Moreover, a self administrated questionnaire is used in this study as a quantitative method with a sample of Russian guests in order to identify their requirements for HSs. To increase the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, and to measure its attributes' adequateness, clearness and understanding, the English questionnaire is reviewed by some academic scholars. In addition, the Russian questionnaire is reviewed by some tourist guides of the Russian language and the RG relations. Most of the suggestions were taken in consideration during designing the final form. 3.1.2.3 Questionnaire Design The questionnaire prepared for this study is based on a comprehensive literature review. It is translated from English into Russian. The Five-level scale ranging from (1 “very unimportant” to 5 “very important”) is used to design the questionnaire form. The questionnaire is divided into three main parts. 77
  • 78. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY  First part consists of five questions focusing on the RG preferable requirements from the HSs (e.g. why prefer to visit the RS, food, cuisine, and beverages, entertainment shows, etc).  Second part consists of focusing on the RG expectations and perception about HSs though six sections:  The first section consists of seven attributes focusing on accommodation services (e.g. valet and laundry, check-in procedure, check-out procedure, room cleanliness, room facilities, maintenance and repair, reasonable price, etc).  The second includes 10 attributes that focuses on F&B services (e.g. quality, variety, presentation, value for money, speed of service, professionalism of service, etc).  The third section consists of 12 attributes which focuses on recreational activities (e.g. indoor activities, outdoor activities variety, quality, attraction of recreational activities, etc).  The fourth section consists of 2 attributes which focuses on staff performance (e.g. friendliness, courtesy, helpfulness, handling guest complaints, etc).  The fifth section consists of 6 attributes which focuses on the availability of Russian language (e.g. level of communicators, Russian menus, information brochures and flyers, information signboards, etc).  The sixth section deals with general attributes that includes 11 attributes (e.g. promotion, service quality, value perceived, physical environment, safety and security procedures, cleanliness and hygiene, etc).  Third part includes some of personal data such as (gender, age, education and occupation).  Finally, asking guest recommendations or suggestions. 78
  • 79. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1.2.4 Semi-Structured Interviews Interviews are considered as one of the evidence sources which represents a significant aspect of this research as they were used in order to achieve the research aim and objectives. There are three types of interviews as follows: 1. Unstructured interviews. 2. Semi-structured interviews. 3. Structured interviews. (May, 2001; Saunders et al., 2007) 4. Furthermore, May (2001) added one more type in addition to the previous types which is focus interviews. With regard to the definition of semi-structured interviews, May (2001:109) defined it as: “The method of maintaining and gathering conversations with people on a specific topic or range of topics and the interpretations which social researchers make of the resultant data, constitute the fundamentals of interviews and interviewing”. Yin (2003) declared that the conducted interviews required the researcher to operate on two levels at the same time: 1. Satisfying the inquiry of the research. 2. Asking questions in unbiased manner. In that sense, certain topics can be investigated by asking questions for gathering comparative data (Hamza, 2004). Concerning the characteristics of semi-structured interviews, Mason (2000 cited in Naama, 2007) mentioned that semi-structured interviews have the following characteristics:  A relatively informal discussion rather than formal question and answer format.  No need for the researcher to have a structured list of questions and also the researcher could have a range of topics or issues to cover.  The data are collected through the interaction. Semi-structured interviews can be most appropriate for situations where the questions are either complex or open ended or where the order and logic of questioning may need to be varied from one interviewee to another (Finn et al., 2000). The most important point in the semi-structured interviews is that the 79
  • 80. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY researcher can clarify doubts and ensure that the respondents understood the questions and the responses are also understood by the interviewer (Sekaran, 2000). Face- to-face semi-structured interviews with resort managers was used as a qualitative method in order to explore their perspectives regarding the requirements of the RG in terms of HSs and how they meet these requirements in order to achieve guest satisfaction. The use of this type of interview does allow for probing of views and opinions where it is desirable for the respondents to expand on their answers (Gray, 2004). Briefly, 40 interviews were conducted in this study with resort managers in the investigated destinations/resorts (see Appendix B) to identify their perspectives regarding the requirements of the RGs in terms of HSs and how they meet these requirements in order to achieve guest satisfaction. The final form of the interview used is shown in appendix (B). 3.1.2.5 Interviews Design The interview questions prepared for this study is based on a comprehensive literature review. The interview is divided into 21questions. Interviews were carried out with the RSRs managers under investigation. The purposes of these interviews were:  Clarify main purposes of the RG holiday.  Evaluating the affective factors in the RSRs that attract the RG.  Preferable kinds of food beverages for the RG during their visit to the RS.  Preferable kinds of entertainments for the RG during their visit to the RS.  The RG requirements in terms of the following: A. Accommodation facilities. B. F&B services. C. Leisure and recreation activities.  Managers’ perception about HSs in this resort.  Guest satisfaction measuring methods and how to identify the requirements of the RGs.  Ways to meet the requirements and preferences of the RGs.  The advantages and disadvantages of dealing with the Russian market. The Semi-structured interviews have been shown in Appendix (B). 80
  • 81. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.2 Research Population and Sampling Techniques The study population can be defined as the entire group under study as specified by the aim and objectives of the research (Sekaran, 2000). The target population for this study were all stakeholders who may have an interest and/or influence upon hospitality industry. These were identified as: [1] Resort managers and [6] Resort guests who stayed in the four and five star resorts in the RSRs. In terms of research sampling, Bell (1992) and Bakeman (1992) agreed in that sampling is a process that involves the selection of some, but not all the members of the larger population. Krippendorff (2004) stated that a sample is said to be representative of a population if studying it leads to conclusions that are approximately the same as those that one would reach by studying the entire population. In this study, a purposive sampling technique (also known as convenience sampling) was used to select resort guests and resort managers as well (Table 3.1). Nassar (2002) stated that purposive sampling maximizes the chance of obtaining accurate information about the studied phenomenon for it relies upon choosing those who have both the experience of the phenomenon and also the ability to communicate their experience of that phenomenon. In summary, a number of 1600 questionnaire forms were distributed to the RGs who stayed in four and five star resorts in area of Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada. Among them, 1072 completed forms were valid which represents 67% response rate. Meanwhile, the interviews were conducted with 80 resorts managers in the same investigated destinations/resorts to understand their perspectives concerning Russian requirements and expectations for HSs and how they achieve these requirements and meet these expectations. The resorts were selected in this study based upon the capacity Egyptian Hotel Association (EHA) Guide (2011) a number of Resorts in Sharm El Sheikh are 42 five star resorts and 64 four star resorts from 193 by a percentage 55% of Sharm El Sheikh hotels and by a percentage 10% of total Egypt hotels. As well as Hurghada there are 25 five star resorts and 50 four star resorts from 166 hotels by a percentage 45% of Hurghada hotels and by a percentage 7.4% of total Egypt hotels to achieve a target of 80 resorts from total 1015 hotels in Egypt by a percentage of 7.9% as a sample for the research. The research focus on the destination of Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada because most of the RS 81
  • 82. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY visit them also in the raison of the time and money the research focus only on these two destinations. A sample from five - star resorts and four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada was chosen to carry out the current research they are: Table 3.1: A Summary of the Research Samples No RESORT NAME THE INVESTIGATED RESORTS IN SHARM EL SHEIKH Four star resorts 1. AA GRAND OASIS RESORT 2. AL BOSTAN PARK HOTEL 3. AMARANTE GARDEN PALMS HOTEL 4. CLUB EL FARAANA REEF 5. CONTINENTAL PLAZA BEACH HOTEL 6. CORAL SEA IMPRIAL RESORT 7. DREAMS VACATION RESORT 8. GAFY RESORT 9. GARDENIA PLAZA RESORT 10. GHAZALA GARDENS HOTEL 11. GRAND HOTEL ( SHARM GARDEN ) 12. HELNAN MARINA SHARM HOTEL 13. HILTON SHARKS BAY RESORT 14. MELIA SINAI HOTEL 15. REEF OASIS BEACH RESORT 16. REHANA ROYAL BEACH RESORT 17. REHANA SHARM RESORT 18. ROYAL PLAZA SHARM EL SHEIKH 19. SAVITA RESORT & SPA 20. SETI SHARM PALM BEACH RESORT 21. SINAI GARDEN RESORT 22. SINAI GRAND RESORT 23. SINAI GROVE RESORT 24. SONESTA CLUB SHARM EL SHEIKH 25. SUNRISE ISLAND GARDEN RESORT Five star resorts 1. BARON PALMS SHARM EL SHEIKH 2. CONCORDE EL SALAM HOTEL SHARM EL SHEIKH 3. CONTINENTAL GARDEN REEF RESORT 4. DREAMS BEACH RESORT Continued 82
  • 83. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY Table 3.1: Continued 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. GRAND PLAZA RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH HILTON SHARM DREAMS RESORT HYATT REGENCY SHARM EL SHEIKH HOTEL JAZ MIRABLE BEACH RESORT MARITIM JOLIE VILLE GOLF & RESORT PYRAMISA SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT ROYAL GRAND SHARM ROYAL ROJANA RESORT SAVOY SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT SONESTA BEACH RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH SUNRISE SELECT ISLAND VIEW RESORT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. THE INVESTIGATED RESORTS IN HURGHADA Four star resorts AL MAS PALACE RESORT AL NABILA GRAND MAKADI HOTEL ALI BABA PALAC VILLAGE ARABELLA AZUR BEACH RESORT BEACH ALBATROS HOTEL CALIMERA GOLDEN BEACH CORAL BEACH ROTANA RESORT- HURGHADA DIAMOND RESORT FANTAZIA BEACH RESORT GRAND HOTEL GRAND RESORT GRAND SEAS RESORT HOSTMARK HILTON HURGHADA LONG BEACH RESORT HURGHADA SEAGULL RESORT IBEROTEL MAKADI OASIS LILLY LAND BEACH CLUB MARLIN INN BEACH RESORT OLD PALACE RESORT PRIMA SOL TITANIC RESORT & AQUA PARK REGINA RESORT- HURGHADA ROMA HOTEL HURGHADA ROYAL PALACE HOTEL SUNNY DAYS EL PALACIO RESORT SUNNY DAYS PALMA DE MIRETTE VILLAGE SUNRISE LE JARDIN RESORT (NEW HAWAI 2) Continued 83
  • 84. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY Table 3.1: Continued 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Five star resorts DANA BEACH RESORT DESSOLE PYRAMISA SAHL HASHISH HOTEL GRAND MAKADI HOTEL GRAND PLAZA HOTEL HILTON HURGHADA PLAZA HILTON HURGHADA RESORT HURGHADA MARRIOTT BEACH RESORT JAZ MAKADI STAR RESORT & SPA LTI TITANIC BEACH SPA & AQUA PARK PARADISE GOLDEN 5 RESORT SONESTA PHARAOH BEACH RESORT SUNRISE HOLIDAYS RESORT SUNRISE MAMLOUK PALACE RESORT SUNRISE SELECT GARDEN BEACH RESORT THE DESERT ROSE RESORT 3.3 Pilot Study The pilot study was conducted in this study during June and July 2011. The aim of the pilot study as illustrated by Oppenheim (1992) as well as Zikmund (1994) was to ensure that the survey is well designed and easily understood by potential respondents, to examine the reliability and validity of the research tools as well as to develop and refine measure of the questions. It is a part of both qualitative and quantitative research (Jennings, 2008). In this study, the pilot study was twofold. First, the questionnaire and interview were reviewed by some academic scholars to establish their appropriateness, clarity and ease of understanding. Some amendments were suggested and then implemented. Second, the questionnaire and interview were then pre-tested in order to investigate the respondent’s understanding of scale items and to identify also any issues that are complex or confusing in order to develop appropriate scale items to ensure the validity and reliability of the research. For this purpose, a 84
  • 85. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of Resorts managers. A number of 30 forms were distributed to respondents who were asked to complete them. Only, 21 completed forms were valid which represents 70% of response rate. Third, the questionnaire [English and Russian] was then pre tested in order to investigate the respondent’s understanding of scale items and to identify also any issues that are complex or confusing in order to develop appropriate scale items to ensure the validity and reliability of the research. For this purpose, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to a sample of Russian people who were currently living in Egypt working at the hospitality field. A number of 30 forms were distributed to respondents who were asked to complete them. Only, 19 completed forms were valid which represents 63% response rate. 3.4 Data Analysis To analyze the data, Powell and Renner (2003) pointed out some steps which were adopted in this research. These steps are: get to know your data, focus the analysis, categorise information, and identify patterns and connections within and between categories as well as interpretation or bringing all together. Different methods are used to analyze the data collected from the valid forms The Weighted average is used for rank the attributes according to the guests’ and managers’ perspectives. Moreover, the Gap analysis is used for identifying the gap between the guests’ and department heads and general managers’ perspectives as well as the gap between the guests’ expectations and the guest perceptions. Furthermore, the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 is used to analyze the collected data. The Mann-Whitney U technique is used to test for differences between two independent groups on a continuous measure (Pallant, 2007). The Mann-Whitney U test in this study is used to compare the results between the guest expectations and perception in accordance to the HSs in the RSRs guests. On the other hand, content analysis as one of the qualitative data analysis methods was also used in this study to analyse the data from the semi-structured interviews in order to identify patterns and themes within the data. Content analysis defined by Krippendorff (2004:18) as 85
  • 86. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY “A research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts or other meaningful is a matter to the contexts of their use”. In the pragmatically content analysis, analysts count the number of times that something is said; while, in the semantically content analysis, Analysts count the number of times that something is referred to. 3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Scale The important issue with any research instrument is that it accurately and consistently measures what it is meant to measure, which means it should be valid and reliable (Al-Masroori, 2006). In order to provide useful data, an instrument must serve as an accurate counter or indicator of a measure. Validity and reliability are two properties to measure the quality of research. 3.5.1 Validity Validity is achieved by using research instruments that measure what they are intended to measure (Buckingham and Saunders, 2004). Validity refers to the extent to which an empirical measure effectively reflects the real meaning of the concept under consideration (Babbie, 1995). Amaratunga and Baldry (2000:29) pointed out that there are two types of validity which are: 1. Internal validity: Refers to “What or not what are identified as the causes actually produce what have been interpreted as the ‘effect’ or ‘response’ and checks whether the right cause- and- effect relationships have been established”. 2. External validity: Refers to “the extent to which any research findings can be generalised beyond the immediate research sample or setting in which the research took place”. In this study, many validity standards were applied through the interviews, a tape recorder was used to reduce the risk of wrongly interpreted answers during transcription of interviews and to be able to double check the answers after the interview. Moreover, all the questions posed in the interviews were directly linked to the research’s aim and objectives and covered all aspects 86
  • 87. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY of the topic. The validity also during the questionnaire in the case study may be lowered due to the fact that questionnaire patterns were translated into Russian language and accordingly answers were again re-translated into English language during transcription. 3.5.2 Reliability Researchers need to consider the accuracy of the data words and phrases in order not to modify the facts by misinterpretation (Bouma and Atkinson, 1995). Moreover, Saunders, et al (2004) illustrated that reliability is achieved by using research instruments that produce the same results from the same conditions each time they are used and tells about an indicator’s dependability and consistency. Reliability refers to whether particular research techniques will yield the same results if applied repeatedly to the same object (Babbie, 1995). The reliability is concerned with estimates of the degree to which a measurement is free of random or unstable error. The main goal of reliability is to mini object (Babbie, 1995).maze errors and biases in the research (Amaratunga and Baldry, 2000). Concerning the types of reliability, Seale (2000:41) pointed out that there are two different types of reliability as follows: 1. Internal reliability refers to the extent to which different researchers identify similar constructs. 2. External reliability refers to the overall duplication of research findings in restudy exercise. In order to increase the reliability of the methods used in the current study, three measures were applied: 1. Self-administered questionnaires with resort guests to investigate their requirements, expectations and perception regarding HSs. 2. Semi-structured interviews with resort managers to identify their perspectives in terms of the requirements of the RGs requirements from HSs. 3. Pilot study was employed to reduce the reliability errors and to test the patterns of the questionnaire and interview as well. The feedback from these trials was then reflected in the revised research design. 87
  • 88. CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY In this study, Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is used to measure the internal consistency of the scale. A minimum level of the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha is 0.7 (Pallant, 2007). The higher value of the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha indicates a greater value. In that sense, all the values of the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha in this study are above the minimum level. 88
  • 89. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter highlights the main objectives of this study; How far HSs appeal to the RG in the RSRs and studying guest perceptions regarding services offered in four and five star resorts in the RS destinations. The practical objectives were achieved in this part to address the overall aim of the study through different techniques and methods. Data and information found in the present study were analyzed and discussed in accordance with the stated objectives. As mentioned in chapter three, the tools were as follows: (1) Survey study. (2) Guest questionnaire. (3) Semi-structured interviews. Regarding the survey study results section 4.1 assess the second goal of the study: to find out the RG representation in the total guest number in the RSRs. Moreover, if underlines the size of magnitude of the RG accommodation plans in the RSRs compared to other accommodation plans with an emphasis on the type of room plans available whether AI, B&Bs, HB, and FB. In addition, the survey was done to collect (GCCs) from some resorts to use as a guide in the guest questionnaire and the interview. In terms of guest questionnaire, it addresses objectives three and four of the study; studying the guest expectations and perceptions regarding the services offered in four and five star resorts in the RS destinations. Section 4.2.1 declares a descriptive analysis of guest questionnaire by using SPSS version 16. Moreover, section 4.2.2 shows a comparison between managers’ perceptions versus guest perceptions in terms of interactive quality, accommodation services, quality of F&B and recreational activities by using the Mann-Whitney U test in order to find out if there is a significant difference between them. Section 4.2.3 shows a comparison between the guests’ expectations and perceptions regarding interactive quality, accommodation services, quality of F&B, and recreational activities. Concerning semi-structured interviews, they address objectives three and four of the study; i.e. to identify the perspectives of resort managers in terms of the application of HSs offered to the RGs in the RSRs. Data were collected from the resort managers via semi-structured interviews in the same investigated resorts (see Appendix B). The researcher asked the resort managers 89
  • 90. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a set of questions focusing on their perspectives regarding the RG perceptions of the HSs offered in the RSRs. 4.1 The Survey Study Results This survey was done through telephone calls, field visits in order to find out the volume of the RG representation in the total guest number percentage of total guest in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada resorts compared to other nationalities that prefer to stay at the RSRs. Moreover, it underlines the size of magnitude of the RG accommodation plans in RSRs with an emphasis on the type of room plans available whether AI, B&Bs, HB, and FB. In addition, the survey was done to collect the guest comment cards (GCCs) from some resorts to use as a guide to prepare the guest questionnaire and interview. The survey was conducted during June, 2011. Table 4.1 summarizes the results of survey conducted. The survey was conducted through phone calls, emails, and personal visits to the investigated resorts and it mainly focused on obtaining data such as the number of rooms, Russian percentage of total guests with an emphasis on the type of room plans the RG use. 90
  • 91. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION RESORT NAME 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. RG percentage No No of rooms Table 4.1: The Investigated Resorts THE INVESTIGATED RESORTS IN SHARM EL SHEIKH Four star resorts AA GRAND OASIS RESORT 022 25 % AL BOSTAN PARK HOTEL 060 25 % AMARANTE GARDEN PALMS HOTEL 236 40 % CLUB EL FARAANA REEF 410 40 % CONTINENTAL PLAZA BEACH HOTEL 050 35 % CORAL SEA IMPRIAL RESORT 050 5% DREAMS VACATION RESORT 319 35 % GAFY RESORT 205 35 % GARDENIA PLAZA RESORT 407 10 % GHAZALA GARDENS HOTEL 620 30 % GRAND HOTEL ( SHARM GARDEN ) 265 20 % HELNAN MARINA SHARM HOTEL 305 45% HILTON SHARKS BAY RESORT 317 35% MELIA SINAI HOTEL 197 40 % REEF OASIS BEACH RESORT 502 40 % REHANA ROYAL BEACH RESORT 652 80 % REHANA SHARM RESORT 022 80 % ROYAL PLAZA SHARM EL SHEIKH 655 35 % SAVITA RESORT & SPA 50. 60 % SETI SHARM PALM BEACH RESORT 205 95 % SINAI GARDEN RESORT 052 95 % SINAI GRAND RESORT 200 95 % SINAI GROVE RESORT 251 95 % SONESTA CLUB SHARM EL SHEIKH 00. 30 % SUNRISE ISLAND GARDEN RESORT 620 80 % Five star resorts BARON PALMS SHARM EL SHEIKH 238 30% CONCORDE EL SALAM HOTEL SHARM EL SHEIKH 725 60% CONTINENTAL GARDEN REEF RESORT 422 50% DREAMS BEACH RESORT 483 20 % GRAND PLAZA RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH 458 30% HILTON SHARM DREAMS RESORT 394 35 % HYATT REGENCY SHARM EL SHEIKH HOTEL 471 80% JAZ MIRABLE BEACH RESORT 1001 50 % MARITIM JOLIE VILLE GOLF & RESORT 418 5% PYRAMISA SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT 720 80 % ROYAL GRAND SHARM 358 60 % ROYAL ROJANA RESORT 538 95 % Continued 91
  • 92. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.1: Continued 13. SAVOY SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT 14. SONESTA BEACH RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH 15. SUNRISE SELECT ISLAND VIEW RESORT THE INVESTIGATED RESORTS IN HURGHADA Four star resorts 1. AL MAS PALACE RESORT 2. AL NABILA GRAND MAKADI HOTEL 3. ALI BABA PALAC VILLAGE 4. ARABELLA AZUR BEACH RESORT 5. BEACH ALBATROS HOTEL 6. CALIMERA GOLDEN BEACH 7. CORAL BEACH ROTANA RESORT- HURGHADA 8. DIAMOND RESORT 9. FANTAZIA BEACH RESORT 10. GRAND HOTEL 11. GRAND RESORT 12. GRAND SEAS RESORT HOSTMARK 13. HILTON HURGHADA LONG BEACH RESORT 14. HURGHADA SEAGULL RESORT 15. IBEROTEL MAKADI OASIS 16. LILLY LAND BEACH CLUB 17. MARLIN INN BEACH RESORT 18. OLD PALACE RESORT 19. PRIMA SOL TITANIC RESORT & AQUA PARK 20. REGINA RESORT- HURGHADA 21. ROMA HOTEL HURGHADA 22. ROYAL PALACE HOTEL 23. SUNNY DAYS EL PALACIO RESORT 24. SUNNY DAYS PALMA DE MIRETTE VILLAGE 25. SUNRISE LE JARDIN RESORT (NEW HAWAI 2) Five star resorts 1. DANA BEACH RESORT 2. DESSOLE PYRAMISA SAHL HASHISH HOTEL 3. GRAND MAKADI HOTEL 4. GRAND PLAZA HOTEL 5. HILTON HURGHADA PLAZA 6. HILTON HURGHADA RESORT 7. HURGHADA MARRIOTT BEACH RESORT 8. JAZ MAKADI STAR RESORT & SPA 9. LTI TITANIC BEACH SPA & AQUA PARK 10. PARADISE GOLDEN 5 RESORT 11. SONESTA PHARAOH BEACH RESORT 12. SUNRISE HOLIDAYS RESORT 13. SUNRISE MAMLOUK PALACE RESORT 14. SUNRISE SELECT GARDEN BEACH RESORT 15. THE DESERT ROSE RESORT 92 790 520 492 40 % 35 % 70 % 652 0.2 250 300 220 297 206 332 524 550 850 230 810 711 325 516 444 294 331 424 147 195 837 196 486 75 % 45% 00 % 45% 00 % 50% 00 % 40% 45% 20% 20% 50% 50 % 00 % 20% 60 % 95 % 00 % 70 % 05 % 70 % 70 % 70 % 00 % 70 % .06 502 206 602 660 2.6 202 167 202 252 225 220 520 056 .06 30 % 95 % 50 % 35 % 60 % 30 % 30 % 50% 80 % 00 % 70 % 50 % 50 % 50 % 70 %
  • 93. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The survey results are obtained from fifteen of five star resorts and twenty five of four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh Resorts as well as fifteen of five star resorts and twenty five of four star resorts Hurghada. The major findings of this survey illustrated that eighty of the five and four star resorts surveyed in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada serve the RG even in different percentages from five percent such as Coral Sea Imperial Resort until ninety five percent such as Royal Rojana Resort. The survey results show that the Russian segment is the major segment of guests in the RSRs. The survey results show that the RG uses the AI accommodation plan, this finding agrees with Önal et al. (2007) who stated that the reason for preferring the AI system is the guarantee provided to obtain everything within a fixed price. This means that the RG has become the most important user of the AI accommodation plan in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada because of the huge number of the RGs who prefer to use AI programs compared to other accommodation plans. 4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Questionnaire The main aim of this questionnaire is to assess how far HSs appeal to the RG in the RSRs (see Appendix A).The questionnaire is divided into three main parts. 1. The first part consists of five questions focusing on the RG’s reasons for visiting the RS and his preferences. 2. The second part focuses on the RG’s expectations and perception of HSs through six sections: A. The first section consists of seven attributes focusing on accommodation services (e.g. valet and laundry, check-in procedure, check-out procedure, room cleanliness, room facilities, maintenance and repair, reasonable price, etc). B. The second section includes 10 attributes and focuses on F&B services (e.g. quality, variety, presentation, value for money, speed of service, professionalism of service, etc). 93
  • 94. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION C. The third section consists of 12 attributes and focuses on recreational activities (e.g. indoor activities, outdoor activities variety, quality, attractively of recreational activities, etc). D. The fourth section consists of 2 attributes and focuses on staff performance (e.g. friendliness, courtesy, helpfulness, handling guest complaints, etc). E. The fifth section consists of 6 attributes and focuses on the availability of Russian language (e.g. level of communicators, Russian menus, information brochures and flyers, information signboards, etc). F. The sixth section deals with general attributes and includes 11 attributes (e.g. promotion, service quality, value perceived, physical environment, safety and security procedures, cleanliness and hygiene, etc). 3. The third part deals with guest demographic data such as gender, age, education, and occupation. The questionnaire has been distributed to a random sample of the RGs who stayed in four and five star resorts in all the investigated destinations. 1600 forms were distributed, among which 1072 completed forms were valid with a response rate of 67%. Table 4.2 shows the number of questionnaire forms distributed to each resort. The results obtained from the valid forms were statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Moreover, the data and information found in this chapter have been analyzed and discussed in accordance with the stated objectives. 94
  • 95. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.2: Number of Guest Questionnaire forms Distributed to Each Resort in the Investigated Destinations No. of forms Destination/Resort Name/Category Valid Forms Distributed Freq % FIVE STAR RESORTS Sharm El Sheikh Resorts BARON PALMS SHARM EL SHEIKH 20 12 60 CONCORDE EL SALAM HOTEL SHARM EL SHEIKH 20 14 70 CONTINENTAL GARDEN REEF RESORT 20 14 70 DREAMS BEACH RESORT 20 11 55 GRAND PLAZA RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH 20 13 65 HILTON SHARM DREAMS RESORT 20 12 60 HYATT REGENCY SHARM EL SHEIKH HOTEL 20 14 70 JAZ MIRABLE BEACH RESORT 20 13 65 MARITIM JOLIE VILLE GOLF & RESORT 20 11 55 PYRAMISA SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT 20 14 70 ROYAL GRAND SHARM 20 12 60 ROYAL ROJANA RESORT 20 17 85 SAVOY SHARM EL SHEIKH RESORT 20 14 70 SONESTA BEACH RESORT SHARM EL SHEIKH 20 9 45 SUNRISE SELECT ISLAND VIEW RESORT 20 13 65 Sub-total 300 192 64 Hurghada Resorts DANA BEACH RESORT 20 14 70 DESSOLE PYRAMISA SAHL HASHISH HOTEL 20 17 85 GRAND MAKADI HOTEL 20 12 60 GRAND PLAZA HOTEL 20 12 60 HILTON HURGHADA PLAZA 20 15 75 HILTON HURGHADA RESORT 20 14 70 HURGHADA MARRIOTT BEACH RESORT 20 13 65 JAZ MAKADI STAR RESORT & SPA 20 13 65 LTI TITANIC BEACH SPA & AQUA PARK 20 17 85 PARADISE GOLDEN 5 RESORT 20 15 75 SONESTA PHARAOH BEACH RESORT 20 13 65 SUNRISE HOLIDAYS RESORT 20 13 65 SUNRISE MAMLOUK PALACE RESORT 20 14 70 SUNRISE SELECT GARDEN BEACH RESORT 20 13 65 THE DESERT ROSE RESORT 20 15 75 Sub-total 300 210 70 Continued 95
  • 96. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.2: Continued FOUR STAR RESORTS Sharm El Sheikh Resorts AA GRAND OASIS RESORT AL BOSTAN PARK HOTEL AMARANTE GARDEN PALMS HOTEL CLUB EL FARAANA REEF CONTINENTAL PLAZA BEACH HOTEL CORAL SEA IMPRIAL RESORT DREAMS VACATION RESORT GAFY RESORT GARDENIA PLAZA RESORT GHAZALA GARDENS HOTEL GRAND HOTEL ( SHARM GARDEN ) HELNAN MARINA SHARM HOTEL HILTON SHARKS BAY RESORT MELIA SINAI HOTEL REEF OASIS BEACH RESORT REHANA ROYAL BEACH RESORT REHANA SHARM RESORT ROYAL PLAZA SHARM EL SHEIKH SAVITA RESORT & SPA SETI SHARM PALM BEACH RESORT SINAI GARDEN RESORT SINAI GRAND RESORT SINAI GROVE RESORT SONESTA CLUB SHARM EL SHEIKH SUNRISE ISLAND GARDEN RESORT Sub-total Hurghada Resorts AL MAS PALACE RESORT AL NABILA GRAND MAKADI HOTEL ALI BABA PALAC VILLAGE ARABELLA AZUR BEACH RESORT BEACH ALBATROS HOTEL CALIMERA GOLDEN BEACH CORAL BEACH ROTANA RESORT- HURGHADA DIAMOND RESORT FANTAZIA BEACH RESORT GRAND HOTEL 96 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 500 13 13 14 14 13 12 13 12 10 12 12 14 13 14 14 15 15 12 14 16 16 16 16 12 15 330 65 65 70 70 65 60 65 60 50 60 60 70 65 70 70 75 75 60 70 80 80 80 80 60 75 66 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 13 65 12 60 14 70 13 65 15 75 11 55 13 65 12 60 13 65 12 60 Continued
  • 97. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.2: Continued GRAND RESORT GRAND SEAS RESORT HOSTMARK HILTON HURGHADA LONG BEACH RESORT HURGHADA SEAGULL RESORT IBEROTEL MAKADI OASIS LILLY LAND BEACH CLUB MARLIN INN BEACH RESORT OLD PALACE RESORT PRIMA SOL TITANIC RESORT & AQUA PARK REGINA RESORT- HURGHADA ROMA HOTEL HURGHADA ROYAL PALACE HOTEL SUNNY DAYS EL PALACIO RESORT SUNNY DAYS PALMA DE MIRETTE VILLAGE SUNRISE LE JARDIN RESORT (NEW HAWAI 2) Sub-total Total 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 500 1600 10 12 12 17 11 13 18 16 15 14 14 15 16 15 14 340 1072 50 60 60 85 55 65 90 80 75 70 70 75 80 75 70 68 67 1. Part one: Factors affecting the RG Selection of the RSRs This section was designed in order to determine the factors that attract the RG to the RSRs. e.g. sea activities, the Sun, climate, price, HSs , promotion; Kinds of food the RG prefer to eat during his/her visit to the RS( e.g. soups, snacks, pasta , sea food , meat , poultry, fruits, and dessert), Types of cuisine the RG prefers to eat (e.g. oriental food, Russian food, international cuisine, ethnic cuisine, and eclectic cuisine ); as well as the kinds of beverages the RG prefers to drink (e.g. alcoholic drinks, non alcoholic drinks, and national drinks). The following tables illustrate all these issues in the investigated resorts. 97
  • 98. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.1. The RG preferences to visit the RS. - 4 .4 91 8.5 977 91.1 5261 98 1 Sun - - - 21 2.0 141 15.1 910 84.9 5177 97 2 Climate - - - 12 1.1 342 31.9 718 67.0 4994 93 3 Price 8 .7 3.5 71 10.1 360 43.7 604 56.3 4739 88 4 Promotion - - 42 3.9 161 18.9 620 76.8 249 23.2 4292 80 5 HSs - - 8 .7 119 11.1 815 76.0 130 12.1 4283 80 6 29 Most important Neutral Total - Freq % Freq Important - Un important Sea activities Least important Ranking 5 Weighted Average (%) Attractive factors Table 4.3: The RG Preferences to Visit the RS Importance levels 1 2 3 4 % Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq It can be concluded from the data tabulated in Table 4.3 that Sea activities were considered the most important attractive factor for most of the RG; especially leisure travellers, when selecting the RS destination by an average of 98 %; followed by the Sun (97%), climate (93%), price (88 %), and finally promotion and HSs (80%). There are also some other attractive factors, such as: Egyptian people, friendliness of staff, excursions in Egypt, excursions to the region area, business and work, animation and recreation quality, kids’ facilities, family services, and variety of F&B. therefore, resort managers should be fully aware of all these factors in order to meet their guest’s requirements and thus to achieve their satisfaction. 98
  • 99. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.2. Guest preferences regarding food kinds. 2 5 - - 2 .2 97 9.0 973 90.8 5259 98 1 Sea food - - 14 1.3 78 7.3 97 9.0 883 82.4 5065 95 2 Poultry - - 2 .2 354 33.0 571 53.3 145 13.5 4075 76 3 Soups - - - - 385 35.9 613 57.2 74 6.9 3977 74 4 Meat - - 5 .5 452 42.2 551 51.4 64 6.0 3890 73 5 Snacks - - 89 8.3 508 47.4 398 37.1 77 7.2 3679 69 6 Dessert - - 52 4.9 613 57.2 363 33.9 44 4.1 3615 67 7 Pasta - - 194 18.1 741 69.1 111 10.4 26 2.4 3185 59 8 Most important Neutral Total - Freq % Freq Important - Un important Fruits Least important Ranking 1 Importance levels 3 4 Weighted Average (%) Attractive factors Table 4.4: Guest Preferences Regarding Food Kinds % Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq It can be noticed from the data tabulated in Table 4.4 that fruits was considered the most preferable kind of food by an average of 98%; followed by sea food (95%), Poultry (76%), soups (74%), meat (73%), snacks(69%), dessert (67%), and finally, pasta (59%). Therefore, resort managers could be fully aware of all these kinds of food in order to meet their guest’s requirements and to achieve their satisfaction as well (Table 4.4). 99
  • 100. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.3. Guest preferences regarding types of cuisine. 2 5 9 .8 15 1.4 362 33.8 686 64.0 4941 92 1 Russian food - - 13 1.2 19 1.8 376 35.1 664 61.9 4907 92 2 Oriental food - - 25 2.3 139 13.0 404 37.7 504 47.0 4603 86 3 International cuisine Ethnic cuisine - - 6 .6 321 29.9 693 64.6 52 4.9 4007 75 4 - - 93 8.7 651 60.7 296 27.6 32 3.0 3483 65 5 Most important Neutral Total - Freq % Freq Important - Un important Eclectic cuisine Least important Ranking 1 Importance levels 3 4 Weighted Average (%) Attractive factors Table 4.5: Guest Preferences Regarding Types of Cuisine % Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq It can be concluded from the data tabulated in Table 4.5 that the eclectic cuisine was considered the most important attractive cuisine for most of the RG by an average of 92%, when selecting the RS destination he love the buffet more than ala carte restaurant for the variety and unlimited quantity of food, followed by the Russian food (nearly, 92%), oriental food (86%), international cuisine (75%), and finally ethnic cuisine (65%). Therefore, resort managers should be fully aware of all these cuisine preferences in order to meet guest’s requirements and thus to achieve their satisfaction. 100
  • 101. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.4. Guest preferences regarding kinds of beverages. 2 5 30 2.8 53 4.9 99 9.2 890 83.0 5065 95 1 Non alcoholic drinks National drinks - - 20 1.9 49 4.6 199 18.6 804 75.0 5003 93 2 - - 58 5.4 122 11.4 524 48.9 368 34.3 4418 82 3 Most important Neutral Total - Freq % Freq Important - Un important Alcoholic drinks Least important Ranking 1 Importance levels 3 4 Weighted Average (%) Attractive factors Table 4.6: Guest Preferences Regarding Kinds of Beverages % Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq It can be concluded from the data tabulated in table 4.6 that alcoholic drinks were considered the most important attractive drinks for most of the RGs by an average of 95%; followed by the non alcoholic drinks (93%), and finally national drinks (82%). 101
  • 102. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.5. Guest preferences regarding kinds of entertainment shows. Importance levels 3 4 5 Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq - - - - 49 4.6 123 11.5 900 84.0 5139 96 1 - 51.1 12 1.1 66 6.2 225 21.0 769 71.7 4967 93 2 - - 20 1.9 225 21.0 279 26.0 548 51.1 4571 85 3 - - 10 .9 119 12.1 548 51.2 395 36.8 4544 85 4 19 1.8 33 3.1 177 16.5 600 56.0 243 22.7 4231 79 5 Most important Neutral Total % Important Freq Un important Ranking 2 Weighted Average (%) Tannora show Belley dancer Magician show Oriental folklores Snakes show 1 Least important Attractive factors Table 4.7: Guest Preferences Regarding Kinds of Entertainment Shows % Freq As illustrated in Table 4.7 tannora show was considered the most important attractive entertainment show for most of the RG, especially leisure travellers during accommodation in the RS destination by an average of (96%) , followed by belley dancer (93%), magician show and oriental folklores (85%), and finally snakes show (79%). there are also some other attractive entertainment shows such as: Russian show, the international show, the Nubian show, the fire show, and the live singer show. 102
  • 103. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Summary of the RG’s preferences In nutshell, the most preferable hospitality attributes are those selected by the majority of the Russian and they are follows:  Sea activities and the Sun were considered the most important attractive factors for most of the RGs.  Fruits and sea food were considered the most preferable kind of food.  Eclectic cuisine was considered the most important attractive cuisine for most of the RGs like the buffet more than ala carte restaurant.  Alcoholic drinks were considered the most important attractive type of drink followed by non alcoholic drinks.  Tannora show was considered the most important attractive entertainment show for most of the RG followed by the belly dancer show. 103
  • 104. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Russian Guest Preferences 120 100 80 98 97 93 98 88 80 80 95 92 76 74 73 69 92 95 86 82 75 67 59 60 40 20 0 Figure 4.1: The RG Preferences 104 96 93 65 93 85 85 79
  • 105. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2. Part two: The RG’s expectation and perception of HSs This part is designed to show the RG’s expectations and perception of HSs offered in the RSRs. Example of these services are, accommodation attributes such as (valet and laundry, check-in procedures, check-out procedures, room cleanliness, room facilities, maintenance and repair, and reasonable price), F&B attributes such as (food quality, F&B variety, food quantity, food presentation, temperature of food, the availability of Russian food, the availability of local unique F&B, speed of service, professionalism of service, and value for money); recreational activities such as (indoor activities, and outdoor activities); variety of recreational activities, quality of recreational activities, attractively of recreational activities, and reasonable price). Among the factors that determine the RG’s selection of a resort we find staff performance such as (friendliness of staff, staff courtesy, helpfulness, staff performance, the availability of staff to provide prompt service, and professional handling guest complaints), the availability of Russian language such as (Russian language level of communicators, restaurants Russian language menus, Russian language information brochures and flyers, Russian language information signboards, Russian language buffet tags, and capability of communication with Russia); as well as general attributes such as (promotion, reasonable price, service quality, value perceived, physical environment, safety and security procedures, cleanliness and hygiene, transportation, shopping facilities, and internet access). The following tables illustrate all these issues in the investigated resorts. 105
  • 106. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question No. 2.1: Expectations versus perception concerning the HSs offered to the RG in the RSRs Table 4.8: Expectations versus Perception Concerning the HSs offered to RGs in the RSRs Expectations 2222 54.3 42.0 37.0 58.9 15.3 18.8 2025 41.0 40.3 63.0 41.1 84.7 81.2 - - 24.6 21.7 3.2 .4 12.3 - 13.8 43.9 53.9 36.5 38.3 22.9 9.6 61.6 34.3 46.1 60.4 61.3 44.7 90.4 Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B 20.1 - 106 NT Not try ( %) .3 4.8 17.7 - 5 Excellent ( %) - 4 Very good ( %) - 2.1.1. Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price 2.1.2. F&B attributes 3 Good ( %) Attributes 2 Fair ( %) 1 Poor ( %) 5 Excellent ( %) 4 Very good (%) 3 Good ( %) 2 Fair ( %) Poor ( %) 1 Perception 2.8 2.5 3.1 - 2.3 23.4 27.7 14.5 3.7 24.3 - 29.1 44.1 31.4 56.9 50.7 8.6 7.1 28.5 25.9 16.9 20.5 37.0 13.1 45.1 8.4 3.7 3.5 5.6 8.6 28.0 47.8 31.7 20.5 22.9 - .8 1.1 12.9 30.6 .2 .2 6.8 - 37.9 31.4 24.0 - 28.0 14.3 10.6 33.4 37.2 33.9 7.1 47.6 42.1 68.6 27.3 29.7 28.3 42.4 10.7 11.9 20.8 1.2 1.5 7.1 50.5 Continued
  • 107. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.8: Continued - - 1.3 - 14.7 62.6 33.0 85.3 36.1 67.0 - - - 17.6 56.2 3.8 82.4 43.8 96.2 - - 4.9 - 12.1 7.7 36.8 40.9 20.4 38.2 39.5 38.2 45.5 87.9 92.3 63.2 59.1 74.7 61.8 60.5 61.8 54.5 - - - 3.3 6.6 4.6 37.0 30.7 96.7 93.4 95.4 63.0 69.3 Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money 2.1.3. Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price 2.1.4. Staff performance Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance Availability of staff to provide prompt service 107 4.8 6.2 - 9.5 17.6 - 33.8 35.4 2.4 43.6 34.9 58.7 8.4 5.9 38.9 - .8 .5 2.1 6.0 4.0 39.1 32.5 12.3 54.8 34.4 47.3 4.1 26.3 35.9 - - 1.4 4.9 6.5 6.1 - .7 5.6 2.3 13.6 2.1 27.0 38.5 38.8 3.6 10.2 47.1 31.0 45.9 18.9 41.1 32.9 35.4 56.5 34.8 46.4 52.6 30.1 51.2 27.0 22.0 19.7 39.8 54.3 .9 14.1 9.0 27.7 - .7 1.6 3.5 38.2 24.8 24.8 45.9 50.0 41.9 49.0 74.4 51.8 46.5 13.7 20.3 Continued - .7 6.2 5.9
  • 108. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.8: Continued - - - 7.7 92.3 - .1 - 3.7 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 - 41.5 31.7 29.0 32.8 36.3 37.2 54.8 67.0 69.8 66.0 62.5 62.8 - - 1.3 1.3 1.3 - 4.3 3.3 37.8 37.9 5.3 40.0 38.3 7.5 33.2 34.8 18.5 95.7 96.7 62.2 62.1 94.7 60.0 61.7 91.2 65.5 63.9 81.5 Professional handling guest complaints 2.1.5. Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators Restaurants Russian language menus Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards Russian language buffet tags Capability of communication with Russia 2.1.6. General attributes - 5.6 7.0 9.5 6.9 71.0 - .7 2.0 .7 1.6 .7 13.5 4.1 19.4 1.8 27.5 3.0 79.2 32.2 51.2 21.7 39.8 33.9 7.3 28.8 24.4 40.9 21.2 59.7 34.9 3.0 34.9 9.9 3.5 Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access .6 - 12.2 1.8 1.1 3.7 - 36.8 .4 23.6 4.9 5.9 29.3 50.7 27.1 9.2 13.8 19.0 40.6 67.7 60.4 70.1 89.1 58.5 43.5 49.2 73.6 43.9 74.3 9.2 31.5 14.2 24.9 5.0 12.2 4.7 20.1 7.3 5.6 4.9 .6 9.9 36.7 1.8 This question has been raised to investigate the respondents’ expectations compared up to perception regarding HSs in the RSRs in terms of accommodation services, F&B attributes, recreational activities, staff performance, the availability of Russian language, and general attributes (Table 4.8). Moreover, the investigation finds out the discrepancy between the guests’ expectations and their perceptions of the service delivered (Gap 5; the perception gap). 108
  • 109. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2.1.1. Accommodation services in accordance to the RG expectations versus perception in the RSRs. As stated previously in chapter two, accommodation services are considered one of the most important components of the hospitality industry. This is because the basic function of these establishments is to provide the overnight services to customers (Knowles, 1998; Powers and Barrows, 2006). Therefore; a question was raised to highlight the guests’ expectations and perception regarding accommodation services offered in the RSRs (e.g. valet and laundry, check-in procedures, check-out procedures, room cleanliness, room facilities, maintenance and repair as well as reasonable price). In that sense, the previous table shows a summary of the guests’ expectations and perceptions in both four and five star resorts in the RS destinations regarding accommodation service (Table 4.8). In terms of valet and laundry, the guests’ expected the service to be excellent by 67.5% While 31.7% didn’t try the service. 29.1% rated it as good. Concerning the check-in procedures, the guests’ expected the service to be very good by 54.3% while it was perceived as good by 44.1%. In terms of check-out procedures, the guests’ expectations for the service to be very good came by 42.0% while it was perceived as good by 31.4%. As for the room cleanliness, it was expected to be excellent by 63.0% while perceived as good by 56.9%. This finding agrees with Choi and Chu (2000) who declared that the cleanliness of rooms is considered as one of the most important factors for most customers when selecting a place of accommodation to stay in. It is obvious that there is a big gap between what customers expected and what they perceived in resorts regarding room cleanliness. As for the room facilities, the guests expected the service to be very good 58.9% While 50.7% perceived it as good. Regarding of maintenance and repair, the guests’ expectations for the service to be excellent scored by 84.7% while perceptions as good was much lower by 28.0%. Concerning of accommodation price, it was expected to be excellent by 81.2% of the guests while perceived as excellent by 47.8%. This finding concurs also with Knutson (1988) who indicated that leisure travellers were more concerned about room rates as an important factor when selecting a resort to stay in. It is obvious that there is a gap between guest expectations and perception in regard to the accommodation 109
  • 110. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION services. Therefore, resort managers might be fully aware of guest’s requirements in order to meet their expectations. 2.1.2. Guest’s expectation versus perception concerning F&B services in the RSRs. F&B services are considered also as one of the basic components of the hospitality industry segments as explained earlier in chapter two. This is because the basic function is to provide and serve F&B to customers (Powers and Barrows, 2006). In that sense, the purpose of a question is to illustrate the RG expectations and their perceptions to the value of F&B quality attributes (e.g. food quality, F&B variety, food quantity, food presentation, temperature of food, the availability of Russian food, availability of local unique F&B, speed of service, as well as value for money). Table 4.8 presents this issue. Concerning food quality, the guests’ expectations were 61.6% excellent food quality. On the other hand, guest perceptions were 47.6% very good. This finding agrees with Bell and Pliner (2003) who stated that most travellers look for food quality as one of the important F&B attributes when eating at any food service establishments. Moreover, Önal et al. (2007) who mentioned that increased the F&B consumption in resorts and has turned out to be the most important items within the total expenditures. In this regard, great efforts are made to reduce the cost resulting in low level of quality of these products. In terms of F&B variety, the guests’ expectations were 43.9% very good. While, the guest perceptions were 42.1% very good. These findings agree with Dittmer (2002) Powers and Barrows (2006) who indicated that most travellers today, especially leisure travellers, look for quality and variety of food items during staying in resorts, and agree with Mutisya (2010) who mentioned that non premium drinks have negative effects on the drinkers. With reference to food quantity, the guests’ expected it to be very good by 53.9%. On the other hand, they received it as very good by 68.6%. In terms of food presentation, 60.4% of the guests were expected it to be excellent. While 37.9% of them perceived it fair. This finding agrees with Saad (2010) who mentioned that food presentation was considered as one of the important F&B attributes when eating at any food service establishment. Regarding the 110
  • 111. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION F&B temperature the guests’ expectations by 61.3%went for excellent. While it was perceived as good by 37.2% .As for the availability of Russian food when required, the guests’ expected to find it excellent by 44.7% On the other hand; they perceived it as good by 33.9%. With regard to the availability of local F&B when required, the guests expected the service to be excellent by 90.4%, while it was perceived as excellent by 50.5%. As for speed of service, 85.3% of the guests expected it to be excellent while 43.6% of them perceived it as very good. These findings agrees with Önal et al. (2007) who stated that customers complain of waiting long hours for getting the service and less quality of the services. In terms of professionalism of service, the guest’s expectations were 62.6% very good. While, the guest perceptions were 34.9 % very good. Regarding the value for money, 67% of the guests expected it to be excellent, while 58.7% of them perceived it as very good. Knutson (1988) indicated that leisure travellers were more interested in room rates as an important factor when selecting a resort to stay in. Wilensky and Buttle (1988) declared that the value of money is considered one of the important factors by most travellers, especially leisure travellers. It is obvious that there is a gap between guest expectations and perception concerning F&B services. Therefore, resort managers would be fully aware this attributes in order to achieve guest satisfaction. 2.1.3. Guest’s expectations versus perception concerning recreational activities in the RSRs. Recreation and entertainment activities as reported previously are considered as essential components to the hospitality industry (Brymer, 1995; Powers and Barrows, 2006). Moreover, they are considered two of the major purposes for travel (Dittmer, 2002). Leisure/recreation activities differ from destination to another. Moreover, recreation and entertainment activities are considered basic elements for the RG. Therefore, a question was designed to illustrate the guests’ expectations and their perceptions toward recreation activities: Indoor activities, and outdoor activities, variety of recreational 111
  • 112. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION activities, quality of recreational activities, attraction of recreational activities, and reasonable price (Table 4.8). Concerning health spa and fitness, the guests’ expectations went for excellent by 82.4% while it was perceived as excellent by only 54.8. This finding agrees with Jensen and Guthrie (2006) who confirmed that spa/fitness is considered one of the important indoor activities for the majority of leisure travellers. In terms of animation activities, the guests’ expectations were by 56.2% for very good While it was perceived as very good by 34.4%. As regards Music, 96.2% of the guest expected it to be excellent while just 35.9% of them perceived it as excellent. Regarding diving, the guests’ expectations were by 87.9% for excellent diving while 54.3% of them didn’t try diving, while 34.8% of the guests expected excellent. This finding agrees with Dittmer (2002) who mentioned that most leisure travellers look diving and snorkelling as top outdoor recreational adventure activities. With regard to land sports, guests’ expectations were by 92.3% for excellent. On the other hand, the guests’ perceptions were by 47.1% for very good. These findings agree with Allen (2002) who mentioned that customers enjoy recreation activities, such as land sports and water sports. Therefore, in this respect, customers never worry about spending additional money. In regard to water sports, the guests expected excellent experience by 63.2% while they so perceived it by 52.6%. Regarding aerobics, the guests’ expectations were by 59.1% for excellent while their perceptions were by 45.9% as very good. Concerning excursions, guests’ expectations were by 74.7% for excellent. On the other hand, guest perceptions were by 51.2% for excellent. In terms of variation of recreational activities, the guests’ expectations were by 61.8% for excellent While their perceptions were by 41.1% for very good. In terms of quality of recreational activities, the guests’ expectations were by 60.5% for excellent. On the other hand, the guest perceptions were by 38.5% for good. Regarding the attraction of recreational activities, the guests’ expectations went for excellent by 81.8% while they perceived it as good by 38.8%. 112
  • 113. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION With regard to the prices of recreational activities, guests’ expectations were 54.5% excellent. On the other hand, the guest perceptions were by 56.5% for very good, and by 39.8% for excellent. These findings agree with Mutisya (2010) who mentioned that most AI packages did not include motorized sports and the entertainment programs greatly ignore personal tastes and preferences, yet customers are already captive to the resorts and may not have wanted to spend additional money looking for entertainment elsewhere. It is obvious that there is a gap between guest expectations and perception in regard to the recreational activities. Therefore, resort managers should be fully aware of guests’ expectations in order to achieve their satisfaction. 2.1.4. Guest’s expectation versus perception concerning staff performance in the RSRs. Staff performance as reported previously is considered vital component of the hospitality industry. Moreover, Staff performance is considered to be as a basic element for the RG. Therefore, a question was designed to illustrate the guests’ expectations and their perception toward Staff performance such as staff friendliness, staff courtesy, helpfulness, staff performance, the availability of staff to provide prompt service, and professional handling guest complaints. In that sense, the following table shows a summary of the guests’ expectations and perception in both four and five star resorts in the RS destinations regarding staff performance (Table 4. 8). Concerning staff friendliness, the guests’ expected an excellent level by 96.7% while they so perceived it by 14.4%. In terms of staff courtesy, it was perceived as excellent by only 51.8%. These findings consent with Ndhlovu and Senguder (2002) who indicated that staff courtesy and staff hygiene are considered two of the most important factors to most travellers; especially leisure travellers. With reference to helpfulness, the guests’ expectations were 95.4% excellent helpfulness. On the other hand, the guest perception were by 50.0% for very good. Regarding Staff performance, the guests’ expectations went by 63.0% for excellent. On the other hand, the guests’ perceptions were by 41.9% for very good. In addition, With regard to the availability of staff to provide prompt 113
  • 114. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION service, guests’ expectations were by 69.3% for excellent while the guest perceptions were by 49.0% for very good. As regards professional handling of guest complaints, the guests’ expected excellent service by 92.3%. 71.0% of them didn’t experience any problems while 12.0% perceived the service as good. It is obvious that there is a gap between guest expectation and perceptions in regard to staff performance. Therefore, resort managers should be fully aware guests’ expectations in order to achieve their satisfaction. 2.1.5. Guest’s expectation versus perception concerning the availability of the Russian language in the RSRs. This question was designed to highlight the guests’ expectations and perception regarding the availability of the Russian language in the RSRs (Russian language in communicators, menus, information brochures, signboards, buffet tags, and capability to communicate with Russia). In that sense, the following table shows a summary of guests’ expectations and perceptions in both four and five star resorts in the RS destinations (Table 4.8). Concerning the Russian language level of communicators, the guests’ expectations were by 54.8% for excellent. On the other hand, guest’s perceptions were by 79.2% for very good. Regarding restaurants Russian language menus, the guests’ expectations were by 67.0% for excellent. While, 34.9% of the guests didn’t find Russian menus, and 28.8% perceived it as excellent. In terms of Russian information brochures and flyers, the guests expected them to be excellent by 69.8% while perceived it as very good by 51.2%. In terms of Russian language information signboards, the guests expected them to be excellent by 66.0%. 34.9% of the guests didn’t see any signboards while 21.7% saw very good signboards. Regarding the Russian language buffet tags, the guests’ expectations were for excellent scoring 62.5% while they perceived it as very good by 39.8%. With regard to Capability of communication with Russia, the guests expected it to be excellent by 62.8% while perceived it as very good by 33.9%. 114
  • 115. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2.1.6. Guest’s expectations versus perception concerning general attributes in the RSRs. The purpose of this question is to illustrate the RGs' expectations and their perceptions to the general attributes such as promotions, reasonable prices, service quality, value perceived, physical environment, safety and security procedures, cleanliness and hygiene, transportation, shopping facilities, kids’ services, and internet access (Table 4.8). As regular promotion, the guests’ expectations for it to be excellent by 95.7% while the guest perceived it as very good by 40.6%. These findings consent with Walker (2006) said that having an excellent product at a good price and in the right place is not enough. Sales goals will not be obtained unless the consumer is aware of the product's existence. There are several ways of doing this with the art of promotion. In terms of reasonable prices, the guests’ expectations were by 96.7% excellent While the guests’ perceptions regarding the same subject were by 68.0% for very good. With reference to service quality, the guests’ expectations were by 62.2% for excellent. On the other hand, the guest perceptions were by 60.4% for very good. In terms of value perceived the guests’ expectations were 62.1% for excellent while the guest perceptions were by 70.1% for very good. This finding is supported by Wilensky and Buttle (1988) who declared that value of money is considered one of the important factors by most travellers, especially leisure travellers. Regarding the physical environment the guests’ expectations were by 94.7% for excellent. On the other hand, the guests’ perceptions were 89.1% for very good. With regard to safety and security procedures when required, guests’ expectations were by 60.0% for excellent. On the other hand, the guest perceptions were by 58.5% for very good. This finding agrees with Knutson (1988) who stated that safety and security procedures are very important considerations to most travellers when selecting a resort, especially leisure travellers. This is because most travellers usually escort their families when organizing a trip and they have a high sensitivity to what may occur around them when their families are involved. 115
  • 116. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION With regard to cleanliness and hygiene, guests’ expectations were by 61.7% for excellent while they perceived it as good by 50.7% and by 43.5% as very good. These findings agree with Ndhlovu and Senguder (2002) who indicated that staff hygiene is considered one of the most important factors to most travellers, especially leisure travellers. Regarding transportation, the guests’ expectations were by 91.2% for excellent. On the other hand, the guests’ perceptions regarding the same subject were by 49.2% for very good. In terms of shopping facilities, the guests’ expectations were by 65.5% for excellent while the guest perceptions were by 73.6 % for very good. With reference to kids’ services, the guests’ expectations were by 63.9% for excellent while 43.9% didn’t find very good kids’ services. These findings consent with Spurlock (2005) who said that fast food chains shamelessly declare that kids are their primary targets. Fast food restaurants are significantly more likely to be visited by customers with their children than those without their children. With reference to internet access, the guests’ expectations it to be excellent by 81.5% while they perceived it as very good by 74.3%. It is obvious that there is a gap between what customers expected and perceived in resorts. Therefore, resort managers should be fully aware of the guests’ expectations in order to achieve their satisfaction. 116
  • 117. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question No. 2.2: Respondents’ opinions concerning their perception of HSs in the RSRs. This question was designed to investigate the respondents’ opinions concerning their perception versus overall expectations in terms of HSs provided to them (Table 4.9). Table 4.9 Guest Perception Perception Frequency Fall short of expectations Meet expectations Exceed expectations Total 156 694 222 1072 Percent (%) 14.6 64.7 20.7 100 The results obtained from the previous table indicate that the services and facilities provided to the respondents met their expectation by 64.7 %, 20.7% of them exceeded their expectation while14.6% fell short of their expectation. This means that approximately 15% of the respondents were not satisfied. Therefore, the resort managers should do their best to ameliorate this situation by closely tracking the requirements of the guests so as to achieve their satisfaction and maximize the profits. 117
  • 118. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Part three: Demographic data analysis This section is concerned with the demographic data of the respondents including: gender, age, educational level, as well as occupation (Table 4.10). Table 4.2: Respondent’s demographic data Table 4. 10 : Respondent’s Demographic Data Analysis Personal data Frequency Gender Age Educational Level Occupation Male Female Under 25 years From 25 to 40 years Over 40 years Secondary education University or high institute Other Student Businessman Self-employed Professional Other 392 680 413 614 45 363 673 36 132 105 465 368 2 The results indicate that:  The majority of the respondents travelled with their families.  The majority of the RGs have a high level of education.  The majority of the RGs are self – employed or professionals.  The majority of the respondents are under forty years old. 118 Percent (%) 36.6 63.4 38.5 57.3 4.2 33.9 62.8 3.4 12.3 9.8 43.4 34.3 .2
  • 119. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Guest Suggestions and Comments This question was designed to investigate the respondents’ opinions, suggestions or comments concerning HSs in the RSRs. There are some problems and comments noted by resort guests: 1. Resort staff's lack of knowledge of the Russian language. 2. Necessity to raise the degree of service introduced to visitors, such as:  Improving the mood and attitude of the resort staff towards the visitors of the resort (employees at reception, bars and restaurants staff).  Improving service quality (room cleaning).  Improvement the cleanliness quality of the resort territory, pools, beach, etc.  Change room cleaning times (during away from room). 3. Resort music (desire to listen to live music in a lobby – the bar to include a repertoire of Russian songs to sing at a karaoke, periodic updating of repertoire of music, music sounding during the day within the resort territory). 4. Resort territory (numbering of buildings, places for smoking, organization of transport services on the resort's locations, and directions). 5. The condition of rooms, like:  Face lifting of rooms such as improving rooms by replacing of furniture and repairing sanitary problems (water leak, absence of illumination in a shower cabins).  Changing floor coverings.  Replacing bed linen.  Fully isolating the noise of air-conditioners.  Providing rooms with home clothes (dressing gowns).  Equipping rooms with devices for drying linen.  Air conditioners to be adjusted to work including hot modes.  Rooms to be equipped with extra blankets for the cold of night.  Fighting ants through lout rooms: on floor and bed. 6. Technical malfunction arising during visitors’ rest:  Hair dryer, light, the small household techniques.  Sauna.  Air conditioners working improbable.  Problems with hot water supply. 119
  • 120. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Safety box not working.  No hot water in the room.  Kitchen utensils not working properly (e.g. Kettles). 7. Providing swimming pools with heat during the autumn and winter season. 8. Problems with insects (flies, mosquitoes, ants) in the territory of beaches, in rooms. 9. problems with reception:  Improving the quality of service introduced to guests (the spirits of the employees, efficiency, and desire to help).  Improving the process of settling guests (speed of placement, placement taking into account the wishes of the guests, support to number). 10.TV (broadcast quality must be better, increase the number of Russian channels, including sports). 11.The Internet and mobile communication:  Improving the quality of mobile communication.  Trouble-free wired internet.  Extending Wi – Fi the Internet services.  Increasing the number of operators of mobile and Internet communications. 12.Expanding and improving resort services such as:  Opening diving clubs.  Increasing the number of resort outlets.  Expanding AI system services (e.g. spa-procedures, big tennis, excursions). 13. Beach problems like:  Building toilets and changing rooms in the beach area.  Reducing the number of yachts moored at the beach.  Installing payphone in the beach territory.  Regular cleaning of the territory of the beach and the coastal line. 14.Resort entertainment and recreation:  Creating children’s animation.  Improving equipment in stock (board games, balls), providing Russian billiards.  Diversifying day entertainment means, including on- beach activities and extending the time of evening entertainment activities (disco).  Improving the attraction means for the visitors and reviewing the scenario 120
  • 121. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION of show programs. 15.Changing the pricing policy in the resort then stabilizing it. (Decreasing the prices of medical services). 16.Improving bars and restaurants:  Dedicated staff (goodwill & politeness of barmen).  Stock expansion (napkins, toothpicks, disposable ware).  Improving the quality of local spirits and fresh juice.  Expanding the assortment of alcoholic production of bars (at the expense imported alcohol, including Russian made).  Expanding restaurants menus (assortment of seafood and fruit, including of several dishes of the Russian cuisine, especially the first dishes (soups).  Introducing children's menus.  Small unattractive birthday cakes.  Dirty cups 17.Improving the performance of the staff of the resort. 121
  • 122. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.3 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance with the Russian Gusts Expectations in the Red Sea Resorts Concerning the RG expectations regarding HSs results indicate the following: o Regarding accommodation attributes, the results showed that maintenance and repair were expected to be the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by the reasonable prices. o In regard to F&B attributes, the results showed that the availability of local unique F&B was expected to hit the highest level followed by the speed of service. o As regards recreational activities, the results indicated that music was considered the highest level factor followed by land sports. o In terms of staff performance, the results referred that staff friendliness was expected to be the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by staff helpfulness. o In connection with the availability of the Russian language, the results showed that the Russian language information brochures and flyers were expected to come on top of the list as the highest level factor, followed by the Russian language menus in the second place. o Concerning general attributes, the results assured that reasonable price was expected to score the highest level followed by promotion (see Table 4.11). 122
  • 123. 5 Total Very good Excellent 4 Weighted Average (%) Freq % Freq Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price F&B attributes Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money Good Fair Factors Poor Table 4.11: Ranking HSs in Accordance with the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs Evaluating levels 1 2 3 % Freq % Freq % Freq % - - - 3 51 190 - .3 4.8 17.7 - 345 582 450 397 631 164 201 2222 54.3 42.0 37.0 58.9 15.3 18.8 724 439 432 675 441 908 871 2025 41.0 40.3 63.0 41.1 84.7 81.2 5009 4676 4530 4963 4729 5196 5159 - - 215 - 20.1 - 264 233 34 4 132 - 24.6 21.7 3.2 .4 12.3 1.3 - 148 471 578 391 411 246 103 158 671 354 13.8 43.9 53.9 36.5 38.3 22.9 9.6 14.7 62.6 33.0 660 368 494 647 657 479 969 914 387 718 61.6 34.3 46.1 60.4 61.3 44.7 90.4 85.3 36.1 67.0 4684 4423 4782 4901 4941 4205 5257 5202 4661 5006 123 93.45 87.24 84.51 92.59 88.23 96.94 96.25 3 6 7 5 4 1 2 Freq - 14 - Ranking CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 87.39 7 82.52 9 89.22 6 91.44 5 92.18 4 78.45 10 98.08 1 97.05 2 86.96 8 93.40 3 Continued
  • 124. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.11: Continued Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price Staff performance Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance Availability of staff to provide prompt service Professional handling guest complaints Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators Restaurants Russian language menus - - - - - - - - - 52 - 4.9 - 130 83 395 438 219 410 423 410 488 12.1 7.7 36.8 40.9 20.4 38.2 39.5 38.2 45.5 87.9 92.3 63.2 59.1 74.7 61.8 60.5 61.8 54.5 5230 5277 4965 4922 5037 4950 4937 4950 4872 97.57 98.45 92.63 91.83 93.97 92.35 92.11 92.35 90.90 3 2 5 8 3 6 7 6 9 - - - - - - 35 71 49 397 329 83 3.3 1037 96.7 6.6 1001 93.4 4.6 1023 95.4 37.0 675 63.0 30.7 743 69.3 7.7 989 92.3 5325 5289 5311 4963 5031 5277 99.35 98.68 99.09 92.59 93.86 98.45 1 3 2 6 5 4 - - 1 .1 40 13 3.7 1.2 445 340 41.5 31.7 587 718 4835 4991 90.21 6 93.12 2 Continued 124 - 189 602 41 17.6 883 82.4 56.2 470 43.8 3.8 1031 96.2 5171 4758 5319 96.47 88.77 99.24 4 10 1 942 989 677 634 801 662 649 662 584 54.8 67.0
  • 125. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.11: Continued Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards Russian language buffet tags Capability of communication with Russia General attributes Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access - - - - 13 1.2 311 29.0 748 69.8 5023 93.71 1 - - - - 13 13 - 1.2 1.2 - 352 389 399 32.8 36.3 37.2 707 670 673 66.0 62.5 62.8 4982 4945 4961 92.95 92.26 92.56 3 5 4 - - - - 14 14 14 1.3 1.3 1.3 46 35 405 406 57 429 411 80 356 373 198 4.3 1026 95.7 3.3 1037 96.7 37.8 667 62.2 37.9 666 62.1 5.3 1015 94.7 40.0 643 60.0 38.3 661 61.7 7.5 978 91.2 33.2 702 65.5 34.8 685 63.9 18.5 874 81.5 5314 5325 4955 4954 5303 4931 4949 5252 4976 4959 5162 99.14 99.35 92.44 92.43 98.94 92.00 92.33 97.99 92.84 92.52 96.31 2 1 8 9 3 11 10 4 6 7 5 - 125
  • 126. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.4 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance with the Russian Guest’s Perception in the Red Sea Resorts Concerning the RG’s perception regarding HSs, the results as shown in Table 4.12 refer to the following: o Regarding accommodation attributes, the results showed that reasonable prices were considered the highest level factor for most of the RGs followed by valet and laundry. o In terms of F&B attributes, the results made clear that the availability of local unique F&B was considered as the highest level factors followed by the value of money. o In reference to recreational activities, the results showed that diving was considered the highest level factor followed by excursions. o In terms of staff performance, the results assured that staff friendliness was considered the highest level factor followed by staff courtesy. o Regarding the availability of the Russian language, the results referred that the capability of communication with Russia was considered the highest level factor followed by the Russian language level of communicators. o Concerning general attributes, the results stressed that reasonable price was considered the highest level factor followed by the value perceived. 126
  • 127. Freq Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry % - - Check-in procedure 30 Check-out procedure - Room cleanliness Room facilities 27 - Maintenance and repair 33 Reasonable Price Freq % Freq 25 2.8 251 - 297 2.5 155 40 3.1 261 2.3 312 473 337 610 543 92 76 - 23.4 27.7 14.5 3.7 24.3 - % Freq % 29.1 305 28.5 44.1 278 25.9 31.4 181 16.9 56.9 220 20.5 50.7 397 37.0 8.6 140 13.1 7.1 484 45.1 Freq Not try Total NT % Freq % 90 8.4 340 31.7 40 3.7 37 3.5 220 20.5 60 5.6 92 8.6 300 28.0 246 22.9 512 47.8 Ranking 5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Factors Poor Table 4.12: Ranking HSs in Accordance with the RG’s Perception in the RSRs Evaluating levels 1 2 3 4 Weighted Average (%) CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Freq 2656 72.57 2 3263 60.88 6 2514 59.01 7 3347 62.44 5 3757 70.09 3 2891 70.00 4 4724 88.13 1 F&B attributes Food quality F&B variety 9 12 Food quantity - Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B 2 2 73 - .8 138 12.9 300 1.1 328 30.6 153 114 .2 406 37.9 358 .2 337 31.4 399 6.8 257 24.0 363 76 28.0 510 47.6 115 10.7 14.3 451 42.1 128 11.9 10.6 735 68.6 223 20.8 - - 3800 70.90 4 - - 3571 66.62 6 - - 4397 82.03 3 33.4 293 27.3 37.2 318 29.7 - - 3125 58.30 10 - - 3225 60.17 9 - - 3268 60.97 8 - - 4753 88.68 1 13 1.2 16 1.5 33.9 303 28.3 76 7.1 7.1 455 42.4 541 50.5 Continued 127
  • 128. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.12: Continued Speed of service Professionalism of service 51 66 Value for money - Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness - .8 Music 9 5 Outdoor activities Diving 2.1 .5 22 64 43 - - - - Land sports - - - - Water sports - - - - Aerobics - - 15 1.4 Excursions - - - - Variety of recreational activities - - 4.9 Quality of recreational activities - - Attraction of recreational activities - - 53 70 65 Reasonable price - - Staff performance Staff friendliness - - - - Staff courtesy - - 8 .7 Helpfulness - - - - Animation activities - - 3659 68.26 5 - - 3395 63.34 7 - - 4679 87.29 2 - - 3869 72.18 12 - - 4067 75.88 9 - - 4440 82.84 7 10.2 373 34.8 582 54.3 47.1 497 46.4 10 .9 2325 94.90 1 4685 88.23 4 31.0 564 52.6 151 14.1 45.9 323 30.1 96 9.0 4223 91.70 3 4051 83.01 6 18.9 549 51.2 297 27.7 41.1 289 27.0 - 3626 93.57 2 4182 78.02 8 32.9 236 22.0 35.4 211 19.7 - - 3971 74.09 10 - - 3953 73.75 11 56.5 427 39.8 - - 4676 87.24 5 266 24.8 798 74.4 492 45.9 555 51.8 536 50.0 498 46.5 - - 5078 94.74 1 - - 4810 89.74 2 - - 4748 88.58 3 4.8 102 9.5 362 33.8 467 43.6 90 8.4 6.2 189 17.6 380 35.4 374 34.9 63 5.9 26 2.4 629 58.7 417 38.9 6.0 4.0 6.5 6.1 - 419 39.1 587 54.8 44 4.1 348 32.5 369 34.4 282 26.3 132 12.3 507 47.3 385 35.9 8 60 25 146 23 289 413 416 39 8 17 38 .7 5.6 2.3 13.6 2.1 27.0 38.5 38.8 3.6 .7 1.6 3.5 109 505 332 492 203 441 353 380 606 Continued 128
  • 129. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.12: Continued Staff performance - - Availability of staff to provide prompt service - - Professional handling of guest complaints - Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators 6.2 410 38.2 449 41.9 147 13.7 266 24.8 525 49.0 218 20.3 75 7.0 102 9.5 74 6.9 761 71.0 3893 72.63 5 4114 76.75 4 - 66 63 60 1123 72.22 6 - - 8 4213 78.60 2 Restaurants Russian language menus - - - 3431 64.01 6 Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards - - 21 .7 137 13.5 849 79.2 78 7.3 4.1 345 32.2 309 28.8 374 34.9 44 2.0 208 19.4 549 51.2 262 24.4 32 3.0 4204 78.43 3 - - .7 3569 66.59 5 Russian language buffet tags - - 3868 72.16 4 Capability of communication with Russia - - 8 17 8 4777 89.12 1 Promotion 6 .6 Reasonable price - - Service quality - - Value perceived - - Physical environment - - Safety and security procedures - - Cleanliness and hygiene - - Transportation - - Shopping facilities - - Kids’ services - - 5.9 5.6 1.6 .7 19 1.8 233 21.7 438 40.9 374 34.9 295 27.5 427 39.8 227 21.2 106 9.9 3.0 363 33.9 640 59.7 37 3.5 24 General attributes Internet access - 131 12.2 395 4 19 1.8 253 53 63 314 12 1.1 544 40 3.7 290 99 148 204 129 36.8 435 40.6 99 9.2 .4 726 67.7 338 31.5 23.6 648 60.4 152 14.2 6 .6 3688 69.19 11 - - 4606 86.25 1 - - 4149 77.41 5 4.9 70.1 267 24.9 89.1 54 5.0 - - 4502 83.99 2 - - 4279 79.83 3 58.5 131 12.2 43.5 50 4.7 - - 4105 76.59 9 - - 3770 70.34 10 49.2 215 20.1 73.6 78 7.3 106 9.9 43.9 60 5.6 393 36.7 4133 77.11 8 3843 79.57 4 2628 77.41 6 74.3 4061 77.13 7 5.9 29.3 50.7 27.1 9.2 13.8 19.0 752 955 627 466 527 789 471 796 53 4.9 19 1.8
  • 130. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.5 Comparison between Five and Four Star Resorts The Mann-Whitney U test was used in this study to compare between the five and four star resorts in order to find out if there is a significant difference between them in terms of the RG’s expectations and perception regarding HSs (e.g. accommodation services, F&B services, leisure/recreation activities, staff performance, the availability of Russian language, and general attributes). The following tables handle this issue. [1] Comparison between five and four-star resorts in terms of the RG expectations in accordance with HSs in the RS The aim of this comparison is to determine if there is a significant difference between customers in the five star resorts and customers in the four star resorts in terms of their expectations regarding to HSs in the RSRs (Table 4.13). Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Accommodation attributes Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 627 482 782 389 787 386 656 465 769 397 556 525 Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) Mann-Whitney U test Mean rank score Resort Category Table 4.13: A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between The Four and Five Star Resorts in Terms of Guest Expectations Regarding Hospitality Services Accommodation attributes 9.838E4 .000* 3.602E4 .000* 3.381E4 .000* 86497.000 .000* 41071.000 .000* 126898.000 .011 Continued 130
  • 131. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.13: Continued Reasonable Price Five star Four star F&B attributes Food quality Five star Four star F&B variety Five star Four star Food quantity Five star Four star Food presentation Five star Four star Temperature of food Five star Four star Availability of Russian food Five star Four star Availability of local unique F&B Five star Four star Speed of service Five star Four star Professionalism of service Five star Four star Value for money Five star Four star Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Five star Four star Animation activities Five star Four star Music Five star Four star Outdoor activities Diving Five star Four star Land sports Five star Four star Water sports Five star Four star 580 511 117317.000 .000* 709 433 797 380 767 398 688 445 674 454 674 454 525 543 506 555 758 404 667 458 65190.000 .000* 30082.000 .000* 42076.000 .000* 73638.000 .000* 79319.000 .000* 79463.000 .000* 1.302E5 .073 122476.000 .000* 45687.000 .000* 8.228E4 .000* 1.304E5 .193 42076.000 .000* 1.209E5 .000* 1.257E5 .001* 1.314E5 .148 85827.000 .000* 547 530 767 398 502 557 559 523 545 532 658 464 Continued 131
  • 132. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.13: Continued 661 Five star 462 Four star 593 Excursions Five star 502 Four star 667 Variety of recreational activities Five star 458 Four star 656 Quality of recreational activities Five star 465 Four star 658 Attraction of recreational activities Five star 464 Four star 691 Reasonable price Five star 444 Four star Staff performance 507 Staff friendliness Five star 554 Four star 507 Staff courtesy Five star 554 Four star 496 Helpfulness Five star 561 Four star 670 Staff performance Five star 457 Four star 626 Availability of staff to provide prompt Five star service 483 Four star 526 Professional handling of guest complaints Five star 543 Four star Availability of Russian language 503 Russian language level of communicators Five star 556 Four star 660 Restaurants Russian language menus Five star 463 Four star 648 Russian language information brochures Five star and flyers 469 Four star 666 Russian language information signboards Five star 459 Four star 661 Russian language buffet tags Five star 462 Four star 655 Capability of communication with Russia Five star 466 Four star Aerobics 8.469E4 .000* 1.119E5 .000* 82276.000 .000* 86631.000 .000* 86028.000 .000* 72494.000 .000* 122945.000 .000* 1.227E5 .000* 118255.000 .000* 81137.000 .000* 98557.000 .000* 130449.000 .063 121282.500 .002* 8.520E4 .000* 8.967E4 .000* 82485.000 .000* 8.458E4 .000* 87167.000 .000* Continued 132
  • 133. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.13: Continued Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access General attributes Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 498 560 507 554 650 469 649 469 524 544 630 481 645 472 513 550 647 470 659 463 570 516 1.193E5 .000* 122945.000 .000* 89177.000 .000* 89512.000 .000* 129511.000 .007 9.722E4 .000* 9.119E4 .000* 125398.000 .000* 9.040E4 .000* 85513.000 .000* 121136.000 .000* *P-value< 0.05= Significant  Accommodation services There is a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of valet and laundry, check-in procedure, check-out procedure, room cleanliness, room facilities, and reasonable price. But there is no difference between the two groups in terms of Maintenance and repair. The customers in five- star resorts have shown a higher level of expectations towards these attributes than the customers in four star resorts this is because five- star resorts are expected to be superior and higher in level.  F&B services The Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference the between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in 133
  • 134. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION terms of most F&B attributes. For example, there is a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of food quality, F&B variety, food quantity, food presentation, temperature of food, the availability of Russian food, speed of service, professionalism of service, and value for money.  Leisure/recreation activities Mean score was used also to determine which group is higher. The MannWhitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most leisure/recreation activities. Table 4.13 shows that clearly. For example, there is a difference in terms of animation activities, music, diving, water sports, aerobics, excursions variety of recreational activities, quality of recreational activities, attraction of recreational activities, and reasonable price.  Staff performance There is a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of staff friendliness; staff courtesy, helpfulness, staff performance, and the availability of staff to provide prompt service (Table 4.13).  The availability of Russian language There is a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most accommodation attributes as, in Russian language level of communicators, restaurants menus, information brochures and flyers, information signboards, buffet tags, and capability of communication with Russia.  General attributes As shown in Table 4.13, it’s quite evident that there is a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most general attributes, Such as promotion, reasonable price, service quality, value perceived, physical environment, safety and security procedures, cleanliness and hygiene, transportation, shopping facilities, kids’ services, and internet access. 134
  • 135. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION [2] Comparison between five and four star resorts in terms of the RGs perception in connection with HSs in the RS The aim of this comparison is to determine if there is a significant difference between customers in the five star resorts and customers in the four star resorts in terms of their perceptions regarding HSs delivered in the RSRs. Moreover, the mean rank score was used to determine which group is higher (Table 4.14). Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Asymp. Sig. (2tailed) Check-in procedure Accommodation attributes Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star F&B attributes Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star MannWhitney U test Valet and laundry Mean rank score Resort Category Table 4.14: A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between the Five and Four Star Resorts in Terms of Guest’s Perception Regarding Hospitality Services Accommodation attributes 650 469 617 488 761 402 662 461 739 415 722 425 474 574 8.921E4 .000* 1.022E5 .000* 44450.000 .000* 84328.000 .000* 53381.500 .000* 59904.000 .000* 109418.000 .000* 696 441 770 396 721 426 463 581 70455.500 .000* 40786.500 .000* 60343.000 .000* 105152.000 .000* Continued 135
  • 136. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.14: Continued Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 486 567 631 480 495 562 644 472 649 469 438 596 114482.000 .000* 96707.500 .000* 1.178E5 .000* 91368.000 .000* 89350.000 .000* 9.504E4 .000* Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 504 556 489 565 347 650 1.216E5 .002* 115631.500 .000* 5.840E4 .000* Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 359 643 687 446 537 536 592 503 458 584 537 536 502 557 496 561 6.320E4 .000* 74315.000 .000* 134281.000 .930 1.123E5 .000* 103052.000 .000* 134533.000 .976 120877.500 .003* 118311.000 .000* Continued 136
  • 137. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.14: Continued Reasonable price Five star Four star 441 594 96200.500 .000* Staff performance 471 Five star 576 Four star 580 Staff courtesy Five star 511 Four star 502 Helpfulness Five star 557 Four star 675 Staff performance Five star 453 Four star 655 Availability of staff to provide prompt service Five star 465 Four star 451 Professional handling of guest complaints Five star 588 Four star Availability of Russian language 541 Russian language level of communicators Five star 534 Four star 408 Restaurants Russian language menus Five star 614 Four star 639 Russian language information brochures and Five star flyers 475 Four star 338 Russian language information signboards Five star 656 Four star 636 Russian language buffet tags Five star 477 Four star 428 Capability of communication with Russia Five star 602 Four star General attributes 685 Promotion Five star 447 Four star 624 Reasonable price Five star 484 Four star 655 Service quality Five star 466 Four star 662 Value perceived Five star 461 Four star Staff friendliness 108316.000 .000* 1.173E5 .000* 120745.000 .001* 78894.500 .000* 86942.500 .000* 100382.000 .000* 132958.000 .622 8.298E4 .000* 93479.500 .000* 54843.000 .000* 94577.000 .000* 90968.000 .000* 74969.000 .000* 99676.000 .000* 87125.500 .000* 84180.500 .000* Continued 137
  • 138. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.14: Continued Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star Five star Four star 529 541 434 598 545 531 682 449 465 579 472 575 576 513 131655.000 .256 9.353E4 .000* 1.313E5 .434 76292.500 .000* 106090.000 .000* 108665.500 .000* 118890.000 .000* *P-value< 0.05= Significant  Accommodation services In Table 4.14, the Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most accommodation attributes. For example, there is a statistically significant difference in valet and laundry, check-in procedure, check-out procedure, room cleanliness, room facilities, maintenance and repair, and reasonable price (Table 4.14).The customers in five star resorts have shown higher level of satisfaction towards these attributes than the customers in fourstar resorts because five- star resorts are considered supervisor and higher.  F&B services Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most F&B attributes, as in food quality, F&B variety, food quantity, food presentation, temperature of food, the availability of Russian food, the availability of local unique F&B, speed of service, professionalism of service, and value for money (Table 4.14). 138
  • 139. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Leisure/recreation activities The test revealed a statistically significant difference between the results in five- star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most leisure/recreation activities. as, in health spa and fitness, animation activities, music, diving, land sports, aerobics, excursions, quality of recreational activities, attraction of recreational activities, and reasonable price.  Staff performance There is a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most staff performance. Practices as, staff friendliness; staff courtesy, helpfulness, staff performance, and the availability of staff to provide prompt service, and professional handling guest complaints (Table 4.14).  The availability of Russian language There is a statistically significant difference in restaurants Russian languages menus, information brochures and flyers, information signboards, buffet tags, and capability of communication with Russia (Table 4.14).  General attributes There is a statistically significant difference between the results in five star resorts and the results in four star resorts in terms of most general attributes as in promotion, reasonable price, service quality, value perceived, safety and security procedures, transportation, shopping facilities, kids’ services, and internet access. 139
  • 140. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.6 Semi-Structured Interviews Semi-structured interviews address objective four of the study which is to identify the perspectives of resort managers in terms of how far HSs appeal to the RG in the RSRs. Data were collected from the resort managers via semistructured interviews in the investigated resorts (see Appendix B). Eighty resort managers were asked a set of questions focusing on their perspectives regarding the RGs’ requirements and expectations for HSs and how they achieve these requirements and meet these expectations. This section presents the findings and results of those semi-structured interviews in the investigated resorts through the questionnaires including twenty one questions. The purposes of those interviews were as follows:  To know about why the RG goes on holiday.  To find out about the most influential factors in the RSSs those attract the RGs.  To know the preferable kinds of F&B for the RGs during their visit to the RS.  To know the preferable kinds of entertainments for the RGs during their visit to the RS.  To know the RG’s requirements in terms of the following: a. Accommodation facilities. b. F&B services. c. Leisure and recreation activities.  To elicit the managers’ perception about HSs in their resorts.  To know the guest satisfaction measures and how to identify the requirements of the RGs.  To discover ways to meet the requirements and preferences of the RG.  To determine the advantages and disadvantages of dealing with the Russian market. The Semi-structured interviews have been shown in Appendix (B). Finally there are the managers’ recommendations that help resorts to improve service quality and achieve guest satisfaction. The chapter ends with developing a suggested practice model for resort managers to improve service quality which necessarily leads to the RG satisfaction. 140
  • 141. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (1): The RG’s main reasons for taking a holiday. The managers were asked about the main purpose of the RG to take a holiday to the RS. Most of the managers agreed that the RG usually travels to the RS for leisure /recreation, and relaxation. Most of the managers agreed that the main purposes of three quarters of the RGs who visit the RS are sea activities, the Sun and climate. Also, more than half of the RGs visit Egypt because they like the Egyptian people, exccursions all over Egypt, recreational activities, and exccursions to the reigion area. Moreover, the main purpose of more than a quarter of the RG who visit the RS distinations is to visit historical placies, visiting new places, business, and to marry Egyptians. Finally, a few found that the main purposes of some of the RGs are to attend conferences, as honeymooners. These findings are supported by one of the interviewees who said: “The RG during holiday usually travels for many purposes but still leisure/recreation is considered one of the major travel purposes for most of them. They love the Sun and the Red Sea clear water, corals and fish”. This finding agrees with Lee and Tideswell (2005) who mentioned that most travellers today are looking for leisure and recreation when organizing a trip in order to escape from work pressure and daily routine. Therefore, it can be noticed from the previous findings that the main purposes of the RG’s holiday are leisure /recreation, relaxation, sea activities, and the Sun. 141
  • 142. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (2): The effective factors in the RSRs that attract the RG. The managers were asked about the effective factors in the RSRs that attract the RG. The majority of managers agreed that:  Almost all RGs are attracted by leisure /recreation, price, the RS, the Sun, and climate.  More than two thirds of the RGs are attracted are attracted by promotion, variety of F&B, and the Egyptian people themselves.  Nearly half of the RGs are attracted by historical places, excursions, and location, as well as the HSs and service quality.  Less than a third of the RGs are visit the RS destinations for diving, excursions to the region area, marketing, and business.  Some of the RGs are attracted by conference facilities, or visit the RS as honeymooners. These findings are supported by one of the interviewees who commented: “The majority of Russians guests prefer the RS because of the RS the Sun, cheap accommodation plans with unlimited F&B and recreation activities when staying in the RSRs. All these services and activities are provided to customers with a package price. Some customers once poked fun at the RSRs prices stating that it was cheaper for them to book in the RSRs than to pay the services bell that month”. Therefore, it can be noticed from the previous findings that the attractive factors for most RGs are leisure /recreation, price, the RS, Sun , and climate. 142
  • 143. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (3): The RG’s main purposes for a holiday in the respondents’ resorts. The managers were asked about the main travel purposes of the RGs. Most of the managers agreed that:  Most of the RGs are attracted by leisure /recreation, price.  More than three quarters are attracted by natural factors like sea activities and the Sun.  The affective factors in their resort that attract more than half of the RGs to visit their resort are climate and friendliness of staff.  Some of the RGs like variety of F&B, beach diving and family services. Also they choose their resorts for vast garden areas and Kids’ facilities.  Moreover, some managers believe that the affective factors in their resorts for thirty of the RG are animation and recreation quality and promotions, while twenty percent prefer their resorts to attend conferences and for Business. It can be concluded from the above findings that the majority of resort managers agree that the main travel purposes of the RG to their resorts are leisure and recreation, the Sun, the RS activities, good price, variety of F&B and nice beach. Question NO. (4): How often do the RGs usually travel to the RS? The managers were asked about how often the RGs usually travel to the RS. The Majority of the managers agreed that: 1. More than half of the RGs usually travel to the RS once a year and they visit the RS all over the year especially in the winter time. 2. More than a third visit the RS once every more than a year. 3. Less than a quarter of the RGs usually visit Egypt more than once per year. 143
  • 144. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (5): The RG’s average length of stay. The managers were asked about the average length of stay for the RGs in their resorts. The majority of managers agreed that the average length of stay for most RG was between seven to ten days. Meanwhile, some of the managers in the investigated resorts stated that the average length of stay in their resorts was between seven to fifteen days. These findings are supported by one of the interviewees who said: “The majority of the RGs prefer to stay in the RSRs with an average of seven to fifteen nights. That is because the accommodation in the RSRs is cheaper than staying at home in their country”. It can be noticed from the previous findings that most RG prefer to stay at least seven days in the RSRs. These findings agree with Powers and Barrows (1999) who mentioned that the resort invites customers to spend a week or more and provides the extensive leisure facilities to meet vacationer expects. Question NO. (6): With whom do the RGs usually travel to the RS? The managers were asked about whom the RGs usually accompany which travelling to the RS. The majority of the managers agreed that: 1. More than two thirds of the RGs travel for the RS with family. 2. Nearly a quarter visit the RS with friends. 3. A few of the RGs travel alone to the RSRs. These findings are supported by one of the interviewees who stated that: “More than seventy percent of the RGs usually travel to the RS with their families and about twenty percent like to visit Egypt with friends and less than ten percent visit the RSRs alone. These make the RS as a family club”. This finding concurs with LeBlanc and Nguyen (1996) who stated that most of the customers usually accompany their families in their leisure when organizing a trip and this type of customers has a high sensitivity to what may 144
  • 145. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION occur around them especially when their families are with them. Therefore, resort managers should be fully aware of the expectations of the families regarding how far the HSs appeal to the RGs in the RSRs so as to achieve their satisfaction. Question NO. (7): The managers’ response regarding the RGs’ preferred destinations: The managers were asked to describe the destinations in the RS that the RGs like to visit. Most of the managers in the investigated resorts stated that Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, Ras Mohamed, Tiran Island, and Marsa Alam, are their primary places to visit, in addition to Taba and Dahab. Moreover some managers added that RGs like to visit historical places like museums, old Egypt, Luxor and Aswan, and holly places such as Coptic Egypt, Petra in Jordan, and Jerusalem in Palestine. Question NO. (8): How do the RGs reserve their visits to the RS? The managers were asked to describe how the RGs reserve their visits to the RS. Almost All managers in the investigated resorts stated that: 1. Most the RGs reserve their visits to the RS by travel agents. 2. A few of the RGs reserve through internet and other ways such as telephone or friend or head office. This finding agrees with Mutisya, (2010) who stated that the travel agents plan for the trip. This means that there is no extra charges can sour their pleasant vacation. Therefore, the travel agents are considered one of the basic sources which supply the RS with guests. Thus, resort managers should deal continually with travel agents to identify guests’ expectations and perception to achieve their satisfaction and offer HSs that suit to the RG in the RSRs. 145
  • 146. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (9): The RG’s preferences of certain kinds of food and cuisine. The managers were asked about which kinds of food the RGs prefer to eat during their visit to the RS. The majority of the managers agreed that: 1. Almost all RGs usually like to eat fruits and sea food. 2. More than three quarters like to eat meat, poultry, and potatoes. 3. More than two thirds like soups morning time for breakfast especially Burch soup, also they like ice cream. 4. Less than half of the RGs like to eat snacks, pasta and dessert. The managers were asked about which cuisine the RGs prefer during their visit to RS. Most of the managers agreed that: 1. Most of the RG usually like Russian food, and eclectic cuisine. 2. More than two thirds like oriental food and international cuisine. 3. More than half like ethnic cuisine. Question NO. (10): RG preferences kinds of beverages. The managers were asked about which kinds of beverages the RGs prefer to drink during their visit to the RS. The majority of the managers agreed that: 1. Almost the RGs like to drink alcoholic drinks especially alcoholic cocktails, whiskey, rum, red wine, vodka, beer, and white wine. 2. More than three quarters of the RGs like to drink non alcoholic drinks especially juices, cola, tea, coffee, and iran juice (yoghurt mixed with water and salt). 3. More than half of the RGs like to drink national drinks especially hibiscus, Bedouin tea, Tamr hendi, Swabia, and sugar canes. 146
  • 147. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (11): The RG’s preferences of certain type’s entertainment. The managers were asked about which kinds of entertainment the RG prefer during their visit to the RS. The majority of the managers are agreed that: 1. Almost all of them like to watch Tannora show and Belly dancer. 2. More than three quarters of RGs like foam party, bikini party, and disco. 3. More than half of the RGs like to watch different kinds of shows such as oriental folklores, snakes show, magician show, fair show, Russian show, Mr. and Mrs Resort, and cocktail party. Question NO. (12): Respondents’ opinions about the RGs’ behaviour toward staff and other guests. The managers were asked about what they think about the RGs’ behaviour toward staff and other guests. Most of the managers agreed that:  The RGs like the staff and are very friendly.  About ten percent of the RGs are always over drunk.  Sometimes there is sexual harassment with the staff.  The RGs’ behaviour toward the other guests is normal.  The RGs prefer to be grouped with other fellow RG than to be grouped with English or German guests, so they do not complaints about the managers’ notes that some English and German guests don’t like to be grouped with their Russian counterpart. A few of the managers were agreed with that:  Some RGs do not care about other guests.  More than a quarter the RGs are very tough. 147
  • 148. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (13): How the management identifies the requirements of the RG. The managers were asked to describe how the management identifies the requirements of the RG. Almost all the investigated managers usually use GCCs as their primary way to assess guest satisfaction. It is one of the ways that help the resorts to identify the requirements the RG also it helps them to obtain customers feedback regarding the accommodation in the resort. Furthermore, resort managers mentioned that they usually use guest relation and guest contact staff as a direct tool to identify the guest requirements. Moreover, most of the managers mentioned that they usually use trip advisors (online website) and other websites such as holidays check or top hotels to gauge on the customer’s satisfaction as their primary way to asses guest requirements and satisfaction. Furthermore, a few managers use a questionnaire index on internet as their primary way to assess customer’s satisfaction. Meanwhile, there are other popular and common ways used in the investigated resorts to assess the guest’s satisfaction such as guest relations staff (used by the RSRs), travel agent reports, travel agent representative and complimentary party once or twice a week to give the managers the chance to be in direct contact with the guests to collect customers’ opinions about the service offered, in addition to guest surveys. Meanwhile, there are other common ways used in the investigated resorts to assess guests’ satisfaction such as mystery shoppers, market studies, and research studies. Finally, guest books, and thanks letters were the last means to measure customers' satisfaction. These findings are supported by one of the interviewees who said: “A GCC is considered a primary way to identify the guest perception and guest’s relations analyze GCCs in a timely fashion to identify strength and weakness points which give the management the chance to solve any problems on the spot. Moreover Trip Advisors is considered one of the most important applications on the internet which helps the customers to identify their satisfaction level after departure and to obtain their feedback regarding the accommodation. It also helps the new guests to set their expectations regarding the resort service and facilities compared to all the resorts in the RS”. 148
  • 149. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION It can be concluded from the previous findings that the (GCCs) technique is considered by the majority of the managers as the primary way to identify a guest’s perceptions. Moreover, guest’s relations, the guest’s contact staff, and trip advisors and other websites are considered very important ways to identify guest perceptions toward the RSRs. This will help the resorts to identify the guest’s expectations and perceptions to achieve the utmost guest satisfaction and to maximize the profits as well. Question NO. (14): Tools used to promote the resort services and facilities for the RG. Most of the managers in the investigated resorts reported that tour operators are considered as the most important tool that the resort usually uses to attract the RGs. In addition, most of the managers in the investigated resorts added that internet (resorts websites and trip advisors) are other tools to promote resorts services. Also, it is considered one of the easiest and fastest tools to know details about the resorts and the destinations as well. In addition, some managers in the investigated resorts added that the resort uses also different tools of promotion such exhibitions, marketing, promotions, word of mouth, and advertising. These finding are supported by one of the interviewees who commented: “Today tour operators are considered the most important tools of promoting the RSRs to the RGs”. 149
  • 150. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (15): The Managers’ perception of the guest’s expectations regarding HSs. This question was designed to investigate the managers’ perceptions concerning guest expectations in regard to HSs in the RSRs in terms of accommodation services, F&B attributes, recreational activities, staff performance, the availability of the Russian language, and general attributes Table 4.15 discusses this issue. Moreover, it’s designed to find out about the guest’s expectations concerning the HSs in the RSRs (Gap 1 the positioning gap). Fair Good Very good Excellent Attributes Poor Excellent Very good Good Fair Poor Table 4.15: Guests’ expectations versus Management Perceptions in Regards to HSs Guests’ expectations (%) Manager perceptions (%) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 - - 3.8 12.5 - 42.5 38.8 43.8 43.8 42.5 43.8 8.8 57.5 61.2 56.2 52.5 57.5 43.8 91.2 3.8 - 15.0 - 3.8 3.8 7.5 10.0 7.5 6.2 - 47.5 43.8 46.2 56.2 35.0 20.0 36.2 51.2 60.0 12.5 52.5 52.5 50.0 36.2 65.0 51.2 63.8 41.2 33.8 87.5 15.1.1. Accommodation attributes - - .3 4.8 17.7 - 2222 54.3 42.0 37.0 58.9 15.3 18.8 2025 41.0 40.3 63.0 41.1 84.7 81.2 Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price 15.1.2. F&B attributes - 20.1 - 24.6 21.7 3.2 .4 12.3 1.3 - 13.8 43.9 53.9 36.5 38.3 22.9 9.6 14.7 62.6 33.0 61.6 34.3 46.1 60.4 61.3 44.7 90.4 85.3 36.1 67.0 Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money Continued 150
  • 151. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.15: Continued - - - 17.6 56.2 3.8 - - 4.9 - 12.1 7.7 36.8 40.9 20.4 38.2 39.5 38.2 - - - 45.5 - - - 3.3 6.6 4.6 37.0 30.7 - - - 7.7 - - 3.7 41.5 - .1 1.2 31.7 - - 1.2 29.0 - - 1.2 32.8 - - 1.2 - 36.3 37.2 - - - 4.3 3.3 15.1.3. Recreational activities Indoor activities 82.4 Health spa and fitness 43.8 Animation activities 96.2 Music Outdoor activities 87.9 Diving 92.3 Land sports 63.2 Water sports 59.1 Aerobics 74.7 Excursions 61.8 Variety of recreational activities 60.5 Quality of recreational activities 61.8 Attraction of recreational activities 54.5 Reasonable price 15.1.4. Staff performance 96.7 Staff friendliness 93.4 Staff courtesy 95.4 Helpfulness 63.0 Staff performance 69.3 Availability of staff to provide 3.8 prompt service 92.3 Professional handling of guest complaints 15.1.5. Availability of Russian language 54.8 Russian language level of communicators 67.0 Restaurants Russian language menus 69.8 Russian language information brochures and flyers 66.0 Russian language information signboards 62.5 Russian language buffet tags 62.8 Capability of communication with Russia 15.1.6. General attributes 95.7 Promotion 96.7 Reasonable price 151 - 10.0 3.8 - 31.2 27.5 28.8 58.8 68.8 71.2 - 5.0 - 22.5 35.0 33.8 31.2 26.2 22.5 36.2 38.8 77.5 60.0 66.2 68.8 73.8 77.5 63.8 61.2 - - 48.8 51.2 26.2 3.8 32.5 2.5 30.0 28.8 41.2 30.0 97.5 70.0 71.2 55.0 7.5 - - 40.0 60.0 2.5 13.8 27.5 56.2 33.8 - 31.2 35.0 20.0 3.8 31.2 45.0 36.2 - 23.8 40.0 51.2 - 2.5 1.2 16.2 35.0 30.0 63.8 - - 51.2 48.8 5.0 95.0 Continued
  • 152. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.15: Continued - - 1.3 1.3 1.3 37.8 37.9 5.3 40.0 38.3 7.5 33.2 34.8 18.5 62.2 62.1 94.7 60.0 61.7 91.2 65.5 63.9 81.5 Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kid’s services Internet access - 3.8 - 1.2 3.8 - 48.8 10.0 33.8 35.0 38.8 20.0 40.0 36.2 18.8 Display the RG’s expectations versus the management’s perception about the HSs in the RSRs. HSs are considered very important components of the hospitality industry. In that sense, the previous table shows a summary of the guest’s expectations versus the management perceptions in both four and five star resorts in the RS destination regarding HSs (Table 4.15). It is obvious that there is a gap between guests’ expectations and management perceptions in resorts regarding HSs such as:  In terms of valet and laundry, 67.5% of them expected excellent services while, the management perceptions was for excellent by 57.5%.  In the matter of room cleanliness, 63.0% of the guests expected excellent room cleanliness. On the other hand, the management perception came by 52.5% for excellent room cleanliness.  Regarding maintenance and repair, 84.7% of the guests expected excellent maintenance and repair while, the management perceptions went for excellent by 43.8%.  Concerning food quality, 61.6% of the guests were expected excellent food quality. On the other hand, management perceptions were by 52.5% for excellent.  In terms of food presentation, 60.4% of the guests expected excellent food presentation. on the other hand, the management perceived it as very good by 56.2% 152 51.2 90.0 65.0 65.0 61.2 72.5 60.0 63.8 81.2
  • 153. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  With regard to the availability of local unique F&B when required, 90.4% of guests expected excellent availability. On the other hand, the management perceptions were by 63.8% for excellent.  Regarding speed of service, 85.3% by expected excellent the speed of service, while the management perceptions by51.2% were for very good.  Concerning health spa and fitness, 82.4% of guests expected excellent health spa; on the other hand, management perceptions were by 58.8% for excellent.  With reference to music, 96.2% of the guests expected excellent music; on the other hand, the management perceptions were 71.2% for excellent.  Regarding diving, 87.9% of the guests expected excellent diving. on the other hand, the management perceptions were by 77.5% for excellent.  With regard to land sports, 92.3% of the guest’s expected excellent land sports. On the other side, the management perceptions were 60.0% for excellent.  In terms of staff courtesy, the guest’s expectations were by 93.4%for excellent; while, the management perceptions were by70.0% for excellent.  With reference to helpfulness, 95.4% of guest expected excellent helpfulness. On the other hand, the management perceptions were by71.2% for excellent.  With regard to the availability of staff to provide prompt service, 69.3% of guests were expected excellent availability of staff; on the other hand, the management perceptions were by 32.5% for good.  With regard to professional handling of guest complaints, the guest’s expectations were by 92.3% for excellent. On the other hand, the management perceptions were by 60.0% for excellent.  Regarding restaurants Russian language menus, 67.0% of guests expected excellent Russian menus; on the other hand, the management perceptions were by 35.0% for excellent.  In terms of Russian language information brochures and flyers, the guest’s expectations by 69.8% for excellent brochures and flyers, while, the management perceptions were by 45.0% for excellent.  In regard to Russian language information signboards, 66.0% of the guests expected excellent signboards. On the other hand, the management perceptions were by 40.0% for excellent. 153
  • 154. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Regarding the Russian language buffet tags, the guests’ expectations were by 62.5% excellent, while the management perceptions by 51.2% were for fair.  In terms of promotion, 95.7% of the guests expected excellent promotion. On the other side, the management perceptions were by 51.2 for % very good.  With reference to service quality, the guest’s expectations were by 62.2%, while the management’s perceptions were by 51.2% for excellent.  Regarding the physical environment, 94.7% of guests expected excellent physical environment. On the other hand, the management’s perceptions were by 65.0% for excellent. It is obvious that there is a big gap between the guest’s expectations versus the management’s perceptions in resorts regarding HSs. Therefore, of resort managers should be fully aware HSs in order to meet guest’s expectations and thus to achieve the guest’s satisfaction. Question NO. (16): The RG’s requirements in terms of the following: A. Accommodation services. B. F&B services. C. Leisure/recreation activities. The resort managers were asked to identify their perspectives in regard to the customers’ requirements regarding HSs; i.e. accommodation services, F&B services and leisure/recreation activities. A. Concerning accommodation services, it can be concluded that:  The majority of the RGs are interested in room location (the RGs prefer to stay in rooms with a beach view and exposed to the Sun) and room cleanliness which agrees with Choi and Chu (2000) who stated that room cleanliness is one of the important attributes for most customers when selecting a resort to stay in.  Staff smiling is a very important request for most of the RG. 154
  • 155. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The RG prefers the group or family rooms to be near each other and near other RGs and to be near the beach and near the food outlets at the same time.  The RGs like green areas and they love photographing, so they like good places to take photos, and friendly staff.  The RGs like Internet access to be available everywhere.  Air-condition in the room all over the year working hot and cold is vital to the RG. B. In terms of F&B services, the results show that:  F&B quantity is considered by most of the RGs as the most important attribute when staying in the RSRs.  The RGs are driven by the quantity rather than the quality of items.  The RGs prefer to get lunch meals close to the sea and the swimming pool and prefer to be in a sea dress and to get their dinner meals in the main restaurant in elegant dress.  They prefer big tables to stay together during the meal and prefer separate tables for their children very close to their tables.  The RGs like friendly staffs who are always smiling.  They like Music in restaurants and bars.  They need Internet access available everywhere.  They love photographing, so they like good places to take photos.  The RG requires F&B service 24 hours every day & everywhere.  They like fifteen days changeable menu.  The RGs like most kinds of food such as: Sea food (shrimps, crab, big fish, smoked salmon, and fresh salmon).  They love fruits especially water melon, strawberry, and sweet melon.  They like Ice cream (especially vanilla ice cream).  They like soup available most of the meals, especially at breakfast (borsch soup, cream soups, mushroom soup).  They like vegetable and cereals (tomato, eggplants, potatoes, chickpeas, white beans, rice).  They Consume large amounts of local alcoholic beverages such as vodka, rum, whiskey, red wine, beer and non alcoholic drinks such as tea, fresh 155
  • 156. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION juice, cola, Iran (yoghurt juice); they also like National drinks such as hibiscus, Tamr Hindi, sobia, and green tea. C. With regard to leisure/recreation activities ,the findings show that:  Varieties of recreational activities are considered by most of the RG as one of the most important activities.  The RGs prefer energetic types of recreational activities.  Animation teams and night entertainment parties such as dancing, folklore and tannora are considered as one of the most important leisure activities that attract the RGs.  The RGs require nonstop activities all the day with a variety of animation activities using Russian language.  The RGs love disco, music, beach activities, foam parties and cocktail parties.  Water activities, excursions, and diving. This finding agrees with Dittmer (2002) who mentioned that most leisure travellers look for diving and snorkelling as top outdoor recreational adventure activities. 156
  • 157. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (17): The problems facing the management to meet the requirements of the RG. Most managers in the investigated five and four star resorts face some problems in meeting the requirements of the RGs such as: Problems that belong to the RG’s behavior:  The RG drink alcoholic so much especially during the leisure time which often lead to accidents that happen to drunken guests jumping in the swimming pool or jumping from the balcony. These findings agree with Mutisya (2010) who mentioned that the over consumption of alcoholic drinks has negative side effects to individual’s health, mood and social interactions with others members of the group.  The RG is very tough and does not use good manners in dealing with other guests, especially other nationalities such as English, German, and Italian.  The RG takes so much food and does not eat it, and damages the buffet presentation. Other problems:  Shortage of skilled staff is considered the main problem.  Most of new staffs do not speak Russian language.  Demanding a certain level of profitability from management with low prices affect both the quality of service and the quality of items and the ingredients of F&B are negatively impacted. These findings agree with Önal et al. (2007) who stated that the resorts are likely to reduce their service quality level to increase profitability.  Shortage of service cutlery and utensils.  Low salaries, lower tipping and lower service charge (two main factors contributing to the overall income of hospitality staff).  Long working hours especially for the staff (more than twelve hours per day)  Low ratio of servers to number of customers is a determinant of quality of the service provided.  Low level of the facilities offered to the staffs (accommodations, F&B).  Wrong selection and lack of training. 157
  • 158. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (18): The resort managers and meeting the requirements and preferences of the RG. The resort managers were asked about how they meet the requirements and preferences of the RG regarding HSs. Most of the managers in the investigated resorts mentioned that to meet the requirements and preferences of the RG, the following points must be considered:  Following up the RG’s feedback through GCCs, tour operators and websites such as “top hotels”, “trip advisors”, and “holiday check” is very important to achieve customer satisfaction.  Keep smiling all the time for the RG.  Be friendly.  Management should emphasize the importance of continuous training (On- job- training and off-job- training) for its staff.  Making sure to have a department for training in the organization and language courses are very important especially Russian language courses.  More care about marketing and promotion.  Good animation team and variety at recreation activities.  Variety and quantity of food and drinks matching the RG’s requirements.  Quality is a very important factor. To take care of good quality means good reputation.  Diving and snorkelling, and good health and fitness centres are required for the RG.  Cheap prices and fair value. 158
  • 159. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (19): The strategy to improve the RG’s satisfaction and maximize the Russian market share. The resort managers were asked about the strategy to improve the RG’s satisfaction and maximize the Russian market share in their resorts. More than two thirds of the managers in the investigated resorts mentioned that there are already strategy and they referred that the Russian segment is very good segment; because the Russians don’t complain so much, don’t ask so many services, they’re easy to satisfy, they’re very friendly, also they represent the biggest segment in the Egyptian market all round the year, not only one season and the political instability doesn’t affect the number of the RGs. They are repeated guest and come in group so they guarantee good occupancy all over the year. On the other side, about a quarter of the managers in the investigated resorts mentioned that there is no strategy. They mention that they prefer English, German and Italian guests because they pay more and are not that drunk and they don’t like Russians. The RGs always kick the others out of the resort, so he better lose only Russian segment than losing the other markets. Question NO. (20): Advantages and disadvantages of dealing with the RG. The managers were asked about the advantages and disadvantages of dealing with the RG. Most of the managers agreed that they are very good people, easy to satisfy, and like everything. Moreover, fifty managers agreed that the RG represent a very good segment, a regular and repeated guest, and they like Egypt. Also, the Russians do not so much complaint, do not ask so many services and are very friendly. Moreover, twenty managers agreed that RG raises the rate of depreciation of resorts amenities, equipments and increases wasted materials that lead to increasing the operational cost. The Russian guest causes permanents strain to most of the employees working in these resorts. The staff may treat the RG badly and may even accuse them of being responsible for their low salary and heavy working circumstances. The reduce income that the staff has is due to the Russian’s low tipping and low 12% service charge in addition to the reduce the opportunities of up selling. 159
  • 160. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Question NO. (21): The Managers’ suggestions or recommendations in terms of the RG satisfaction. This section provides the Managers’ recommendations that could help hospitality owners/ manager to deal with the RG’s requirements identified earlier. Special attention was paid to the very good practices applied by owners/managers in their resorts. The recommendations below will be valuable to managers who are interested in the RG. The Investigated RS five and four star resorts agreed on the following recommendations: o Applying quality developing strategies.  Setting minimum requirements for service quality for five and four star resorts in selling the RS destination.  Applicant continuous standard recipes and operation manuals.  Enhancing the quality of service by using premium quality materials in F&B as well as other aspects of operation.  Quality measuring systems.  Defining the needed factors to develop the RSRs level to reach the international standards.  Implementing executive operation procedures. o Apply human developing strategies to develop the human element.  Hire adequate staff proportionate to the level of work load expected.  Evaluating the human element  Maintain a clear vision, mission, and operation strategies, specify the roles.  Applying a system for staff (salary, staff meal, accommodation, transportation)  Motivational activities (employee of the month, birthdays, festivals, thanks letters, incentives).  Applying a developing strategy through training and the effective use of training materials.  Language courses.  Training (On- job- training and off-job- training). 160
  • 161. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Selling the RS destinations required quality and fair price shall contribute to the overall increase of the average income of resorts and staff (Either because of the increased 12% service charge and/or because of the expected increase in tipping), which will allow the resorts to retain its qualified employees instead of losing them to other resorts or other industries. o Following up marketing and research studies.  Marketing research study and guest requirements analysis should be frequent.  Setting minimum requirements for service quality for five and four star resorts in selling the RS destinations, the ministry of tourism should monitor the application of these requirements.  Adding new products.  Customer requirements analysis.  New trends follow up.  New systems application.  Effective promotional activities.  Continuing guest feedback and sensitivity analyses (guest comment, websites, surveys, comment cards, recommendation box, guest complaints, thanks letters).  The effective use of the internet for conducting surveys, or questionnaires.  Analyzing competitors.  Management should give its attention to additional markets whose customers appreciate the service quality and are willing to pay for it. o Focussing on guest satisfaction and following new trends.  Creating a web site, hot line or other advertisements that make the users’ meeting with your resort services memorable.  Caring for the kids’ (kids’ meals, kids’ gifts, kids’ birthdays, kids’ area, kids’ club, and kids’ theatre).  Guest’s feedback is vital to improve the HSs.  Solving problems and meeting queries. 161
  • 162. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Providing a personal touch (treating the guest as a distinguished).  Use the online reservation system to reserve rooms.  Implement a high speed wired and wireless Internet in the public areas that could support online services.  Provide adequate numbers of technology applications in conventioneers' room, like TV-checkout system, TV-Internet, TV-survey, data port, inroom fax and wireless Internet.  Design a resort web page. Guests can make and manage their reservations anytime via the web or their mobile devices.  Deal with special companies for evaluating the cleanliness quality service.  Special department for quality development.  More attention in water sports such as kites, sailing, yachting, water Ski, and Skiing in the air.  The activities and games, water sports and sunbathing experiences that the guests must do when visiting the RSRs.  In order to avoid the problems of excessive drinking or exceeded F&B cost, it is advisable to arrange outside trips such as Safari and Bedouin nights. Moreover, variety of animation activities could work.  Necessity of the creation of children's animation.  Improvement of quality of mobile communications, including with Russia TV (broadcast quality must be better, increase in the number of Russian.  Designing ultra HSs (such as variety of entertainment shows, oriental party, beach party, foam party, unlimited access to non alcoholic beverages, upgrading the buffet, and variety of recreation activities, massage, diving courses) intended to the guests who would be pleased about the service quality, so they will be already willing to pay for it.  Applying crises management polices (Shark crisis - revolution - the intellectual extremism).  Establishing a policy to transform the RG from a client to a partner through stimulating to return again and again, and not only that, but also causing him to promote for the resort and recommend it to all people around him. o Clarifying safety and security procedures and the effective use of tools. 162
  • 163. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION o Closely following up for sanitation and hygiene procedures. o The following points should be considered in the accommodation services:  Resorts managers should be fully aware of that fruits and sea food are considered by the majority of the RGs as the most preferable kind of food.  Resorts managers should be fully aware that Russians like soups in the morning time in breakfast especially Burch soup.  In order to avoid the problems of overcrowding and long buffet line, it is advisable to extent the dinner operation hours that could last from six to eleven in the evening, especially in the main buffet restaurants. Also arrange outside trips such as Safari and Bedouin nights to reduce pressure.  In order to avoid the problems of excessive drinking or excessive beverage cost, it is advisable to serve many attractive cocktails, using measuring scales, and assuring the availability of ice cubes at bars.  In order to avoid the problems of warm beverages, it is advisable not to use warm glass, not to serve warm drinks, all fridges are working properly, and the bar has enough stock of cold drinks and assuring the availability of ice cubes in the bars.  In order to avoid the problems of excessive food cost, it is advisable to have a continuous survey regarding guest preferences of certain kinds of food, types of cuisine and cooking methods. And focus to serve a variety of fruits, fish, and potatoes. o The following suggestions are highly advisable to be considered by the ministry of education and the ministry of tourism. :  The ministry of tourism should set a minimum rate for the five and four star resorts and monitor these rates and enforce them.  Setting minimum requirements for service quality in five and four star resorts, in selling the RS destinations, the ministry of tourism should monitor the application of these requirements and improve the resorts performance level. 163
  • 164. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Motivate the resorts to plicate the ISO standards (the International Organization for Standardization) to develop and publish international standards such as ISO 1002 for manage customer complaints and ISO 22000 - food safety management systems.  Supporting languages studying (English, Russian, etc…).  Special school for recreational activities and entertainment are requested.  Special courses for the staff about (Personnel hygiene, security, safety, service, guest satisfaction, hospitality).  Special courses for the resorts departments’ managers and supervisors about (team built, time management, leadership, supervisor skills, management skills, staff direction, delegation, empowerment, sales forecasting, and lunch production control).  Publishing electronic committees for marketing and publicity for Egypt and anti-propaganda. 164
  • 165. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.7 Ranking Hospitality Services in regard to the Managers’ Perception of Guests’ Expectations Regarding Hospitality Services. Concerning managers’ perception of the RG’s expectations regarding HSs, results showed that:  Regarding accommodation attributes, the results referred that reasonable price was the highest level factor for most RGs followed by the check-in procedure.  In terms of F&B attributes, the results showed that the value for money was the highest level factor followed by the temperature of food.  In reference to recreational activities, the results indicated that both diving and variety of recreational activities were expected as the highest-level factor for most RGs followed by excursions.  In terms of staff performance, the results assured that staff friendliness was expected as the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by staff helpfulness.  In regards to the availability of the Russian language, the results showed that Russian language information signboards were expected as the highest level factor followed by the capability of communication with Russia.  Concerning general attributes, the results emphasized that reasonable price was expected as the highest level factor followed by the value perceived (Table 4.16). 165
  • 166. Freq % Freq % - - - - - - 12 15.0 - - Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price F&B attributes Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food 3 3.8 Availability of local unique F&B - - 166 Ranking Total 5 Excellent Very good Good Fair Factors Poor Table 4.16: Ranking HSs in reference to Managers’ Perception of the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs Evaluating levels 1 2 3 4 Weighted Average (%) CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Freq % Freq % Freq % Freq 3 3.8 12.5 - 34 31 35 35 34 35 7 42.5 38.8 43.8 43.8 42.5 43.8 8.8 46 49 45 42 46 35 73 57.5 61.2 56.2 52.5 57.5 43.8 91.2 366 369 365 359 366 345 393 91.50 92.25 91.25 89.75 91.50 86.25 98.25 3 2 4 5 3 6 1 3.8 3.8 7.5 10.0 38 35 37 45 28 16 47.5 43.8 46.2 56.2 35.0 20.0 42 42 40 29 52 41 52.5 52.5 50.0 36.2 65.0 51.2 362 359 357 343 372 320 90.50 89.75 89.25 85.75 93.00 80.00 4 5 6 8 2 10 - 29 36.2 51 63.8 371 92.75 3 Continued 10 3 3 6 8
  • 167. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.16: Continued Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price Staff performance Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 167 6 5 8 3 4 3 7.5 6.2 - 41 48 10 51.2 60.0 12.5 33 27 70 41.2 33.8 87.5 347 342 390 86.75 85.50 97.50 7 9 1 10.0 3.8 - 25 22 23 31.2 27.5 28.8 47 55 57 58.8 68.8 71.2 359 372 377 89.75 93.00 94.25 11 6 3 5.0 - 18 28 27 25 21 18 29 31 39 22.5 35.0 33.8 31.2 26.2 22.5 36.2 38.8 48.8 62 48 53 55 59 62 51 49 41 77.5 60.0 66.2 68.8 73.8 77.5 63.8 61.2 51.2 382 364 373 375 379 382 371 369 361 95.50 91.00 93.25 93.75 94.75 95.50 92.75 92.25 90.25 1 9 5 4 2 1 7 8 10 3.8 2 24 23 33 2.5 30.0 28.8 41.2 78 56 57 44 97.5 70.0 71.2 55.0 398 376 377 361 99.50 1 94.00 3 94.25 2 90.25 4 Continued
  • 168. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.16: Continued Availability of staff to provide prompt service 3 3.8 21 26.2 Professional handling guest complaints Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators - - - - - - 2.5 Restaurants Russian language menus - - Russian language information brochures and flyers - - Russian language information signboards - - Russian language buffet tags - - 2 27 16 29 41 Capability of communication with Russia General attributes Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation - - - - Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access - - 26 20.0 36.2 6 7.5 249 62.25 6 32 40.0 48 60.0 368 92.00 5 13.8 22 27.5 45 56.2 359 82.70 6 25 31.2 28 35.0 396 90.57 3 3.8 25 31.2 36 45.0 361 88.06 5 - 3 30.0 - 33.8 24 11 32.5 19 23.8 32 40.0 392 92.55 1 51.2 2 2.5 13 16.2 24 30.0 371 88.78 4 - - 1 1.2 28 35.0 51 63.8 372 91.85 2 - 3.8 1.2 3.8 41 4 39 8 27 28 31 16 51.2 5.0 48.8 10.0 33.8 35.0 38.8 20.0 39 76 41 72 52 52 49 58 48.8 95.0 51.2 90.0 65.0 65.0 61.2 72.5 402 368 377 385 204 368 359 89.75 99.00 90.25 98.00 92.75 93.00 92.25 89.33 9 1 8 2 5 4 6 10 - 32 29 15 40.0 36.2 18.8 48 51 65 60.0 63.8 81.2 396 361 392 92.00 90.84 96.25 7 8 3 3 - - 168 1 16 369
  • 169. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.8 Analyses Gaps One and Five Gap 1 (the positioning gap): Guests’ expectations versus management perceptions. It is obvious that there is a gap between what customers expected and what they perceived in resorts regarding HSs (Table 4.17). “Management does not understand how the service should be designed and what support or secondary services the guest requires, i.e. what the right quality for the guest is”, (Moolla and du Plessis, 2001:3). This gap is the result of the lack of a marketing research and poor communication (Shahin, 2004). Regarding the gap between the RG’s expectations versus the managers’ perception regarding to HSs concluded that:  Concerning accommodation attributes, the results referred that maintenance and repair was the biggest gap followed by the room cleanliness.  Relating to F&B attributes, the results showed that speed of service was the biggest gap followed by food presentation.  Regarding to recreational activities, the results assured that land sports was the biggest gap followed by the health spa and fitness.  As regards to staff performance, the results showed that the availability of staff to provide prompt service was the biggest gap followed by professional handling guest complaints.  With reference to the availability of Russian language, the results made clear that the Russian language level of communicators was the biggest gap followed by Russian language information brochures and flyers.  Concerning general attributes, the results declared that promotion was expected as the biggest gap followed by transportation. It is obvious that there is a big gap between the RGs’ expectations versus managers’ perception in connection with HSs. Therefore, resorts managers should be fully aware of HSs in order to meet guests’ expectations and thus to achieve guests’ satisfaction (Table 4.17). 169
  • 170. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.17: Gap one the Positioning Gap and Gap five the Perception Gap The Gap 3 6 7 2 5 1 4 93.45 87.24 84.51 92.59 88.23 96.94 96.25 72.57 60.88 59.01 62.44 70.09 70.00 88.13 20.88 26.36 25.5 30.15 18.14 26.94 8.12 5 3 4 1 6 2 7 Food quality F&B variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique F&B Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money 87.39 90.50 -3.11 82.52 89.75 -7.23 89.22 89.25 -0.03 91.44 85.75 5.69 92.18 93.00 -0.82 78.45 80.00 -1.55 98.08 92.75 5.33 97.05 86.75 10.3 86.96 85.50 1.46 93.40 97.50 -4.1 Recreational activities 8 10 5 2 6 7 3 1 4 9 87.39 82.52 89.22 91.44 92.18 78.45 98.08 97.05 86.96 93.40 70.90 66.62 82.03 58.30 60.17 60.97 88.68 68.26 63.34 87.29 16.49 15.9 7.19 33.14 32.01 17.48 9.4 28.79 23.62 6.11 6 7 9 1 2 5 8 3 4 10 96.47 88.77 99.24 89.75 93.00 94.25 6.72 -4.23 4.99 2 96.47 12 88.77 3 99.24 72.18 75.88 82.84 24.29 12.89 16.4 1 6 4 97.57 98.45 92.63 91.83 93.97 92.35 95.50 91.00 93.25 93.75 94.75 95.50 2.07 7.45 -0.62 -1.92 -0.78 -3.15 4 1 7 10 9 11 97.57 98.45 92.63 91.83 93.97 92.35 94.90 88.23 91.70 83.01 93.57 78.02 2.67 10 10.22 7 0.93 11 8.82 8 0.4 12 14.33 5 Continued Ranking Guest perception 93.45 91.50 1.95 87.24 92.25 -5.01 84.51 91.25 -6.74 92.59 89.75 2.84 88.23 91.50 -3.27 96.94 86.25 10.69 96.25 98.25 -2 F&B attributes The Gap Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price Manager perception Guest expectation Gap 5 Guest expectation Versus perception (%) Ranking Factors Guest expectation Gap 1 Guest expectation versus managers’ perception (%) Accommodation attributes Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities 170
  • 171. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.17: Continued Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price 92.11 92.75 -0.64 92.35 92.25 0.1 90.90 90.25 0.65 Staff performance 8 5 6 92.11 92.35 90.90 74.09 73.75 87.24 18.02 18.6 3.66 3 2 9 Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance Availability of staff to provide prompt service Professional handling guest complaints 99.35 98.68 99.09 92.59 93.86 99.50 94.00 94.25 90.25 62.25 -0.15 4.68 4.84 2.34 31.61 6 4 3 5 1 99.35 98.68 99.09 92.59 93.86 94.74 89.74 88.58 72.63 76.75 4.61 8.94 10.51 19.96 17.11 6 5 4 2 3 98.45 92.00 6.45 2 98.45 72.22 26.23 1 Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators Restaurants Russian language menus Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards Russian language buffet tags Capability of communication with Russia Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access 90.21 82.70 7.51 1 90.21 78.60 11.61 5 93.12 93.71 90.57 88.06 2.55 5.65 4 2 93.12 93.71 64.01 78.43 29.11 15.28 1 4 92.95 92.55 0.4 6 92.95 66.59 26.36 2 92.26 92.56 88.78 91.85 3.48 0.71 3 5 92.26 92.56 72.16 89.12 20.1 3.44 3 6 General attributes 99.14 89.75 9.39 99.35 99.00 0.35 92.44 90.25 2.19 92.43 98.00 -5.57 98.94 92.75 6.19 92.00 93.00 -1 92.33 92.25 0.08 97.99 89.33 8.66 92.84 92.00 0.84 92.52 90.84 1.68 96.31 96.25 0.06 1 7 4 11 3 10 8 2 6 5 9 99.14 99.35 92.44 92.43 98.94 92.00 92.33 97.99 92.84 92.52 96.31 69.19 86.25 77.41 83.99 79.83 76.59 70.34 77.11 79.57 77.41 77.13 29.95 13.1 15.03 8.44 19.11 15.41 21.99 20.88 13.27 15.11 19.18 1 10 8 11 5 6 2 3 9 7 4 171
  • 172. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Gap 5 (the perception gap): The discrepancy between guests’ expectations versus perceptions regarding the HSs. Regarding the gap between the RGs’ expectations versus perceptions regarding HSs, it has been found that: o Room cleanliness was the biggest gap followed by maintenance and repair. o Food presentation was the biggest gap followed by the temperature of food. o Health spa and fitness was considered the biggest gap followed by the attraction of recreational activities. o Professional handling of guest complaints was expected to be the biggest gap followed by staff performance in the second place. o Restaurants Russian menus were expected as the biggest gap followed by Russian language information signboards in the second place. o Promotion was expected as the biggest gap followed by cleanliness and hygiene. It is obvious that there is a big gap between guests’ expectations versus perceptions regarding HSs. Therefore, resorts managers should be fully aware of guests’ expectations versus perceptions as regards HSs in order to meet the guests’ expectations and thus to achieve guest satisfaction (Table 4. 17). Moreover, it is obvious that the gap between the guests’ expectations versus perceptions is much bigger than the gap between the guests’ expectations versus the managers’ perceptions regarding HSs. 172
  • 173. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.9 General Findings Based upon the previous descriptive data analysis gathered from the survey, the guest questionnaire, and the managers’ interviews it can be concluded that:  The main purposes of the RGs’ holidays are leisure, relaxation, recreation.  Price, the RS, the Sun, and climate are the most attractive factors to select the RS destinations.  Females were more interested to travel for leisure purpose than males.  The majority of the respondents who travelled for leisure purpose fall in the range of 26 to 35 years old.  The majority of the respondents travelled to the RS destinations once per year. Not only one season but all the year round.  The majority of the RGs have a high level of education.  Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada are considered the first destinations that the majority of the RGs prefer to visit for leisure purposes.  The average length of stay for the majority of the respondents in the destinations was 7 to 15 days.  The majority of the respondents travelled with their families.  Sea activities and the Sun were considered the most important attractive factors for most of the RGs.  Fruits and sea food were considered by the majority of the RGs as the most preferable kind of food.  Eclectic cuisine was considered the most important attractive cuisine for most of the RGs like the buffet more than ala carte restaurant.  Alcoholic drinks were considered the most important attractive drinks for most of the RGs, especially alcoholic cocktails, whiskey, rum, red wine, vodka, beer, and white wine.  Tannora show was considered the most important attractive entertainment show for most of the RGs.  The majority of the respondents were satisfied with the services and facilities which met their expectations.  The majority of the RGs reserve their visit to the RS by travel agents.  Russians like soups morning time for breakfast, especially burch soup.  The RGs like staff and are very friendly. 173
  • 174. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION               GCC is one of the ways that help the resorts to identify the requirements of the RGs. Moreover, guest relations, guest contact staff, and websites such as “top hotels” and “trip advisors” are considered very important ways to identify guest perceptions toward the RSRs. Tour operators are considered the most important tool that the resorts usually use in marketing and sales. Also Internet websites are considered by most resorts in the investigated destinations as one of the important tools to promote the resorts services and facilities for the RGs. Also, it is considered one of the easiest and fastest tools to know details about the resorts and destinations as well. Room cleanliness and room view (The RGs prefer to stay in a room with a beach view and exposed to the Sun) came as top priority for the Majority of the RGs. The majority of the RG mainly look for the quantity of food and the variety of items on the buffet. Russians consume large amounts of local alcoholic beverages. The RGs are driven by the quantity rather than quality of items. Variety of recreational activities is one of the top priorities for the majority of the RGs. The RGs prefer energetic types of recreation animation teams and night entertainment parties such as dancing, tannora that are considered the most important leisure activities that attract the RGs. Shortage of skilled staff is considered the main problem facing the management to achieve guest satisfaction. Most of new staffs do not speak Russian language. The majority of the RGs have not enough awareness regarding the HSs in the resorts. Some RGs drink alcoholic so much especially during the leisure time. About ten percent of the RGs are always over drunk. Some RGs are very tough and not using good manners to deal with other guest, especially other nationalities. Some RGs take so much food and do not eat it, and damage the buffet presentation. To meet the requirements and preferences of the RG, they follow up the RGs’ feedback through GCCs, tour operators and websites such as top hotels, trip advisors, and holiday check, which is very important to achieve customers’ satisfaction. 174
  • 175. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Keeping smiling all the time at the RG and being friendly is one of the most important satisfaction tools.  There is strategy to improve the RGs’ satisfaction.  The RGs are the biggest segments in the Egyptian market all the year round, not only for one season, and they do not fear sharks or the political situation. They are regular guests and come in group, so they guarantee good occupancy all the year round.  The RGs are very good people, easy to satisfy, and they like everything.  The Russian segment is a big segment, with no so much complaint, not demanding about services, and is very friendly.  Sometimes, some other nationalities do not like to be with the RGs at the same resort.  The majority of managers stated that the resort usually use GCCs as their primary way to assess guest satisfaction.  Internet websites are considered by most resorts in the investigated destinations as one of the important tools to promote the resorts services and facilities for the RGs. Also, it is considered as one of the easiest and fastest tools to get enough details about the resorts and the destinations.  Tours operators are considered a main tool to sell and promote the RS destinations for the RG. Also there are other tools such as internet websites, exhibitions, marketing and promotions used by the resorts, but their outcome is very weak.  Applying crises management polices (Shark crisis - revolution intellectual extremism) is highly advisable.  Special schools for recreational activities and entertainment are required.  The RGs’ and the Managers’’ suggestions or recommendations should be considered.  Concerning the RGs’ expectations regarding HSs, the results are as follows: o Regarding accommodation attributes, the results found that maintenance and repair were expected as the highest level factor for most of the RGs followed by the reasonable price. o In terms of F&B attributes, the results found that the availability of local unique F&B was expected as the highest level followed by the speed of service. o In reference to recreational activities, the results found that music was expected as the highest level factor followed by land sports. 175
  • 176. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION o In terms of staff performance, the results stressed that staff friendliness was expected as the highest level factor for most of the RGs’ followed by staff helpfulness. o In reference to the availability of the Russian language, the results referred that the Russian language information brochures and flyers were expected as the highest level. o Concerning general attributes, the results showed that reasonable price was expected as the highest level followed by the promotion.  Concerning the RGs’ perceptions regarding HSs, the results are as follows: o Regarding accommodation attributes, the results showed that reasonable prices were considered the highest level factor for most of the RGs followed by the valet and laundry. o In terms of F&B attributes, the results referred that the availability of local unique F&B was considered as the highest level factor followed by the value for money. o In reference to recreational activities, the results showed that diving was considered as the highest level factor followed by the excursions. o In terms of staff performance, the results showed that staff friendliness was considered the highest level factor followed by staff courtesy. o In reference to the availability of the Russian language in the RSRs, the results showed that the capability of communication with Russia was considered the highest level factor followed by the Russian language level of communicators. o Concerning the general attributes, the results made clear that the reasonable price was considered as the highest level factor followed by the value perceived.  Concerning the managers’ perceptions of the RGs’ expectations regarding HSs, the results are as follows: o Regarding accommodation attributes, the results showed that reasonable price was the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by the check-in procedure. o In terms of F&B attributes, the results referred that value for money was the highest level factor followed by the temperature of food. 176
  • 177. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION o In accordance to recreational activities, the results referred that both diving and variety of recreational activities were expected as the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by excursions. o In terms of staff performance, the results showed that staff friendliness was expected as the highest level factor for most of the RG followed by staff helpfulness. o In reference to the availability of the Russian language, the results referred that the Russian language information signboards was expected as the highest level factor followed by the capability of communication with Russia. o Concerning the general attributes, the results referred that reasonable price was expected as the highest level factor followed by the value perceived.  It is obvious that there is a gap between the guests’ expectations versus the managements’ perceptions concerned the HSs.  Regarding the gap between the RGs’ expectations versus the managers’ perceptions in reference to HSs (Table 4.17) the results are as follows: o Concerning accommodation attributes, the results showed that maintenance and repair was the biggest gap followed by the room cleanliness. o Relating to F&B attributes, the results referred that the speed of service was the biggest gap followed by food presentation. o Regarding recreational activities, the results assured that land sports was the biggest gap followed by the health spa and fitness. o In reference to staff performance, the results stressed that the availability of staff to provide prompt service was the biggest gap followed by professional handling of guest complaints. o With reference to the availability of the Russian language, results showed that the Russian language level of communicators was the biggest gap followed by Russian language information brochures and flyers. o Concerning the general attributes the results referred that promotion was expected as the biggest gap followed by transportation.  It is obvious that there is a big gap between what customers expected and what they perceived in resorts regarding HSs. 177
  • 178. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  In a nutshell, regarding the gap between the RGs’ expectations versus perceptions regarding HSs (Table 4.17) it has been found that: o Room cleanliness was the biggest gap followed by maintenance and repair. o Food presentation was the biggest gap followed by the temperature of food. o Health spa and fitness was considered the biggest gap followed by the attraction of recreational activities. o Professional handling of guest complaints was expected as the biggest gap followed by staff performance in the second place. o Restaurants Russian menus were expected as the biggest gap followed by the Russian language information signboards in the second place. o Promotion was expected as the biggest gap followed by cleanliness and hygiene.  The gap between the RGs’ expectations versus perceptions is much bigger than the gap between the guests’ expectations versus the managers’ perceptions regarding HSs. 178
  • 179. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10 The Process of Developing Models This part contains the process of developing good practice models regarding the RGs and managers concerning HSs so as to improve the guests’ satisfaction and profitability. There are six models: 1. The RGs’ preferences from the HSs model. 2. A model of the hospitality gaps (Gap one: the positioning gap, and gap five: the perception gap). 3. The RGs’ cycle model. 4. Guests’ satisfaction harmony model. 5. A good practice model for resorts managers to enhance the RG’s satisfaction and profitability. 6. Setting a strategy for Russian tourism flow versus HSs changeable positions model. The process of developing models regarding the RGs’ and hospitality managers aims to improve the guest satisfaction and profitability four main stages are included:  In the first stage, a critical literature review was undertaken on the RGs and their expectations and perceptions regarding HSs with a particular emphasis on HSs aiming to develop a conceptual framework to identify the requirements and the expectations of the RGs in terms of improving the guests’ satisfaction and profitability.  In the second stage, a survey for a random sample of four and five star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada as sample for the RS destinations in order to investigate the RGs’ representation in these resorts.  In the third stage, questionnaire forms were distributed to a random sample of the RGs who stayed in the same investigated destinations/resorts in order to investigate their expectations and perceptions in regard to HSs.  In the fourth and last stage, face-to-face interviews were conducted with resorts managers in the same investigated destinations/resorts in order to identify their perspectives regarding the requirements of the RGs’ from HSs and how they meet these requirements. 179
  • 180. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.1 The Russian Guests’ Preferences from the Hospitality Services Model The process of developing a good model regarding the RGs’ preferences from HSs whose aim is to shed light on the most recurrent preferences of HSs from the perspectives of the RGs so as to improve the guests’ satisfaction and profitability. The RGs’ preferences model includes five main parts.  The first part deals with the top priorities for the RGs’ preferences to visit the RS.  The second part focuses on the top priorities for the RG preferences regarding kinds of food.  The third part deals with the top priorities for the RG preferences concerning types of cuisine.  The fourth part deals with the top priorities the for the RG preferences regarding kinds of beverages.  The fifth part deals with the top priorities for the RG preferences regarding kinds of entertainment shows. 180
  • 181. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4. 18: The RGs’ Preferences Model Factor Importance percentage Ranking The RG preferences to visit the RS Sea activities 98 1 Sun 97 2 Climate 93 3 Price 88 4 Promotion 80 5 HSs 80 6 Guest preferences regarding kinds of food Fruits 98 1 Sea food 95 2 Poultry 76 3 Soups 74 4 Meat 73 5 Snacks 69 6 Dessert 67 7 Pasta 59 8 Guest preferences regarding types of cuisine Eclectic cuisine 92 1 Russian food 92 2 Oriental food 86 3 International cuisine 75 4 Ethnic cuisine 65 5 Guest preferences regarding kinds of beverages Alcoholic drinks 95 1 Non alcoholic drinks 93 2 National drinks 82 3 Continued 181
  • 182. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.18: Continued Guest preferences regarding kinds of entertainment shows Tannora show 96 1 Belly dancer 93 2 Magician show 85 3 Oriental folklores 85 4 Snakes show 79 5 The aim of this model is to shed more light on the top priorities for the RGs’ preferences regarding HSs in order to better meet the RG’s requirements to improve the guest satisfaction level and maximize profitability (Table 4.18). 182
  • 183. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.2 A Model of the Hospitality Gaps A model of the hospitality gaps (Gap one: the positioning gap, and gap five: the perception gap) evaluating of HSs from the perspective of resorts managers and the RGs expectations and perceptions (Table 4.19). 183 Gap five Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry 91.50 1.95 Check-in procedure 92.25 -5.01 Check-out procedure 91.25 -6.74 Room cleanliness 89.75 2.84 Room facilities 91.50 -3.27 Maintenance and repair 86.25 10.69 Reasonable Price 98.25 -2 F&B attributes Food quality 90.50 -3.11 F&B variety 89.75 -7.23 Food quantity 89.25 -0.03 Food presentation 85.75 5.69 Temperature of food 93.00 -0.82 Availability of Russian food 80.00 -1.55 Availability of local unique F&B 92.75 5.33 Speed of service 86.75 10.3 Professionalism of service 85.50 1.46 Value for money 97.50 -4.1 Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness 89.75 6.72 Animation activities 93.00 -4.23 Music 94.25 4.99 Outdoor activities Diving 95.50 2.07 Land sports 91.00 7.45 Water sports 93.25 -0.62 Aerobics 93.75 -1.92 Guest expectation s Guest perceptions Manager perceptions Gap one Table 4.19: A Model of the Hospitality Gaps (Gap one: the Positioning Gap, and Gap Five: the Perception Gap) Factors 93.45 87.24 84.51 92.59 88.23 96.94 96.25 72.57 60.88 59.01 62.44 70.09 70.00 88.13 20.88 26.36 25.5 30.15 18.14 26.94 8.12 87.39 82.52 89.22 91.44 92.18 78.45 98.08 97.05 86.96 93.40 70.90 66.62 82.03 58.30 60.17 60.97 88.68 68.26 63.34 87.29 16.49 15.9 7.19 33.14 32.01 17.48 9.4 28.79 23.62 6.11 96.47 88.77 99.24 72.18 75.88 82.84 24.29 12.89 16.4 97.57 98.45 92.63 91.83 94.90 2.67 88.23 10.22 91.70 0.93 83.01 8.82 Continued
  • 184. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.19:Continued Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price 94.75 -0.78 95.50 -3.15 92.75 -0.64 92.25 0.1 90.25 0.65 Staff performance Staff friendliness 99.50 -0.15 Staff courtesy 94.00 4.68 Helpfulness 94.25 4.84 Staff performance 90.25 2.34 Availability of staff to provide prompt service 62.25 31.61 Professional handling guest of complaints 92.00 6.45 Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators 82.70 7.51 Restaurants Russian language menus 90.57 2.55 Russian language information brochures and 88.06 5.65 flyers Russian language information signboards 92.55 0.4 Russian language buffet tags 88.78 3.48 Capability of communication with Russia 91.85 0.71 General attributes Promotion 89.75 9.39 Reasonable price 99.00 0.35 Service quality 90.25 2.19 Value perceived 98.00 -5.57 Physical environment 92.75 6.19 Safety and security procedures 93.00 -1 Cleanliness and hygiene 92.25 0.08 Transportation 89.33 8.66 Shopping facilities 92.00 0.84 Kids’ services 90.84 1.68 Internet access 96.25 0.06 93.97 92.35 92.11 92.35 90.90 93.57 78.02 74.09 73.75 87.24 0.4 14.33 18.02 18.6 3.66 99.35 98.68 99.09 92.59 93.86 98.45 94.74 89.74 88.58 72.63 76.75 72.22 4.61 8.94 10.51 19.96 17.11 26.23 90.21 93.12 93.71 78.60 64.01 78.43 11.61 29.11 15.28 92.95 92.26 92.56 66.59 72.16 89.12 26.36 20.1 3.44 99.14 99.35 92.44 92.43 98.94 92.00 92.33 97.99 92.84 92.52 96.31 69.19 86.25 77.41 83.99 79.83 76.59 70.34 77.11 79.57 77.41 77.13 29.95 13.1 15.03 8.44 19.11 15.41 21.99 20.88 13.27 15.11 19.18 The aim of this model is to shed light on the gaps between the managers’ perceptions regarding the guest’s expectations versus the guest’ expectations (Gap one: the positioning gap) and the guest expectation versus perceptions (Gap five: the perception gap) and evaluating HSs from the perspectives of resorts managers and the RGs’ expectations and perceptions in order to better meet and achieve the guest’s satisfaction and profitability (Table 4.19). 184
  • 185. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.3 The Russian Guest’s Cycle Model The process of developing a good practice model for the RG cycle in terms of HSs includes twelve main phases (Table 4.20, and Figure 4.2). The RGs’ cycle model includes twelve main phases:  The first phase deals with the guest’s needs for recreation and entertainment.  The second phase focuses on the guest’s wants to the sea activities and the Sun of the RS destinations to satisfy the recreation desire.  The third phase deals with the demands for the RSRs.  The RG’s demand is created by marketing, previous experience, internet, and friends and are translating into demands for the RS destinations through attractive shows and promotions and reasonable prices.  The fourth phase is shaping needs, requirements and expectations for the HSs.  The fifth phase is identifying the resort attributes of resort products or services that are most important to guests through marketing, previous experience, receiving word-of-mouth from internet, and friends.  The sixth phase is Reserving at one of the RSRs through attractive shows and promotions and good value and reasonable prices.  The seventh phase is experimenting and trying the HSs such as accommodation services, F&B, recreational activities, staff performance, the Russian language availability, and general attributes.  The eighth phase is evaluating HSs received.  The ninth phase deals with Assessing HSs whether met and exceeded expectations or not.  The tenth phase deals with distributing feedback to the environment around such as family, friends, resort representatives, GCCs, tour companies, internet sites such as “trip advisors”, and “top hotels”.  The eleventh phase deals with spreading word of mouth whether good or bad for the family, friends, resort representatives, tour companies, internet sites such as trip advisors, and top hotels.com.  The twelfth phase focuses on the guest loyalty whether trying again to start a new cycle or not and escape the cycle. 185
  • 186. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.20: The RG’s Cycle Model Step 1. 2. 3. Phase Guest needs for recreation and entertainment Guest wants to the sea activities and the Sun of the RS destinations to satisfy the recreation desire Demands for the RSRs (Marketing, previous experience, receiving word-of-mouth from social media, internet, and friends). Through attractive shows and promotions and reasonable prices. 4. 5. Shaping needs, requirements, and expectations for the HSs Identifying the resort attributes Identify the attributes of resort product or service that are most important to guests (Marketing, previous experiment, internet, and friends). 6. Reserving at one of the RSRs Through attractive shows and promotions and good value and reasonable prices. 7. Experiment the HSs (Accommodation services, F&B, recreational activities, staff performance, Russian language availability, and general attributes). 8. 9. Evaluating HSs received Assessing HSs whether met and exceeded expectations or not 10. Distributing feedback (Friends, resort representatives, GCCs, tour companies, internet sites such as “trip advisors”, and “top hotels”). 11. Spreading word of mouth whether good or bad (Friends, resort representatives, GCCs, tour companies, internet sites such as “trip advisors”, and “top hotels”). 12. Retrying (Loyalty) or not (Escape) 186
  • 187. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Guest needs for recreation Guest wants to the sea activities and the sun Retrying (loyalty) Not trying again Demands for the Red Sea resorts Spreading word of mouth Guest Cycle Shaping expectations Identifying the hotel attributes Distributing feedback Assessing hospitality services Reserving resort hotels Evaluating hospitality services received Experiment the hospitality services Figure 4.2: The RG’s Cycle Model 187
  • 188. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.4 The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model The process of developing a good practice model for the RG satisfaction harmony model includes nine main columns divided into twenty three boxes (Table 4.21). The guests’ satisfaction harmony model includes nine main columns:  The first column deals with the expectations whether high as a result of overpromising or unclear data; Normal expectations as a result of enough and right information; or low expectations because of unclear vision.  The second column focuses on the type of guest whether he is optimistic or pessimistic.  The third column deals with the guest mood during service whether happy or sad.  The fourth column focuses on the service level whether it is excellent, normal, or, as well as the possibility of handling guest complaints, if found, which is divided into three categories: the first category is zero defect (no error) or excellent handling complaints if found, the second category good effort to handle complaints, and the third category not solving or no care about the complaints.  The fifth column deals with objectives achievement whether achieved objectives or not. Objectives such as relaxation enjoy the Sun, the RS activities such as diving and swimming, the warm climate, and the general atmosphere.  The sixth column deals with the guest sensitivity and loyalty. Guests are more sensitive and loyal to one or more of the following: price, quality, quantity, value, variety, brand, reputation, and comfort.  The seventh column deals with the guest perceptions regarding the HSs. It’s divided into three cases: first the HSs exceeded expectations, second met expectations, and third fall short of expectations.  The eighth column deals with the guest satisfaction wither the guest is content, satisfied, or unsatisfied.  The ninth column focuses on the guest’s reaction that is divided into two boxes: The first one is good word of mouth and guest loyalty, and the second is bad word of mouth and guest escape. 188
  • 189. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The tenth column focuses on the reputation and is divided into good reputation and a famous good brand name or bad reputation and bad brand name. The harmony is divided into two main domains (inputs and outputs) the first domain is the satisfaction elements and the second one is the satisfaction results (Table 4.21 and Figure 4.3). Moreover, the guest’s satisfaction harmony model application is divided into nine domains (Figure 4.4). 189
  • 190. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.21: The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Satisfaction elements Satisfaction results 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Expectations Type of guest Guest sensitivity and loyalty Guest perceptions Satisfaction Guest reaction Reputation Optimistic Service level and handling complaints Excellent Outstand Objectives achievement High expectations Guest’s mood during service Happy mood achieve the objectives Guest are more sensitive to Exceed Expectations Content (Ecstatic) Good word of mouth Good reputation Loyalty Good brand name Overpromising Or Unclear information Average expectations Accurate data Zero defect Quality Good Quantity Good effort to solve complaints low expectations Unclear vision Price Value Low Pessimistic Unhappy Not solving the complaints Met expectations Satisfied Variety Bad word of mouth Brand Don’t achieve the objectives Reputation Comfort 190 Fall short of expectations Unsatisfied Guest escape Bad reputation Bad brand name
  • 191. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 4.3: The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Satisfaction elements Satisfaction results Guest perception Guest sensitivity Objectives achievement Service level Satisfaction Guest reaction Reputation Expectations Type of person Guest's mood during service 191
  • 192. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Figure 4.4: The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Applications High expectations with excellent service level Guest perceptions meet expectations Good word of mouth Guest is satisfied Good reputation High expectations with normal service level Guest perceptions fall short of expectations Guest is unsatisfied Bad word of mouth Bad reputation High expectations with low service level Guest perceptions fall short expectations Guest is unsatisfied Bad word of mouth Bad reputation Normal expectations with excellent service level Guest perceptions exceed expectations Guest is content Good word of mouth Good reputation Normal expectations with normal service level Guest perceptions meet expectations Guest is satisfied Good word of mouth Good reputation Normal expectations with low service level Guest perceptions fall short of expectations Guest is unsatisfied Bad word of mouth Bad reputation Short expectations with excellent service level Guest perceptions exceed expectations Guest is content Good word of mouth Good reputation Short expectations with normal service level Guest perceptions exceed expectations Guest is content Good word of mouth Good reputation Short expectations with low service level Guest perceptions meet expectations Guest is satisfied Good word of mouth 192 Good reputation
  • 193. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.5 A Good Practice Model for Resort Managers to Enhance the Russian Guest’s Satisfaction and Profitability The process of developing a good practice model for resorts managers to enhance the RG’s satisfaction and profitability in terms of HSs (Table 4.22, and Figure 4.5). The practice model for resorts managers to enhance the RG’s satisfaction and profitability includes nineteen steps.  The first step deals with the Research studies such as studying the RG, Russian market studies, and competitors’ studies.  The second step focuses on determining guest needs from HSs especially recreation and entertainment services.  The third step deals with directing the Russian wants to the RS destinations through satisfying the leisure and recreation needs.  The fourth step deals with Creating a demands for the RSRs through matching the guest needs with reasonable prices, attractive shows and promotions.  The fifth step deals with forecasting the RG needs, requirements and expectations during studying the RG through resorts representatives, GCCs, tour companies, research studies, internet sites such as trip advisors, and top hotels.com.  The sixth step deals with planning marketing strategies such as setting market segmentation, and the company’s competitive situation.  The seventh step focuses on identifying the HSs specification through specifying the attributes of hospitality products or services that are most important to guests.  The eighth step deals with delivering the HSs such as accommodation services, F&B, recreational activities, staff performance, the Russian language availability, and general attributes.  The ninth step deals with seeking to meet and exceed the guest’s expectations.  The tenth step deals with hunting guest feedback through Resorts representatives, GCCs, tour companies, research studies, internet sites such as trip advisors, and top hotels.com. 193
  • 194. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  The eleventh step deals with measuring guest satisfaction levels on the hospitality attributes (Satisfaction level = expectation-perceptions if the perceptions met or transcended the expectations, so the guest is satisfied, but if the expectation is greater than the perceptions, so the guest is not satisfied).  The twelfth step deals with identifying the gaps of services (Matching the degree of HSs in reference to guest’s satisfaction).  The thirteenth step focuses on modifying the services according to the guest’s requirements.  The fourteenth step translates modifications into standards through operation manuals, sequences’ of services and standard recipes.  The fifteenth step deals with implementing high level of performance regarding the standard through building the standard team.  The sixteenth step deals with enhancing the quality of services (Following up the operation to achieve permanent high level of performance regarding the standard).  The seventeenth step deals with improving the quality level of services and products.  The eighteenth step focuses on assuring satisfaction through assuring internal and external guest satisfaction (see Figure 4.5).  The nineteenth step deals with building guest loyalty. 194
  • 195. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4.22: A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance the RG’s Satisfaction and Profitability Step Action 1. Research studies (Studying the RG, Russian market studies, competitors’ studies). 2. Determining guest needs (Determining guest needs from HSs especially recreation and entertainment services). 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Directing the Russian wants to the RS destinations (Through satisfying the leisure and recreation needs). Creating demands for the RSRs (Matching the guest’s needs with reasonable prices, attractive shows and promotions). Forecasting the RG’s needs, requirements and expectations (Studying the RG through Resorts representatives, GCCs, tour companies, research studies, internet sites such as trip advisors, and top hotel.com). Planning marketing strategies (Setting market segmentation and company’s competitive situation). Identifying the HSs specification (Specifying the most important attributes of hospitality products or services). Delivering the HSs (Accommodation services, F&B, recreational activities, staff performance, Russian language availability, and general attributes). Seeking to meet and exceed guest’s expectations Hunting guest feedback (Resorts representatives, GCCs, tour companies, research studies, internet sites such as trip advisors, and top hotel.com). Measuring guest satisfaction levels on the hospitality attributes (Satisfaction level = expectation-perception if the perception meet or pass the expectations, so the guest is satisfied, but if the expectation is more than the perceptions so the guest is dissatisfied). Identifying the gaps of hospitality services (Matching degree of HSs in regard to the guest’s satisfaction). Modifying the HSs upon to guest requirements Translating the modifications into standards (Operation manuals, sequences’ of services and standard recipes ) Implementing high level of performance regarding the standard (Build the standard team). Enhancing the quality of service Follow up the operation to achieve continues high level of performance regards the standard). Improving quality level (Improving quality services and products). Assuring satisfaction (Assuring internal and external guest satisfaction). Building guest loyalty 195
  • 196. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Step 1 2 3 • Figure 4.5: A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance RG's Satisfaction and Profitability • Research studies • Determining guest needs • Directing the Russian wants to the Red sea destination 4 • Creating a demands for the Red sea resorts 5 • Forecasting the Russian guest’s needs, requirements and expectations 6 • Planning marketing strategies 7 • Identifying the hospitality services specification 8 • Delivering the hospitality services 9 • Seeking to meet and exceed guest expectations 10 • Hunting guest feedback 11 • Measuring guest satisfaction levels on the hospitality attributes 12 • Identifying the gaps of service 13 • Modifying the services according to guest needs 14 • Translating modifications into standards 15 • Implementing high level of performance regarding the standard 16 • Enhancing the quality of service 17 • Improving the quality level 18 • Assuring satisfaction 19 • Building guest loyalty 196
  • 197. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.10.6 Setting Strategy for the Russian Tourism Flow versus Hospitality Services Changeable Positions Model Strategy is the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfill stakeholder expectations. Growth is a critical aspect of the hotel industry; unit growth is the most widely relied upon strategy in the hotel industry (Olsen et al 1998). A model of strategy for the Russian tourism flow versus HSs changeable positions (see Figure 4.6 and Table 4.23). The strategy for Russian tourism flow versus HSs changeable positions model includes four different positions: 1. First position: Tourism flow increases and HSs development.               The condition will be: Good services. Good quality. Good occupancy all the year round. Enough and qualified staff. Fair value for the guest. Guest satisfaction and loyalty. Internal guest satisfaction. Good reputation. Good revenue and profit. More extensions. New investment. Environment overload. Increase in national income.  Advice:  Organize and lead the investment.  Increase the prices. 197
  • 198. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2. Second position: Tourism flow increase and demolition in HSs.              The condition will be: Short of hospitality services. Weak performance of HSs. Low level of services. Bad reputation. Not fair value for the guest. Shortage of staffing and unqualified staff. Guest dissatisfaction. Environment overload. Cost increases. Less profit. Bad quality. Closure of some resorts and establishments.        Advice: Training. Courses to improve staff skills. Develop the quality. Offering more HSs. Improving performance. Recruiting qualified staff. 3. Third position: Demolition in HSs and demolition in tourism.          The condition will be: Revenue decreasing. Less profit. Bad quality. Low level of service. Close some hotels and establishments. Foreign currency shortage. Unemployment. Rates go down. 198
  • 199. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  Dissatisfied guests and owners.  Reduction in national income.           Advice: Good marketing. Training. Courses to improve staff skills. Improve quality. Over more services. Think of new types of tourism. Search for new markets. Increase the internal tourism. Recruit qualified staff. 4. Fourth position: Development in HSs and demolition in tourism.         The condition will be: High level of service. Acceptable quality. Decrease in labor salary. Revenues go down. Prices go down. Unemployment. Staffs go abroad.          Advice: Marketing. Promotions. Up selling. Over more services. Think of new types of tourism. Increase the internal tourism. Open more distribution channels. Find new market. 199
  • 200. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 4. 23: Application of Strategies in Russian Tourism Changeable Market Compared to HSs Changeable Situations 1. Tourism flow increase and development 2. Tourism flow increase with demolition in in HSs HSs  The condition will be:  The condition will be:  Good service.  Short of hospitality service.  Good quality.  Weak performance of HSs.  Good occupancy all the year round.  Low level of service.  Enough and qualified staff.  Bad reputation.  Fair value for the guest.  Unfair value for the guest.  Guest satisfaction and loyalty.  Shortage of staffing and unqualified staff.  Internal guest satisfaction.  Guest dissatisfaction.  Good reputation.  Environment overload.  Good revenue and profit.  Cost Increases.  More extensions.  Profit decreases.  New investment.  Bad quality.  Environment overload.  Closure of some resorts and establishments.  Recommendations :  Increase in national income.  Training to improve staff capabilities.  Recommendations:  Organize and lead the investment.  Develop the quality.  Increase the prices.  Offering more HSs.  Improving the performance.  Use qualified staff. 3. Demolition in HSs and demolition in 4. Development in HSs and demolition in tourism tourism  The condition will be:  The condition will be.  Revenue Decreasing.  High level of service.  Profit loss.  Acceptable quality.  Bad quality.  Decrease in labor salary.  Low level of service.  Revenues go down.  Closure of some hotels and establishments.  Prices go down.  Foreign currency shortage.  Unemployment.  Unemployment.  Staffs go abroad.  Recommendations :  Rates go down.  Marketing.  Dissatisfied guests and owners.  Promotions.  Reduction in national income.  Up selling.  Recommendations :  Establish good marketing.  Over more services.  Training to improve staff skills.  Think of new types of tourism.  Improve quality.  Increase the internal tourism.  Over more services.  Open more distribution channels.  Think of new types of tourism.  Find new markets.  Search for new markets.  Increase the internal tourism.  Recruit qualified staff. 200
  • 201. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.11 Summary This chapter illustrates the requirements of the RG in terms of HSs in a sample of four and five star resorts in two of the RS destinations through selfadministered questionnaires. The Mann-Whitney U test was used in this chapter to compare between the five and four star resorts. Moreover, the Kruskal-Wallis H test also was used to compare the results among three Ages. Additionally, ranking HSs came in reference to the RG’s expectation, guest’s perceptions, and ranking HSs in reference to the managers’ perceptions of the guest’s expectations regarding HSs in addition to the analysis the gaps (gap one was the positioning gap, and gap five was the perception gap). Moreover, the data gathered from the resort managers in the same investigated destinations/resorts was analyzed in order to explore their perspectives regarding the requirements of the RG in terms of HSs and how they identify these requirements to achieve customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the research has developed good practice models regarding the RGs and hospitality managers with a view to improving guest satisfaction and profitability. The chapter ends with developing general findings based on the analysis of the guest questionnaire and managers interview as well. 201
  • 202. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview on the whole study through presenting a summary of the study and the recommendations driven from it. 5.1 Review of Study Aims This study focuses on how far HSs appeal to the RG in the RSRs with a view to increasing satisfaction and maximizing profitability. The literature review covers three main points, the first of which is the appeal of HSs for to the RG. The second focuses on studying guest behaviour, expectations, satisfaction and loyalty. And the third focuses on the Russian market overview, in order to understand the RG characteristics, requirements, expectations, and perceptions (see Figure 5.1). The field study is accomplished through survey study. This survey was conducted through telephone calls, field visits in order to find out about the volume of representation of the RG in the overall number of guests in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada resorts compared to other nationalities that prefer to stay at the RSRs. In addition, to increase the volume of the RG accommodation plans in the RSRs. Moreover, the survey was conducted to collect GCCs from some resorts to use as a guide to prepare the guest questionnaire and the interview. The suggested models are related to the RG preferences from HSs, hospitality gaps, RGs cycle, guests’ satisfaction harmony, and the resort managers regarding the RGs’ preferences and requirements from HSs in order to facilitate the RGs’ requirements and increase satisfaction. Moreover, a strategy is set for Russian tourism flow versus HSs changeable positions model (see Figure 5.1). 202
  • 203. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Objective Chapter Two Three Four • Objective One: Undertaking a critical literature review on how far hospitality services appeal to the russian guest, and studding Russian guest behaviour, expectations, satisfaction and loyalty, as well as Russian market overview. • Objective Two: Assessing the representation of the Russian guest in th eRed Sea distinations through survey study for a sample of the Red sea hotels to find out the percentage of Russian guest and the size of Russian market segment as well as to find out which meal plane the most applied to the Russian guest. • Objective Three: Investigate guest preferences, expectations, and perceptions regarding hospitality services offered in a sample of five and four star resort hotels in Sharm El Sheikh, and Hurghada. Four • Objective Four: Investigating managers’ perceptions of the Russian guest expectation regarding hospitality services in a sample of five and four star resort hotels in Sharm El-Sheikh, and Hurghada. Four • Objective Five: Developing suggested practice models regarding of Russian guests' preferences from hospitality services, the hospitality gaps, Russian guest cycle, and for the hotel managers regarding Russian guest preferences and requirements from hospitality services in order to increase Russian guest satisfaction. Five • Objective Six: Developing a set of recommendations to improve internal and external guest satisfaction and maximize the profit. Figure 5.1: The Summary of the Theoretical and Practical Objectives 203
  • 204. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2 Recommendations Based on the results obtained during the study, the following recommendations could be suggested: [1] Recommendations for resort management o Continues following up marketing and research studies:  Planning marketing strategies through setting market segmentation, and company’s competitive situation.  Market research study and guest requirements analysis could be frequent.  Resort managers could be fully aware of the RG requirements and expectations regarding HSs through research studies, tour operators and websites in order to meet and exceed guests’ expectations and satisfaction as well.  Generally the HSs would be designed with special reference to the RG requirements and expectations in order to achieve a great extent of satisfaction.  Enhance service quality through meeting customer needs and requirements.  Identify customers’ perceptions through analyzing (GCCs), guest survey, guest relations, guest contact staff, and websites such as top hotels and trip advisors.  Create management cocktail parties to introduce the management team to the guest, and to identify customer perceptions.  Resort managers could hold management dinners for the recurrent guests once or twice a week to give the managers the chance to be in direct contact with the regular guests to check their opinions about their HSs.  Assuring that every guest has enough awareness of the HSs in the resorts. 204
  • 205. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Measuring guest satisfaction levels on the HSs and identify the gaps of hospitality services, in order to translate the modifications into standards, thus achieving guest satisfaction.  Continuing collecting guest feedback and sensitivity analyses (guest comments, websites, surveys, comment cards, recommendation boxes, guest complaints, thanks letters).  Effectively using the internet, i.e. sending questionnaires to guest and receiving them via the internet.  Adding new products continually.  New trends follow up.  New systems application.  Creating effective promotional activities.  Give attention to additional markets whose customers appreciate the service quality and are willing to pay for it. o Some points could be considered regarding the RG main purposes of holiday such as leisure /recreation, price, sea activities, the Sun, climate, friendliness of staff, and etc. o The following points might be considered in the accommodation services:  In accommodation services, special attention must be paid to some aspects such as valet and laundry, check-in procedure, check-out procedure, room cleanliness, and etc.  Room cleanliness must receive special interest as it is a top priority for the majority of the RGs and represented the biggest service gaps.  Assuring the quality of maintenance and engineering department in the resort. 205
  • 206. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Upgrading quality and increasing number of operators of mobile communication and the Internet.  Implementing a high speed wired and wireless Internet in the public areas that could support online services and communications. o The following points better to be considered in the F&B services:  Guest preferences regarding certain kinds of food such as fruits, sea food, meat, and etc. Must be taken into consideration.  Fruits and sea food are considered by the majority of the RGs as the most preferable kind of food.  Resort managers should be fully aware that Russians like soups morning time especially Burch soup in breakfast.  Resort managers should be fully aware that the eclectic cuisine is considered the most important attractive cuisine for most of the RGs and those them like the buffet more than ala carte restaurant.  In order to avoid the problems of overcrowding and long buffet lines, it is advisable to extent the dinner operations hours to last from six to eleven in the evening, especially in the main buffet restaurants. Also arranging outside trips such as excursions, safari, and Bedouin nights reduce pressure.  In order to avoid the problems of excessive drinking or exceeded beverage cost, it is advisable to serve many attractive cocktails, using measuring scales, and assuring the availability of ice cubes in the bars.  In order to avoid the problems of not very cold beverages, it is advisable not to use warm glasses and to have enough glasses for the operation level, serving no warm drinks, checking all fridges are working properly, and that the bar has enough stock of cold drinks, and assuring the availability of ice cubes in the bars, serving order by order, up to request, 206
  • 207. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS having no stock of ready served wines or beer or cola etc, and the speed of service are required.  In order to avoid the problems of excessive food cost, it is advisable to have a continuous survey regarding guest preferences for certain kinds of food, types of cuisine and cooking methods. Serving a variety of fruits, fish, and potatoes must be considered. Moreover, the skilled staff those are fully aware of saving costs as well as up selling techniques are very important.  In order to avoid the problems of dirty cups and glasses in the restaurants and bars, it is advisable to have enough cups and glass as well as enough staff, to use the beverages tray to serve and collect glasses. Don’t carry glasses with plates in one tray. Don’t overload the tray. Make sure that the glass washer works properly, change the water frequently. Polishing the glasses with hot water, handle the glasses from the bottom, never touch the rim, and check the cleanliness and quality of each glass.  Expansion of the restaurant’s menu (assortment of seafood and fruit, inclusion of several dishes of the Russian cuisine).  Introduction of attractive children's menus.  Birthday cakes might be very attractive and strawberry, chocolate, or flowers can be given.  Resort managers could be fully aware that that alcoholic drinks were considered the most important attractive drinks for most of the RGs, especially alcoholic cocktails, whiskey, rum, vodka, red wine, beer, and white wine. Moreover, the Russian consumes large amounts of alcoholic beverages.  The Majority of the RGs are mainly looking for the quantity of food and the variety of items. 207
  • 208. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Speed of service must be given more care as well as the art of food presentation as they; both represent the biggest and most awkward gaps in F&B secrecies. o The following points could be considered in the recreation services:  Sea activities and the Sun were considered the most important attractive factors for most of the RGs.  Variety of recreational activities as one of the top priorities for the majority of the RGs.  The RGs prefer energetic types of recreation.  Animation team and night entertainment parties such as dancing, tannora, and belly dancer are considered as the most important leisure activities that attract the RGs.  Improving the quality of land sports, health spa and fitness and attraction of recreational activities should be considered because they are the biggest gaps of recreational activities.  Designing ultra HSs (such as a variety of entertainment shows, oriental party, beach party, foam party, unlimited access to local and imported alcoholic beverages, and a variety of recreation activities, massage, diving courses) should be introduced with an enhanced level and quality to the guest who, accordingly, would be willing to pay for them.  Assuring the availability and quality of music (The RGs like to listen to live music in a lobby / a bar and to be included in of repertoire Russian songs with the possibility to sing a karaoke. Periodic updating of the repertoire of music is important and the music sounding during the day in the resort territory, especially in the beach area is as important.  Equip swimming pool with heated water during the autumn and winter season. 208
  • 209. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Improve the equipment by stock (board games, balls) and ensure the presence of the Russian billiards.  Diversify day entertainments, including beach activities, and prolong the time of evening entertainments and disco.  More attention should be paid to water sports such as kites, sailing, yachting, water ski, and skiing on the air.  The activities and games, water sports and sunbathing experiences that must be available when visiting the RSRs.  There is a necessity to creation of children's animations. o The following points might be considered in the staff performance: such as staff friendliness, staff courtesy, and etc.  Improve staff performance.  Handle guest complaints on the spot as much as possible.  Availability of enough staff is required to provide prompt service. o The following points could be considered concerning the availability of the Russian language:  Concerning the availability of the Russian language, it has been found that restaurants Russian language menus, Russian language information signboards, Russian language buffet tags are considered the biggest gaps.  Russian language availability make the RGs feel that they are welcome to come and stay in the resort. o The following points would be considered as general attributes:  Concerning of general attributes, results indicate that promotion, cleanliness and hygiene, transportation, and internet access are considered the biggest gaps. 209
  • 210. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Clarifying safety and security roles and the effective use of tools is highly advisable.  Upgrading sanitation and hygiene level.  Providing adequate numbers of technology applications in conventioneers' room, like TV- checkout system, TV-Internet, TVsurvey, data port, in-room fax and wireless Internet.  Designing a resort web page. Guests can make and manage their reservations anytime via the web or their mobile device.  Caring for the kids’ (kids’ meals, kids’ gifts, kids’ birthdays, kids’ area, kids’ club, and kids’ theatre). o Implementing quality developing strategies:  Establishing a special department for quality development.  Setting the minimum requirements for service quality required for the RG.  Applying standard recipes and operation manuals.  Implementing continuous high level of performance regarding the standard.  Enhancing the quality of service by using premium quality materials in F&B as well as other aspects of operation.  Applying quality measuring systems.  Defining the needed factors to develop the RSRs level to catch up with the international standard.  Implementing executive operation procedures.  Developing a checklist for most of the daily tasks performed by the staff to clarify the duties and assign duties to each one of the staff and encourages them to provide a good guest service. 210
  • 211. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Dealing with professional companies to evaluate the quality service and cleanliness.  Establishing a policy to transform the RG from just a client to a partner via whatever means by motivating them not only to return the resort again and again, but also to recommend it to the people all around. o Implementing human developing strategies to develop the human element:  Selecting and recruiting people with the ability and willingness to help the RG with a view to eliminating all obstacles and achieving the guest’s utmost satisfaction.  Hiring adequate staff suitable for the level of work load expected.  Evaluating the human element.  Maintaining a clear vision, mission, action plans and operation strategies, and specifying the roles.  Applying system for staff (salary, staff meal, accommodation, transportation).  Designing system manuals to standardize the operation materials and equipments, and training manuals to standardize the provided training for most of staff.  Establishing manuals for the common operation problems and how to fix them.  Motivational activities (employee of the month, birthdays, festivals, thanks letters, incentives).  Applying a developing strategy through training and the effective use of training materials.  Language courses especially Russian and English.  Training (On- job- training and off-job- training). 211
  • 212. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  Supporting Russian and English languages studying.  Improving the staff awareness of (Personnel hygiene, security, safety, service, guest satisfaction, hospitality).  Special courses for the resort managers about (team building, time management, leadership, supervisor skills, management skills, staff direction, delegation, empowerment, sales forecasting, and lunch production control).  Internal guest satisfaction will allow the resorts to retain its qualified employees instead of losing them to other resorts or other industries. o Focusing on guest satisfaction and following new trends:  Keeping smiling all the time at the RG and being friendly is one of the most important satisfaction tools.  Creating a website, hot line or other advertisement that makes the users meeting with your resort services memorable.  Guest feedback is vital to improve HSs.  Solving problems and meeting queries.  Providing a personal touch (treating the guest as a distinguished individual).  Using the online reservation system to reserve rooms.  Implementing a high speed wired and wireless Internet in the public areas that could support online services.  Improvement of quality of mobile communication, including the Russia TV (broadcast quality must be better, increase in the number of Russian TV channels.  Increasing satisfaction and profitability.  Building guest loyalty.  Publishing electronic committees for marketing and publicity for Egypt and facing anti-propaganda. 212
  • 213. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.3 Recommendations for Further Research Due to time and other constraints, there were a number of limitations. For instance, this study investigated the RGs’ requirements, expectations, and perceptions in only a sample of four and five star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada. Therefore, further studies could focus on other category of resorts such as three star resorts, other types of resorts such as conference resorts, business resorts or other destinations such as Cairo, Marsa Alam, and Luxor as well as Aswan in order to investigate how far the findings differ from those identified in the current study. Furthermore, this study focuses on the RGs’ requirements and expectations regarding HSs. Therefore, further studies could focus on other new markets’ requirements for HSs such as Poland, Ukraine, Bella Russia, Georgia, and Estonia. Also, further studies can focus on other segments of travellers who travel for other purposes such as business travellers. 213
  • 214. CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.4 Personal Reflections This thesis is the outcome of a four-year PhD research attempting to explore the requirements, expectations, and perceptions of the RG in terms of HSs from the perspectives of resort guests and resort managers as well. It is my aspiration that the developed good practice models will help resort managers to better achieve the satisfaction and loyalty of the RG in order to maximize the profits. I hope also that this study through its developed models will provide a valuable source for those who will carry on further research in the field of HSs. The main reason for choosing this topic is personal interest. It was interested to conduct a research regarding the RG. The research has really added to my knowledge and contributed effectively in developing my research’s ability and skills. During my research journey, I have acquired and explored issues which I find interesting, especially those that came up while developing the models, conducting the survey, questionnaire and interviews with the hospitality leaders as well as the search for appropriate methodology and theoretical perspective. 214
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  • 234. ‫‪REFERENCES‬‬ ‫المراجع باللغة العربية‬ ‫ايمن منير قاسم (5006) : اقتصاديات السياحة ،دار الهاني للطباعة ص ص.506 : .06.‬ ‫محمد عزت محمد (.006) تنشيط السياحة الروسية الوافدة الي مصر, رسالة ماجستير غير منشورة كلية‬ ‫السياحة والفنادق , جامعة حلوان.ص ص 6 :20 .‬ ‫محمد مصطفي مصطفي ( 5006) تقييم اثر االنشطة الترفيهية علي اداء فنادق المنتجعات . البحر‬ ‫األحمر, رسالة دكتوراة غير منشورة كلية السياحة والفنادق , جامعة حلوان.‬ ‫وزارة السياحــة (5006) نشرات سياحية احصائية غير منشورة , المركز القومي للمعلومات السياحية.‬ ‫وزارة السياحــة (.006 ) األسواق العشرة األولى للسياحة الوافدة الى مصر خالل عام 2006 مقارن‬ ‫بعام 5006 . متاح من :‬ ‫/‪http://www.tourism.gov.eg/Shared%20Documents‬مؤشرات%06السياحة/األسواق%06‬ ‫العشرة%06األولى%06للسياحة%06الوافدة%06الى%06مصر%06خالل%06عام%200606%‬ ‫06مقارن%06بعام%500606‪ " .mht‬تم االطالع 26-00-0006".‬ ‫وزارة السياحــة (‪ )6000c‬الطاقة اإليوائية الفندقية في مصر في 0 / 0 / .006 . متاح من :‬ ‫/‪http://www.tourism.gov.eg/Shared%20Documents‬مؤشرات%06السياحة/الطاقة%06اإل‬ ‫يوائية%06الفندقية ‪ " .mht‬تم االطالع في .6 -00-0006"‬ ‫وزارة السياحــة (‪ )6000d‬التقرير االحصائي لعام 0006 ( عدد السائحين الوافدين – اعداد الليالي‬ ‫:‬ ‫من‬ ‫متاح‬ ‫)‬ ‫االيرادات‬ ‫–‬ ‫السياحية‬ ‫/‪http://www.tourism.gov.eg/Shared%20Documents‬مؤشرات%06السياحة/مؤشرات%‬ ‫000606/احصائية%000606 ‪ " .pdf‬تم االطالع 3-00-0006".‬ ‫وفاء الياس(6006) : تنمية السياحة الوافدة الي مصر من االسواق السياحية غير التقليدية "الناطقة‬ ‫باللغات النادرة", رسالة دكتوراه غير منشورة , كلية السياحة والفنادق جامعة حلوان ص ص.02 :55.‬ ‫432‬
  • 235. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management Hotel Management Department Guest Questionnaire Dear guest, This questionnaire is a part of Ph.D study, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt. The overall aim of this study is matching degree of hospitality services in accordance to the Russian guest in the Red Sea resorts. Your answers will be a valuable guide to make the study efficient, accurate and to help it fulfil objectives as well. Answers are strictly confidential and will be used only for the purpose of the study. Thank you for your co-operation The Researcher Hany Atef Kouzmal Mobile: - 01000210213 Hany_atef2000@yahoo.com 235
  • 236. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM 1. Your requirements from the hospitality services. 1.1. Why do you prefer to visit the Red Sea? Could you rank the effective factors that attract you from 1 the least attractive to 5 the most attractive? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) 1.2. Sea activities Sun Climate Price Hospitality services Promotion Other (Please specify and rate ) Which kind of food do you prefer to eat during your visit to the Red Sea? Could you rank the food kinds that attract you from 1 the least attractive to 5 the most attractive? a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) 1.3. Soups Snacks Pasta Sea food Meat Poultry Fruits Dessert Other (Please specify and rate ) Which cuisine do you prefer to eat during your visit to the Red Sea? Could you rank the food kinds that attract you from 1 the least attractive to 5 the most attractive? a) b) c) d) e) f) 1.4. Oriental food Russian food International cuisine Ethnic cuisine Eclectic cuisine Other (Please specify and rate ) Which kind of beverages do you prefer to drink during your visit? Could you rank the beverages kinds that attract you from 1 the least attractive to 5 the most attractive? a) b) c) d) Alcoholic drinks Non alcoholic drinks National drinks [Bedouin tea and Hibiscus] Other (Please specify and rate 236 )
  • 237. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM 1.5. Which kind of entertainment shows do you prefer during your visit? Could you rank the factors that attract you from 1 the least attractive to 5 the most attractive? a) b) c) d) e) f) Oriental folklores Belly dancer Tannora show Snakes show Magician show Other (Please specify and rate ) 2. Your expectation and perception about hospitality services 2.1. Please, rank your expectation and perception about hospitality services in this resort? [Please, tick (√) to rank each of the following attributes from 1 (least level) to 5 (highest level)] and NT (Not try). 1 Least level Expectation 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 Highest level Attributes 5 1 Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable Price Food and Beverage attributes Food quality Food and beverage variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique food and beverage Speed of service Professionalism of service Value for money Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music 237 NT Perception 2 3 4 5
  • 238. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price Staff performance Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance Availability of staff to provide prompt service Professional handling guest complaints Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators Restaurants Russian language menus Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards Russian language buffet tags Capability of communication with Russia General attributes Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access Other (please specify and rate) 2.2. What is your perception towards hospitality during your visit? b) Fall short your expectation c) Meet your expectation d) Exceed your expectation 238
  • 239. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM 3. Demographic data: 3.1. Gender a) Male b) Female 3.2. Age a) Under 25 years b) From 25 to 40 years c) Over 40 years 3.3. Educational level: a) Secondary education b) University or high institute degree c) Other (Please specify ) Occupation a) Student b) Businessman c) Self-employed d) Professional (e.g. Lecturer, Engineer, Doctor) e) Other (Please specify ) 3.4. 3.5. Nationality If, you have any suggestions or comments please mention here? Thank you for your co-operation The Researcher 239
  • 240. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM Университет Хелвана Факультет туризма и гостиничного хозяйства Департамент управления отелем Анкета гостя Уважаемый пользователь, Данная анкета является частью исследования доктора философии, факультета туризма и гостиничного хозяйства, университет Хелвана, Каир, Египет. Основной целью данного исследования является соответствие уровня гостиничных услуг критериям русских гостей на курортах Красного моря. Ваши ответы будут ценным руководством, чтобы сделать исследование эффективным, точным и, чтобы помочь ему выполнить поставленные задачи, а ответы являются строго конфиденциальными и будут использованы только для целей исследования. Благодарим Вас за сотрудничество Исследователь Хани Атеф Kузмал Мобильный телефон: - 01000210213 Hany_atef2000@yahoo.com 240
  • 241. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM 1. 1.1. Ваши требования к гостиничным услугам. Основополагающие факторы при посещении курортов Красного моря? Оцените факторы, привлекающие вас от наимене привлекательных (1) до наиболее привлекательных (5)? а) Морской деятельности б) Солнце в) Климат г) Цена д) Услуг гостеприимства е) Продвижение г) Прочие (Просьба указать и скорость 1.2. ) Какой вид пищи вы предпочитаете во время Вашего отдыха на Красном море? Оцените виды напитков от наименее привлекательных (1) до наиболее привлекательных (5)? а) Супы б) Закуски в) Паста г) Морепродукты д) Мясо е) Птицы г) Фрукты ч) Десерты я) Прочее (Просьба указать и скорость 1.3. ) Какой кухней вы предпочитаете во время Вашего отдыха на Красном море? Оцените виды напитков от наименее привлекательных (1) до наиболее привлекательных (5)? а) Восточная кухня б) Русская кухня в) Международное cuisine г) Национальная кухня д) Эклектичный кухней е) Прочее (Просьба указать и скорость 1.4. ) Какой вид напитков Вы предпочитаете во время вашего визита? Оцените виды напитков от наименее привлекательных (1) до наиболее привлекательных (5)? а) Алкогольные напитки б) Безалкогольные напитки в) Национальные напитки [бедуинский чай и чай из цветков гибискуса] г) Прочее (Просьба указать и скорость ) 241
  • 242. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM Какой вид развлечений, шоу вы предпочитаете во время Вашего отдыха? Оценить от наименее привлекательных (1) до наиболее 1.5. привлекательных (5)? а) Восточный фольклор б) Танцы живота в) Шоу танцев Юбкой г) Шоу змей д) Маг шоу е) Прочее (Просьба указать и скорость 2. ) Ваши ожидания и восприятие гостиничных услу Пожалуйста, оцените ваши ожидания и восприятие гостиничных услуг в этом курорте? 2.1. [Пожалуйста, поставьте галочку (√) чтобы оценить каждый из следующих признаков от 1 (наименьший уровень) до 5 (высокий уровень) и Нп (не пробовал). 1 Наименее уровень Ожидание 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 Высший уровень Атрибуты 5 Восприятие 1 Размещение Услуги и прачечной Процедура заселения в номера Процедура выселения из номеров Чистота в номере Удобства в номере Обслуживание и ремонт Доступная цена Пищевые продукты и напитки Качество продуктов питания Разнообразие продуктов питания и напитков Продовольственное количество Продовольственная презентация Температура пищи Наличие русской кухни Наличие уникальных местных продуктов питания и напитков Скорость обслуживания Профессионализм обслуживания Соотношение цены и качества Развлекательные мероприятия Развлечения в помещениях Спа и фитнес Анимационная деятельность 242 2 3 4 5 Нп
  • 243. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM Музыка Отдых на свежем воздухе Дайвинг Земля спортивные Водные виды спорта Аэробика Экскурсии Разнообразие деятельности Качество деятельности Привлечение деятельности Доступная цена Эффективность работы персонала Персонал удобство Любезность сотрудников Полезность Эффективность работы персонала Наличие персонала для обеспечения быстрого обслуживания Профессиональная обработка жалоб гостей Наличие русского языка Русский язык на уровне коммуникаторов Меню на русском языке в ресторанах Информационные брошюры и листовки на русском языке Информационные вывески на русском языке Название блюд на шведском столе Возможность связи с Россией Генеральный атрибуты Продвижение Доступная цена Качество обслуживания Значение воспринимается Физическая среда Безопасность процедуры Чистота и гигиена Транспорт Торговые объекты Услуги для детей Доступная в Интернет Другое (пожалуйста, укажите) 2.2. Каково ваше восприятие гостеприимства на Красном море? а. Не соответствует вашим ожиданиям б. Соответствует вашим ожиданиям в. Превышает ваши ожидания 243
  • 244. APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE FORM 3. Демографические данные: - 3.1. Пол а) Мужской б) Женский 3.2. возраст а) До 25 лет б) От 25 до 40 лет в) Более 40 лет 3.3. Уровень образования: а) Среднее образование б) Высшее образование в) Прочее (Просьба указать ) Род деятельности а) Студент б) Предприниматель в) Домохозяйка г) Профессиональные (например, преподаватель, инженер, врач) е) Другие (Просьба указать ) 3.4. 3.5. Национальность Если у вас есть предложения или рекомендации, пожалуйста, укажите здесь? Благодарим Вас за сотрудничество Исследователь 244
  • 245. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW FORM Semi-structured interviews with the industry managers Name:……………… Profession:………………. Interview Form This interview is a part of Ph.D study, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University. The overall aim of this study is matching degree of hospitality services in accordance to the Russian guest in the Red Sea resorts. It should be noted that flexibility within the interview was maintained and questions may not have been asked in the same order. It would be appreciated if you could help and answer the questions to fulfil the research objectives. A lot of thanks The Researcher Hany Atef Kouzmal Mobile: - 01000210213 Hany_atef2000@yahoo.com 245
  • 246. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW FORM 1. In general, what are the main purposes of the Russian guest holiday? 2. What are the affective factors in the Red Sea resorts that attract the Russian guest? 3. In your resort, what are the main travel purposes of the Russian guest? 4. How often does the Russian guest usually travel for the Red Sea? 5. What is the average length of stay for the Russian guest? 6. With whom do Russian guests usually travel for the Red Sea? 7. Which destinations in the Red Sea do the Russian guests like to visit? 8. How the Russian guests reserve their visit to the Red Sea? 9. Which kinds of food do Russian guest prefer to eat during their visit to the Red Sea? And which cuisine they prefer? 10.Which kinds of beverages do Russian guest prefer to drink during their visit to the Red Sea? 11.Which kinds of entertainment the Russian guest prefer during their visit? 12.What do you think about the Russian guest behaviour toward staff and other guest? 13.How does the management identify the requirements of the Russian guest? 14.What are the tools that you use to promote the resort services and facilities for the Russian guest? 246
  • 247. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW FORM 15.Please, rank your perception about guests’ expectations regarding hospitality services? [Please, tick (√) to rank each of the following attributes from 1 (least level) to 5 (highest level)] and Na (Not available). 1 Least level 2 3 4 5 Highest level Attributes NA Perception 1 Accommodation attributes Valet and laundry Check-in procedure Check-out procedure Room cleanliness Room facilities Maintenance and repair Reasonable price Food and Beverage attributes Food quality Food and beverage variety Food quantity Food presentation Temperature of food Availability of Russian food Availability of local unique food and beverage Speed of service Professionalism of service value for money Recreational activities Indoor activities Health spa and fitness Animation activities Music Outdoor activities Diving Land sports Water sports Aerobics Excursions Variety of recreational activities Quality of recreational activities Attraction of recreational activities Reasonable price 247 2 3 4 5
  • 248. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW FORM Staff performance Staff friendliness Staff courtesy Helpfulness Staff performance Availability of staff to provide prompt service Professional handling guest complaints Availability of Russian language Russian language level of communicators Restaurants Russian language menus Russian language information brochures and flyers Russian language information signboards Russian language buffet tags Capability of communication with Russia General attributes Promotion Reasonable price Service quality Value perceived Physical environment Safety and security procedures Cleanliness and hygiene Transportation Shopping facilities Kids’ services Internet access Other (please specify and rate) 16.What are the Russian guest requirements in terms of the following: a. Accommodation facilities b. Food and beverage services c. Leisure and recreation activities 17.Are there any problems facing the management to meet the requirements of the Russian guest? If yes, please, mention? 18.How do the resort managers meet the requirements and preferences of the Russian guest? 19.Are there strategies planning to improve the Russian guest satisfaction and maximize the Russian market share in your resort? Explain? 248
  • 249. APPENDIX B: INTERVIEW FORM 20.From your point of view what are the advantages and disadvantages of dealing with the Russian guest? 21.If you have any suggestions or recommendations that help the research, please mention? Thank you for your support The Researcher 249
  • 250. 250
  • 251. 251
  • 252. Arabic Copy of the Agreement between the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of Tourism (The ministry of Forign Affairs , 2011b). 252
  • 253. 253
  • 254. 254
  • 255. 255
  • 256. Arabic Copy of Joint Action Program for the Period 2009 - 2010 for the Implementation of the Agreement between the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of Tourism (The ministry of Tourism, 2010b). 256
  • 257. 257
  • 258. 258
  • 259. 259
  • 260. English Copy of Joint Action Program for the Period 2009-2010 for the Implementation of the Agreement between the Government of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the Government of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Field of Tourism (The ministry of tourism 2010b). 260
  • 261. DAILY REPORT of RRR № ROOM Complain 1 2121 2 7028 3 1224 4 5123& 5121 5 7231 6 7 8 6201 2217 5119 Door of the balcony doesn’t close Cannot sleep well, connecting door, Neighbors 3 times couldn’t close safety box At Lunch time waiters don’t allow to finish to have a lunch Chair broke under the guest at the restaurant Telephone doesn’t ring Fruit basket was promised No animation program for elderly people Corrective/Preventive Actions Had order Check out already Daily report of one of the investigated resorts 261 Subject Closing Done 01/12/11 Done 01/12/11 Done 01/12/11 Done Had order to engineer if the neighbours will more noisy, we will make a remark Last 3 days we had no order about problems with safe from this room Guests come late and they want stay more than working time Subject Closing Date Done 01/12/11 Done 01/12/11 02/12/11 03/12/11 01/11/11
  • 262. ‫الملخص العربي‬ ‫262‬
  • 263. ‫مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع السائح الروسي في منتجعات البحر األحمر‬ ‫أصبحت السياحة من الصناعات الهامة في معظم أنحاء العالم بل إنها أصبحت ضرورة من ضروريات‬ ‫الحياة يلجاء إليها الفرد ألغراض عديدة منها اإلسترخاء وتجديد النشاط وتخفيف ضغوط الحياة ولم تعد‬ ‫قاصرة علي شريحة واحدة بل يقوم بها معظم شرائح المجتمع كال حسب إمكانياته وظروفه. و تعد مصر‬ ‫من األسواق السياحية المتميزة بتنوع عناصر الجذب المختلفة والتي تجذب العديد من الشرائح من‬ ‫الجنسيات المختلفة في مختلف أنحاء العالم ويعد السائح الروسي في مقدمة الضيوف الوافدين إلي مصر‬ ‫كما تعد مصر بالنسبة لروسيا ثاني أكبر مقصد سياحي. ولذلك حرصت الدراسة علي دراسة مدي توافق‬ ‫خدمات الضيافة مع العميل الروسي في منتجعات البحر األحمر وذلك من أجل تقديم خدمات أكثر تناسبا‬ ‫مع إحتياجه وتحقيق مزيد من الرضاء.‬ ‫الهدف من الدراسة‬ ‫يهدف هذا البحث إلى دراسة مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع السائح الروسي في منتجعات البحر األحمر‬ ‫من خالل دراسة لرغبات وإحتياجات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة المقدمة له فى الفنادق فى عينة‬ ‫من المقاصد في البحر األحمر. وقد ركزت هذه الدراسة على مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة المقدمة مع‬ ‫توقعات السائح الروسي و إدراكه والتركيزعلي الخدمات المقدمة للسائح الروسي خاصة الذي يسافر من‬ ‫أجل الترفية ألنه يشكل النسبة العالية فى مصر. ولتحقيق هذا الهدف تناولت الدراسة ما يلى :-‬ ‫‪ ‬إستعراض المراجع السابقة من الكتب والدوريات والمقاالت التى تناولت مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة‬ ‫مع إحتياج السائح الروسي في منتجعات البحر األحمر( خدمات اإلقامة- خدمات األغذية‬ ‫والمشروبات- الخدمات الترفيهيية). كما إشتملت دراسة السائح الروسي من حيث سلوكه، متطلباته،‬ ‫توقعاته، إدراكه، رضائه ووالئه بالنسبة لخدمات الضيافة. تعلقت أيضا بإلقاء نظرة عامة علي السوق‬ ‫الروسي من حيث شرائحه وخواصه وكذلك الطلب السياحي الروسي لمصر والعالقات المصرية‬ ‫الروسية وخصائص السائح الروسي.‬ ‫‪ ‬إختيار عينة عشوائية من ثمانيين فندق من منتجعات البحر األحمر والموجودة في شرم الشيخ‬ ‫والغردقة وذلك للوقوف علي نسبة إشغال السائح الروسي إلي باقي الجنسيات وكذلك نوع اإلقامة‬ ‫المفضل.‬ ‫‪ ‬التعرف على إحتياجات ومتطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة المقدمة فى عينة من فنادق‬ ‫األربع و الخمس نجوم فى منتجعات البحر األحمر وذلك من خالل التركيز علي مقصديين سياحيين‬ ‫هما: شرم الشيخ، و الغردقة و ذلك من خالل إستمارات اإلستقصاء.‬ ‫‪ ‬التعرف على وجهات نظر مديرى الفنادق فى متطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة فى نفس‬ ‫عينة الفنادق والمقاصد السياحية المختبرة وكيفية تحقيقها والوصول إليها وذلك من خالل المقابالت‬ ‫الشخصية .‬ ‫362‬
  • 264. ‫‪ ‬تصميم نموذج عملى باإلضافة إلى مجموعة من التوصيات لمساعدة مديرى الفنادق على تلبية إحتياج‬ ‫ومتطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة مما يساعد على تحقيق إرضاء ووالء النزالء وزيادة‬ ‫أرباح المنشاة. وقد قسمت الدراسة إلى خمسة فصول على النحو األتى :-‬ ‫الفصل األول: المقدمة‬ ‫فى هذا الفصل تم إستعراض مقدمة عامة عن موضوع الدراسة، أهميتها، أهدافها ، أبعادها، هيكلها. كما‬ ‫تناول هذا الفصل أيضا بعض األسئلة المتعلقة بالدراسة والتى تمثلت فى معرفة رغبات وإحتياجات‬ ‫وتوقعات وإدراك السائح الروسي بالنسبة لخدمات الضيافة المقدمة في البحر األحمر والتي أظهرت إنه‬ ‫بالرغم من اإلهتمام الطفيف بالسياحة الروسية فى مصر، إال أنه مازال يوجد قصور فى تلبية إحتياجات‬ ‫ومتطلبات السائح الروسي الفندقية. عالوة على ذلك تناول هذا الجزء أيضا ملخصا لما تحتويه الدراسة‬ ‫من فصول وذلك بتوضيح مايحتويه كل فصل بإيجاز.‬ ‫الفصل الثانى: الدراسات المرجعية‬ ‫إستعرض هذا الفصل بعض المراجع المتعلقة بموضوع الدراسة من كتب ودوريات ومقاالت وقد تضمن‬ ‫هذا الفصل ثالثة أجزاء رئيسية على النحو األتى :-‬ ‫‪ ‬الجزء األول : مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع السائح الروسي‬ ‫التركيز على متطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة. وكذلك التركيز على خدمات الضيافة المقدمة‬ ‫في المنتجعات السياحية خاصة خدمات الضيافة واإلعاشة و الخدمات الترفيهية. وأخيرا التركيز على‬ ‫خدمات الضيافة المقدمة في منتجعات البحر األحمر.‬ ‫‪ ‬الجزء الثانى : توقعات السائح ورضائه ووالئه‬ ‫تعلق هذا الجزء بإلقاء الضوء على سلوك السائح، توقعاته، رضائه ووالئه. وكذلك الفرق مابين التوقع‬ ‫واإلدراك. كما ركز أيضا هذا الجزء على العالقة مابين رضاء الضيف ووالئه.‬ ‫‪ ‬الجزء الثالث : نظرة عامة عن السوق الروسي‬ ‫تعلق هذا الجزء بالقاء الضوء على تقسيم السوق إلي شرائح. ركزهذا الجزء على خواص السوق الروسي‬ ‫والطلب الروسي في مصر. كما ركز أيضا هذا الجزء على العالقة مابين مصر وروسيا. إشتمل أيضا‬ ‫على خواص السائح الروسي وإحتياجاته. كما إشتمل أيضا على أنواع السياحة في روسيا.‬ ‫الفصل الثالث: اإلطار المنهجى للدراسة‬ ‫يحتوى هذا الفصل على تحديد مجتمع الدراسة وحجم العينة ووسائل البحث والطرق اإلحصائية‬ ‫المستخدمة. إشتملت الدراسة على مرحلتين األولى إستكشافية والثانية تفصلية :‬ ‫0. بالنسبة للدراسة اإلستكسافية فقد أستخدم فيها إستمارات اإلستقصاء وفورمات المقابالت الشخصية‬ ‫ووزعت على عينة من المتخصصين في المجال األكاديمي وكذلك المجال العملي، وكان الغرض‬ ‫462‬
  • 265. ‫من اجراء هذه الدراسة هو قياس مدى الفهم واإلستيعاب لجميع أسئلة اإلستقصاء و المقابالت‬ ‫الشخصية.‬ ‫6. أما بالنسبة للدراسة التفصيلية فقد إستخدم فيها إستمارات اإلستقصاء والمقابالت الشخصية.‬ ‫بالنسبة إلستمارات اإلستقصاء فقد تم توزيعها على عينة من النزالء المقيمين فى فنادق األربع والخمس‬ ‫نجوم فى منطقة البحر األحمر وهما شرم الشيخ والغردقة. وقد تم توزيع ١١٠٠ إستمارة كان من بينها‬ ‫١٠١٠ إستمارة فقط صالحة للتحليل، وكان الهدف الرئيسى من قائمة اإلستقصاء هو التعرف على إحتياج‬ ‫ومتطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة وكذلك توقعات السائح الروسي وإدراكه لخدمات الضيافة‬ ‫المقدمة لهم فى الفنادق (خدمات ااإلقامة، خدمات اإلعاشة، الخدمات الترفيهية، اداء العاملين، مدي‬ ‫إستخدام اللغة الروسية، وايضا خواص عامة تميز خدمات الضيافة).‬ ‫وقد تم إستخدام النظام اإلحصائى 61 ‪ SPSS version‬للمقارنة بين نتائج فنادق األربع والخمس‬ ‫نجوم باإلضافة الى الجداول التكرارية والنسب المئوية وكذلك تحليل البيانات بإستخدام‬ ‫‪.Mann-Whitney U test‬‬ ‫كما إشتملت الدراسة ايضا على مقابالت شخصية مع ثمانين مدير من المديرين فى نفس عينة الفنادق‬ ‫والمقاصد السياحية المختبرة، وكان الهدف الرئيسى من هذه المقابالت هو التعرف على وجهات‬ ‫نظرمديرى الفنادق فى إحتياج ومتطلبات من خدمات الضيافة وتوقعات السائحين الروس وكيفية تحقيقها‬ ‫والوصول إليها. كما تم توجيه بعض األسئلة األخرى للمديرين والتى تختص بإحتياج وتفضيالت السائح‬ ‫الروسي، الغرض الرئيسى من السفر، المشاكل التى تواجهم فى تلبية متطلبات السائح الروسي وكذلك‬ ‫األدوات المستخدمة فى تسويق الخدمات الفندقية.‬ ‫الفصل الرابع: النتائج والمناقشة‬ ‫فى هذا الفصل تم إ ستعراض وتحليل النتائج التى تم التوصل إليها من الدراسة الميدانية وذلك من خالل‬ ‫إستمارات اإلستقصاء والمقابالت الشخصية. وقد اوضحت مناقشة النتائج األتى:-‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫أغلبية السائحين الروس يفضلون زيارة البحر األحمر كمنطقة وتحديدا شرم الشيخ والغردقة‬ ‫كمقصد سياحى ترفيهى ولألستمتاع علي مدار العام.‬ ‫البحر األحمر والشمس و السعر المناسب من أهم المحفزات للسائح الروسي عند إختيارمنتجعات‬ ‫البحر األحمر.‬ ‫متوسط اقامة السائح الروسى فى منتجعات البحر األحمر من اسبوع إلي اسبوعين.‬ ‫معظم الشرائح العمرية للسائح الروسي ا قل من خمسة وثالثون عاما. واألغلبية تكون زيارتها‬ ‫بصحبة العائلة.‬ ‫نظافة الغرفة وموقعها وخاصة التي تطل علي البحر و قربها من جميع مناطق الخدمات من أهم‬ ‫متطلبات السائح الروسي عند إختيار مكان لإلقامة.‬ ‫كمية الطعام والتنوع فى األصناف تعتبر من أهم المتطلبات الذى يبحث عنها السائح الروسي عند‬ ‫تناول الطعام فى مؤسسات األغذية المختلفة.‬ ‫الضيف الروسي يفضل الفاكهة وكذلك المأكوالت البحرية.‬ ‫562‬
  • 266. ‫‪ ‬خدمات حمامات السباحة باإلضافة الى خدمات الشاطئ وخدمات التدليك و النادي الصحي و‬ ‫كذلك الغطس تعتبر من أهم الخدمات الترفيهية التي يبحث عنها السائح الروسي عند اقامته داخل‬ ‫الفندق.‬ ‫‪ ‬التنورة والرقص الشرقي من أهم العروض الترفيهية التي يفضلها السائح الروسي. كما إنه يعشق‬ ‫الموسيقي بصفة عامة.‬ ‫‪ ‬بعض العمالء الروس ليس لديهم الوعي الكافي بما لهم من خدمات الضيافة وكيفية الحصول علي‬ ‫هذه الخدمات.‬ ‫الفصل الخامس: التوصيات‬ ‫إرتكازا على المراجع التى تم إستعراضها ونتائج البحث الميدانى، تم التوصل إلى مجموعة من التوصيات‬ ‫موجهة إلى مديرى الفنادق لتلبية إحتياج ومتطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة من أجل الوصول‬ ‫إلى رضائهم. فيما يلى شرح ألهم التوصيات:-‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫اإلهتمااام بااالبحوت التسااويقية لتحديااد اإلحتياجااات الفعليااة للعمياال. والدراسااة المسااتمرة إلحتياجااات و‬ ‫توقعات السائح الروسي والعمل علي تلبية هذه اإلحتياجات.‬ ‫تقييم مدي مرونة الفندق في تطوير خدمات الضيافة لتتالئم مع ذوق السائح الروسي.‬ ‫التأكد من معرفة تقييم الضيف للفندق وذلك عن طريق متابعة المواقع األلكترونية المختلفة والتي‬ ‫توضح تقييم الضيف لخدمات الضيافة، تحليل إستمارات أراء الضيوف وتعليقاتهم وتقييمهم لخدمات‬ ‫الضيافة، اإلتصال المباشر بالضيوف وذلك من خالل التواجد مع الضيوف وخاصة في حفالت‬ ‫التعارف وكذلك دعوات الضيوف المعتادي الزيارة، تقارير شركات السياحة.‬ ‫التركيز علي رضاء العمالء من خالل العمل علي تحقيق رغباتهم ومتابعة اإلتجاهات الحديثة للسوق2‬ ‫تسويق وترويج الخدمات الفندقية للسائحين الروس بطرق جيدة ومبتكرة.‬ ‫العمل علي تحويل السائح من عميل إلي شريك وذلك من خالل تحفيزه للعودة مرة أخري وكذلك‬ ‫التسويق للفندق لكل من حوله.‬ ‫التنوع فى األطعمة المقدمة وخاصة فى البوفيهات وتوفير األصناف المفضلة للسائح الروسي وخاصة‬ ‫الفاكهة و الماكوالت البحرية وتقديمها بكميات مناسبة وجودة عالية.‬ ‫اإلهتمام بالب وفيهات خاصة نظافتها بإستمرار وتكميلها واإلهتمام بطريقة العرض علي البوفيهات‬ ‫وإنسيابية الحركة.‬ ‫اإلهتمام باألطفال وخدمات الضيافة المقدمة لهم وخاصة التغذية وخدمات الترفيه.‬ ‫التنوع في الخدمات الترفيهية وخاصة األنشطة الحركية لتلبية إحتياج ومتطلبات السائح الروسي.‬ ‫نشر الوعي لدي العاملين بأ همية اإلبتسامة والودية خاصة أن اإلبتسامة والودية تعتبر من أهم‬ ‫اإلحتياجات لدي الضيف الروسي.‬ ‫توافر خطط لمعالجة مشاكل النزالء في حالة حدوثها وتجنب حدوثها فى المستقبل .‬ ‫يفضل أن تكون غرف النزالء نظيفة وجيدة التهوية بصفة مستمرة و محاولة تلبية رغبات السائح‬ ‫الخاصة بموقع الغرفة .‬ ‫اإلهتمام باجراءت األمن واألمان وذلك لحماية النزالء.‬ ‫التعرف على أراء النزالء بعد تقديم الخدمة لهم للتاكد من أن الخدمة قدمت لهم بالطريقة الصحيحة‬ ‫وحققت كل توقعاتهم.‬ ‫وضااع نظاام عماال داخليااة وخطااط تشااغيل وإسااتكمال كافااة األدوات الالزمااة لدقااة القياااس والمعااايرة‬ ‫للوصول إلي ثبات المنتج.‬ ‫662‬
  • 267. ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫‪‬‬ ‫وضع النظم للتعامل الجيد مع األزمات مثل ( أزمة القرش – عدم اإلستقرار ).‬ ‫مزيد من اإلهتمام بالنواحي الصحية والنظافة2‬ ‫اإللتزام بقواعد السالمة المهنية واألمن الصناعي وتوفير كافة األدوات الالزمة لذلك.‬ ‫وضع إسترتيجية فعالة لتطوير العنصر البشري في كافة النواحي ( اإلختيار - اإلهتمام باألنشطة‬ ‫التحفيزية - وضوح أهداف وخطط المنشأة - التدريب وتوفير األدوات الالزمة للتدريب).‬ ‫اإلهتمام بنشر لجان ألكترونية للتسويق والدعاية لمصر ومكافحة الدعاية المضادة.‬ ‫‪ ‬إسهامات الدراسة‬ ‫قد تساهم نتائج هذه الدارسة فى إضافة مجموعة من اإلسهامات للجانب النظرى والجانب العملى.‬ ‫فيما يتعلق بالجانب النظرى فإنه تم تصميم نموذج نظرى عن تفضيالت السائح الروسي من خدمات‬ ‫الضيافة، والفجوات بين توقعات وإدراك السائح الروسي لخدمات الضيافة في منتجعات البحر األحمر‬ ‫وكذلك الفجوة مابين توقعات السائحين ومدي فهم المديرين لتوقعات السائحين، والعناصر المؤثرة علي‬ ‫رضاء الضيف وكذلك دورة السائح.‬ ‫أما فيما يتعلق باإلسهامات للجانب العملى فإنه تم تصميم نموذج عملى باإلضافة الى مجموعة التوصيات‬ ‫واإلقتراحات لتلبية إحتياجات ومتطلبات السائح الروسي موجهة لمديرى الفنادق من أجل الوصول الى‬ ‫تحقيق رضاء ووالء السائح الروسي وتحقيق أقصي ربحية ممكنة وكذلك وضع سيناريو للتعامل مع زيادة‬ ‫أو إنخفاض معدل السائحين الروس و كذلك إرتفاع وإنخفاض مستوي خدمات الضيافة المقدمة للسائح‬ ‫الروسي.‬ ‫‪ ‬محددات الدراسة وأهم المقترحات البحثية‬ ‫هناك مجموعة من المحددات والمقترحات المستقبلية الخاصة بهذه الدراسة وهى على النحو األتي:-‬ ‫‪ ‬إهتمت هذه الدراسة بمتطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة المقدمة له فى الفنادق. لذلك قد‬ ‫تهتم األبحات المستقبلية بمتطلبات جنسيات أخري من السائحين الذين يزورون مصر كمقصد‬ ‫سياحى من أجل تلبية إحتياجتهم ومتطلباتهم للوصول الى إرضائهم.‬ ‫‪ ‬إهتمت الدراسة بالمسافر الروسي الذين يسافر من أجل غرض الترفية لذلك قد تهتم األبحات‬ ‫المستقبلية بشريحة أخرى من المسافرين مثل المسافرين من أجل العمل.‬ ‫‪ ‬ركزت هذه الدراسة على مقصديين من المقاصد السياحية في البحر األحمر( شرم الشيخ-‬ ‫الغردقة). لذلك قد تهتم األبحات المستقبلية بدارسة متطلبات السائح الروسي من خدمات الضيافة‬ ‫فى مقاصد سياحية أخرى مثل مرسى علم ، القاهرة ، األقصر و أسوان لمعرفة مدى أوجه‬ ‫اإلختالف والتشابه فى اإلحتياجات والمتطلبات.‬ ‫‪ ‬إ هتمت الدراسة بالتعرف على إحتياج المسافر الروسي فى عينة من فنادق األربع والخمس نجوم.‬ ‫لذلك يكون من المفيد أن يتم التعرف على إحتياجهم فى عينة أخرى من الفنادق مثل فنادق الثالت‬ ‫نجوم لمعرفة مدى أوجه اإلختالف والتشابه فى اإلحتياجات والمتطلبات.‬ ‫‪ ‬لم يتم إختبار النموذج العملى الخاص بهذه الدراسة لذا ممكن أن تقوم األبحات المستقبلية بإختبار‬ ‫النموذج العملى للدارسة فى الفنادق.‬ ‫762‬
  • 268. ‫كلية السياحة والفنادق‬ ‫قسم إدارة الفنادق‬ ‫مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع السائح الروسي في منتجعات البحر األحمر‬ ‫رسالة مقدمة من الدارس‬ ‫هانى عاطف قزمال‬ ‫بكالوريوس إدارة الفنادق - ١١١١‬ ‫ماجستير إدارة الفنادق - ٠١١١‬ ‫إستيفاء لمتطلبات الحصول على درجة الدكتوراه في إدارة الفنادق‬ ‫إشراف‬ ‫أ2د/ أحمد نور الدين إلياس‬ ‫األستاذ المتفرغ بقسم إدارة الفنادق‬ ‫كلية السياحة و الفنادق- جامعة حلوان‬ ‫أ2د/ داليا محمد سليمان‬ ‫األستاذ بقسم الدراسات السياحية‬ ‫كلية السياحة و الفنادق- جامعة حلوان‬ ‫۱٠١١‬ ‫862‬