Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management
Hotel Management Department

Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance...
Approval Sheet
Thesis Title: Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the
Russian Guest in the Red Sea Res...
Dedication
I would like to dedicate this work to my dear wife
who has supported me all the way and has been a
great source...
Acknowledgements
I would like to praise and thank ALLAH, the most Gracious, the Greatest and
The Most Merciful who gave us...
Abstract
There is no doubt that tourism represents an important aspect of human activity
not only as one of the fastest gr...
Table of Contents

Approval Sheet

i

Dedication

ii

Acknowledgements

iii

Abstract

iv

Table of Contents

v

List of T...
Table of Contents (Continued )

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordan...
Table of Contents (Continued )

2.3 An Overview of Russian Market
2.3.1 Market Segmentation

39

2.3.2 Russian Market Char...
Table of Contents (Continued)
3.4 Data Analysis

70

3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Scale

71

3.5.1 Validity

71

3....
Table of Contents (continued)
4.10.3 The Russian Guests’ Cycle Model.

170

4.10.4 Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model

173...
Table of Contents (Continued)

Appendix A: Questionnaire Form
Appendix A1 English Version of Questionnaire Form

220

Appe...
List of Tables
Table

Title

Page

Table 1.1 Gaps Details
4
Table 1.2 Tourism Indicators (Tourist - Tourism Nights - Incom...
List of Tables (Continued)
Table 4.8 Expectations versus Perception Concerning the HSs
offered to RGs in the RSRs
Table 4....
List Of Figure
Figure
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.2
Figure 1.3
Figure 2.1
Figure 2.2
Figure 2.3
Figure 2.4
Figure 2.5
Figure 2.6
F...
List of Abbreviations
To achieve the clarification in this study, the following abbreviations are
defined for better under...
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Overview of the Study
Tourism is one of the most remarkable success stories o...
Hospitality industry classified into three main segments which are:
accommodation services, F&B services and leisure and r...
Gap 1 (the positioning gap): Guests’ expectations versus management
perceptions.
“Management does not understand how the S...
guests about the efforts being made to elevate the quality, which
would otherwise not be visible to the guest”, (Moolla et...
Table 1.1: Gaps Details
The Gap Number

Between
First Part

Gap 1

Guest
expectations

Raison
Remarks
Versus

Management
p...
Application of SERVQUAL:
The SERVQUAL model can be used in a many situations evaluating
quality of service such as:
 Allo...
1.2 The Research Importance
Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry overall the world and
it is widely regarde...
16000000
14000000
12000000
10000000

Russian Tourist Number

8000000

Total Tourist Number

6000000
4000000

19.4 %

16.2 ...
Understanding cultural differences and similarities provides destinations
marketers in a host country with strategic polic...
According to the forecast of the United Nation World Tourism
Organization (UNWTO), Russia will hold the tenth position of ...
In addition RATA, (2011) The Russian Association of Travel Agencies
stated a report about the export tourism directions fr...
14000
12000

Egypt

10000

Total tourist departures

8000
6000
4000
2000

11.7%

13%

12.6%

17%

17.4%

0
2006

2007

200...
1.3 The Research Aim and Objectives
The overall aim of this study is matching degree of HSs offered in
accordance to the R...
1.4 The Research Questions
To achieve the main aim and objectives of this study the research investigates
set to answer th...
1.6 Thesis Structure
This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the
Introduction which provides the ba...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accor...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

 Entertainment activities.
 Well-being-related services.
 Family services.
 Technol...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1.2 Hospitality Services Offered in the Resorts
The hospitality industry is built in ...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Types of Resorts
By seasonality:
 All-year round resort.
 Summer resort.
 Warm winte...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

•
•
•
•
•

Syndicate.
Interval/timeshare.
Condo resort.
Vacation club.
Luxury destinati...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Of most of the attractive elements, the most attention given includes
elements relating...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1.3 Accommodation Services in Resorts
The accommodation services are one of the most ...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Chon and Maier (2010) agreed with Dix and Baird (1992) in that the
accommodation plans ...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Other studies have shown that the most frequent factors affecting
consumers' satisfacti...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Outdoor recreation has been broadly defined to include:












Just bei...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

souvenirs, picturesque the RS with a huge number and variety of fish and coral,
the hig...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Table 2.1: Breakdown of Hotels and Tourist Villages Capacity by Governorates
Areas (200...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Hurghada
Hurghada is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt. It is a main tourist
c...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.2 Guest Behaviour, Expectations, Satisfaction and
Loyalty
2.2.1 Guest Behaviour
Cultu...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

News Channels and even some Newspapers is mouthpiece of some social
issues, which helps...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

that tourism consumer choice is primarily purpose or activity driven (Brey et
al., 2008...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Expectations are considered to have a direct influence on satisfaction
levels, without ...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.2.4 Guest Perceptions
The perception can be conceptualized as a feeling developed fro...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.2.5 Guest Satisfaction
Guest satisfaction is a measure of how products or services su...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Resorts need to observe and increase the level of guest satisfaction. The higher
the gu...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

As the main goal of any resort is to establish and maintain long-term guest
loyalty gue...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.2.7 Discrepancy between The guests’ expectations and
Perceptions
The good service com...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

the final gap that exists when there is a difference between guests' expectations
of a ...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3 An Overview of Russian Market
2.3.1. Market Segmentation
Walker (2006) defined that...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3.2. Russian Market Characteristics
Propensity to take holidays abroad in Russia is s...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Table 2.2: Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet Users
Country or Region...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of
Users in Milions
600
51...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3.3. Russian Tourism Demand in Egypt
Russian tourism demand in Egypt is high accordin...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Tourist numbers
2500000
2000000
1500000
1000000
500000
0
2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Russian Federation Compared to All the Regions
140000000
120000000
100000000
Russian Fe...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Egyptian Tourism Federation (ETF), (2011) reported that the Tourist arrival
from all th...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) report the tourism indicators (the
primary ten markets...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
16000000
14000000
12000000
10000000
8000000

Number of Tourists 2010

6000000

Number of...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Total Number of Tourism Nights

17%

Total Tourism Nights
Russian Tourism Nights

Figur...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

committee held 8 rounds under the chairmanship of the Ministers of trade and
Industry i...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Moreover, Russia is the largest country of the world. With its area
amounting to 17 mil...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.3.5.2 General Information about Russia
Table 2.8: General Information about Russia
Ge...
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Table 2.8: Continued
Ethnic groups

Religions

Languages
Literacy

Country name

Governm...
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي

4,587 views
4,435 views

Published on

رساله دكتوراه في مجال ادارة الفنادق
بعنوان
مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي في منتجعات البحر الاحمر

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,587
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
14
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

مدي توافق خدمات الضيافة مع احتياجات العميل الروسي

  1. 1. Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management Hotel Management Department Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest in the Red Sea Resorts Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Hotel Management By Hany Atef Kouzmal B.Sc., Hotel Management, 2000 M.Sc., Hotel Management, 2009 Under the Supervision of Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nour El-Din Elias Professor, Hotel Management Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Prof. Dr. Dalia Mohammed Soliman Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University 2013 1
  2. 2. Approval Sheet Thesis Title: Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest in the Red Sea Resorts Name: Hany Atef Kouzmal This thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Hotel Management Department has been Approved by: Prof. Dr. Ahmed Nour El-Din Elias Professor, Hotel Management Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Prof. Dr. Dalia Mohammed Soliman Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University Committee in Charge Degree Conferred / / 2013 2
  3. 3. Dedication I would like to dedicate this work to my dear wife who has supported me all the way and has been a great source of motivation with my deep love. 3
  4. 4. Acknowledgements I would like to praise and thank ALLAH, the most Gracious, the Greatest and The Most Merciful who gave us the ability to complete this work. I would sincerely like to express my utmost gratitude to many people, without whom this thesis would not have been possible to achieve. In particular, I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor Professor. Ahmed Nour EL-Din Elias, Ex. Dean, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for his outstanding help and supervision throughout the research, also for his patience, professional guidance, endless support and valuable input continuing during this journey. I am very grateful to him, for giving me a lot of his time, support and unlimited assistance. I would like also to gratefully thank Professor. Dalia Mohammed Soliman, Professor, Tourism Studies Department Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for her cooperation and sympathy, also her encouragement and kind remarks will always be remembered. Her directions were a valuable guide in accomplishing this study. I sincerely appreciate her efforts and patience over all the stages of the study. I would like to thank DR. Sameh Gamal Saad, Lecturer; Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management, Helwan University for his outstanding help and support throughout the research. I would like to express a lot of thanks to all Faculty of Tourism and Hotel Management team, Helwan University for their wonderful help and support throughout the research. Sincere appreciation also goes to the managers of the investigated hotels and travel agents for their support. They were so helpful during the field study, and to my colleagues who contributed a lot of their time to this research. Finally, I am deeply indebted to my parents and my dear wife to whom I dedicate this work. They gave much of their time and efforts to facilitate for me preparing this thesis for me words cannot give them their due. 4
  5. 5. Abstract There is no doubt that tourism represents an important aspect of human activity not only as one of the fastest growing sectors, but also because it has become an important component of the economic structure of large number of countries. The hospitality and tourism industry is the largest and fastest growing industry in the world. One of the most exciting aspects of this industry is that it is made up of so many different professions. Tourism means the business of providing services such as transportation, accommodation, food and beverage services, and entertainment for people who move from one location to another to change the routine of everyday life. This research aims to study the Russian market requirements for hospitality services which a view to increasing the Russian guest satisfaction and increasing the number of Russian travellers to Egypt. The literature review covers three main points, the first of which is how far the hospitality services appeal to the Russian guest. The second part focuses on trying to understand guest perception, satisfaction and loyalty. The third part focuses on trying to understand Russian guests' characteristics and needs. The field study is accomplished through survey and self- administered questionnaire, which includes some attributes that may influence guests’ choices and Russian guest expectations and perceptions regarding hospitality services in the Red Sea. The results show the characteristics of Russian guests, as well as their needs and requirements, and Russian guest expectations and perceptions concerning hospitality services. A major contribution of this study is the development of models for resort managers to better meet the Russian needs and requirements in regard to hospitality services in order to achieve and exceed guest satisfaction and profitability. 5
  6. 6. Table of Contents Approval Sheet i Dedication ii Acknowledgements iii Abstract iv Table of Contents v List of Tables xi List of Figures xiii List of Abbreviations xiv CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview of the Study 1 1.2 The Research Importance 6 1.3 The Research Aim and Objectives 12 1.4 The Research Questions 13 1.5 The Research Limitation 13 1.6 Thesis Structure 14 Continued 6
  7. 7. Table of Contents (Continued ) CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest 2.1.1 Requirements of Russian Guest in Terms of Hospitality 15 Services 2.1.2 Hospitality Services Offered in the Resorts 17 2.1.3 Accommodation Services in Resorts 22 2.1.4 Food and Beverages Services in Resorts 23 2.1.5 Recreational Services in Resorts 24 2.1.6 Hospitality Services Delivered in the Red Sea Resorts 25 2.2 Guest Behaviour, Expectations, Satisfaction and Loyalty 2.2.1 Guest Behaviour 28 2.2.2 Guest Requirements 30 2.2.3 Guest Expectations 31 2.2.4 Guest Perception 33 2.2.5 Guest Satisfaction 34 2.2.6 Guest Loyalty 35 2.2.7 Discrepancy between Guest Expectations and Perceptions 37 2.2.8 Relation between Guest Satisfaction and Loyalty 38 Continued 7
  8. 8. Table of Contents (Continued ) 2.3 An Overview of Russian Market 2.3.1 Market Segmentation 39 2.3.2 Russian Market Characteristics 40 2.3.3 Russian Tourism Demand in Egypt 43 2.3.4 The Relations between Egypt and Russia 49 2.3.5 Russian Guests' Characteristics and Requirements 50 2.3.5.1 The Geography of Russia 52 2.3.5.2 General Information about Russia 54 2.3.5.3 Russian Characteristics 54 2.3.5.4 Russian Famous Souvenirs 55 2.3.5.5 Russian Famous Regional Food and beverages 57 2.3.6 Types of Tourism in Russia 59 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Method 3.1.1 Secondary Data 60 3.1.2 Primary Data and Research Instrument 61 3.1.2.1. Survey Study 62 3.1.2.2 Questionnaire Pre-testing 62 3.1.2.3 Questionnaire Design 62 3.1.2.4 Semi-structured Interviews 64 3.1.2.5 Interviews Design 65 3.2 Research Population and Sampling Techniques 66 3.3 Pilot Study 69 Continued 8
  9. 9. Table of Contents (Continued) 3.4 Data Analysis 70 3.5 Validity and Reliability of the Scale 71 3.5.1 Validity 71 3.5.2 Reliability 72 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 The Survey Study Results 75 4.2 Descriptive Analysis of Questionnaire 78 4.3 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance to the 107 Russian Guests Expectations in the Red Sea Resorts 4.4 Ranking Hospitality Services in Accordance to the 111 Russian Guest’s Perception in the Red Sea Resorts 4.5 Comparison between Five and Four Star Resorts 115 4.6 Semi-Structured Interviews 125 4.7 Ranking Hospitality Services in regard to the Managers’ 150 Perception of Guests’ Expectations Regarding Hospitality Services 4.8 Analyses Gaps One and Five 154 4.9 General Findings 158 4.10 The Process of Developing Models 164 4.10.1 The Russian Guests’ Preferences from the Hospitality 165 Services Model. 4.10.2 A Model of the Hospitality Gaps 168 Continued 9
  10. 10. Table of Contents (continued) 4.10.3 The Russian Guests’ Cycle Model. 170 4.10.4 Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model 173 4.10.5 A Good Practice Model for Resort Managers to Enhance 178 the Russian Guest’s Satisfaction and Profitability 4.10.6 Setting a Strategy for the Russian Tourism Flow versus 182 Hospitality Services Changeable Positions Model 4.11 Summary 186 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 Review of Study Aims 187 5.2 Recommendations 189 5.3 Recommendations for Further Researches 198 5.4. Personal Reflections 199 REFERENCES 200 APPENDICES Continued 10
  11. 11. Table of Contents (Continued) Appendix A: Questionnaire Form Appendix A1 English Version of Questionnaire Form 220 Appendix A2 Russian Version of Questionnaire Form 225 Appendix B: Interview Form 230 Appendix C: Database 235 ARABIC SUMMARY 11
  12. 12. List of Tables Table Title Page Table 1.1 Gaps Details 4 Table 1.2 Tourism Indicators (Tourist - Tourism Nights - Income) 6 for the (Year 2010) Compared with (2009) Table 1.3 Primary Ten Markets for Incoming Tourism to Egypt 9 through the Year of (2007) Compared with (2008) Table 1.4 The Russian Association of Travel Agencies Report the 10 Export Tourism Directions from 2006 to 2010 Table 2.1 Breakdown of Hotels and Tourist Villages Capacity By 27 Governorates Areas (2009) Table 2.2 Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet 41 Users Table 2.3 Russian Federation Tourist Arrival to Egypt and Tourism 43 Night during the Period (2002-2009) Table 2.4 Tourism Nights for All the Regions during the Period 44 from (2006 to 2009) Table 2.5 Tourist Numbers from All the Regions during (2006 to 46 2009) Table 2.6 Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Number of 47 Tourists (2010) Table 2.7 Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Tourism Nights 48 (2010) Table 2.8 General Information about Russia 52 Table 2.9 Russian Famous Souvenirs 55 Table 2.10 Russian Famous Regional F&Bs 57 Table 3.1 A Summary of the Research Samples 68 Table 4.1 The Investigated Resorts 76 Table 4.2 Number of Guest Questionnaire forms Distributed to 80 Each Resort in the Investigated Destinations Table 4.3 The RG Preferences to Visit the RS 83 Table 4.4 Guest Preferences Regarding Food Kinds 84 Table 4.5 Guest Preferences Regarding Types of Cuisine 85 Table 4.6 Guest Preferences Regarding Kinds of Beverages 86 Table 4.7 Guest preferences regarding Kinds of Entertainment 87 Shows Continued 12
  13. 13. List of Tables (Continued) Table 4.8 Expectations versus Perception Concerning the HSs offered to RGs in the RSRs Table 4.9 Guest Perception Table 4.10 Respondent’s Demographic Data Analysis Table 4.11 Ranking HSs in Accordance to the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs 91 102 103 108 Table 4.12 Ranking HSs in Accordance to the RG Perception in the RSRs 112 Table 4.13 A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between The Four and Five Star Resorts in Terms Of Guest Expectations Regarding HSs 115 Table 4.14 A Summary of the Mann-Whitney U Test Between The Five and Four Star Resorts in Terms of Guest Perception Regarding HSs 120 Table 4.15 Guest Expectations versus Management Perceptions in Regards of HSs 135 Table 4.16 Ranking HSs in Reference to Managers’ Perception of the RG’s Expectations in the RSRs 151 Table 4.17 Gaps one the Positioning Gap and Gap five the Perception Gap 155 Table 4.18 The RG Preferences Model Table 4.19 A Model of the Hospitality Gaps (Gap one: the Positioning Gap and Gap Five: the Perception Gap) 166 168 Table 4.20 The RG’s Cycle Model Table 4.21 The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Table 4.22 A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance the RG’s Satisfaction and Profitability 171 175 180 Table 4.23 Application of Strategies in the Russian Tourism Changeable Market Compared to HSs Changeable Situations. 185 13
  14. 14. List Of Figure Figure Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 3.1 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 5.1 Title Tourist Number for the Year 2010 Compared with (2009) Tourism Nights for the Year 2010 Compared with (2009) Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourist Capacity of the RS and South Sinai Average from the Total of the Hotels and Tourist Villages’ Capacity (2009) Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Millions Russian Federation Tourism Nights to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Russian Federation Tourist Arrive to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Ttourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009) Tourist Number from Russia Compared to All the Regions During ( 6002to 2009) Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists (2010) Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights (2010) Map of Russia Primary Data The RG,s Preferences The RG’s Cycle Model The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model The Guests’ Satisfaction Harmony Model Applications A Good Practice Model for Resorts Managers to Enhance RG's Satisfaction and Profitability The Summary of the Theoretical and Practical Objectives 14 Page 7 7 11 27 42 43 44 45 46 48 49 51 61 89 172 176 177 181 188
  15. 15. List of Abbreviations To achieve the clarification in this study, the following abbreviations are defined for better understanding. These abbreviations are as follows: AI ATOR B&Bs CIA CDWS CTE ECTC ECTE EHA ETAA ETF FB F&B GCCs HB HSs ISO MFA RATA RG RS RSRs RT SERVQUAL SIS SPSS TV UK UNWTO USA USSR UWIC WEB All-Inclusive Daily travel and tourism news portal for the international travel trade market since 1999 Bed And Breakfast Central Intelligence Agency Chamber of Diving and Water Sports Chamber of Tourism Establishments Egyptian Chamber of Tourists Commodities Egyptian Chamber of Tourist Establishments Egyptian Hotel Association Egyptian Travel Agents Association Egyptian Tourism Federation Full Board Food and Beverage Guest Comment Cards Half Board Hospitality Services International Organization for Standardization Ministry of Forign Affairs Russian Association of Travel Agencies Russian guest Red Sea Red Sea Resorts Russia Today Service Quality (A Multiple Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality) Egyptian State Information Service Statistical Package for Social Sciences Television United Kingdom United Nation World Tourism Organization United States of America Union of Soviet Socialist Republics University of Wales Institute, Cardiff An Evaluation of the World Wide Web 15
  16. 16. CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background and Overview of the Study Tourism is one of the most remarkable success stories of modern times. The industry, which began on a massive scale only in the 1960s, has grown rapidly and steadily for the past 30 years in terms of the income it generates and the number of people who travel abroad (William, 2005). Tourism has become an integral component of lifestyle and it has also become a major component of the economic success of almost all countries (Kandampully, 2000). Meanwhile, Weaver and Lawton (2006) argued that tourism is most often associated with people who are on holiday. Also, it is considered as one of the leisure activity forms that take place away from home and place of work. The Russian market is assuming to play a vital role in the Egyptian tourism industry. Dittmer and Griffin (1997) stated that the word of hospitality is derived from the Latin word hospitare, meaning to “receive as a guest”. Several related words came from the same source, including hospital, hospice, and hostel. In each of these terms, the principal meaning focuses on a host who receives, welcomes, and caters to the requirements of people who are temporarily away from their homes. These requirements of a guest have been food, beverage, and lodging. Moreover, the hospitality industry is made up of two different services as pointed out by Jones (2002) these services are overnight accommodation for people staying away from home and sustenance for people eating away from home. Both of these services meet very basic guest needs and requirements which are the need to sleep and to eat as well. While Abraham (2009) stated that the hospitality industry is an industry that is made up of businesses that provide accommodation, F&B and meetings to tourists. Moreover Brey (2009) reported that a full-service lodging facility provides access to or offers a range of amenities and recreation facilities to emphasize a leisure experience. Resorts serve as the primary provider of the guests’ experience, often provide services for business or meetings, and are characteristically located in vacation-oriented settings. In addition, Powers and Barrows (2006) added that the hospitality industry today has been recognized as a universal industry; with procedures and guests spread over most of world. 16
  17. 17. Hospitality industry classified into three main segments which are: accommodation services, F&B services and leisure and recreation activities. Williams (2006) pointed that the tourism and hospitality industry has become a major economic activity through the use of leisure time. The importance of tourism to the hospitality industry is clear. This is because some parts of the industry such as resorts receive almost all of their sales from guests (Powers and Barrows, 2006). Moreover Abraham (2009) stated that the tourism and hospitality business are neither identical nor interchangeable. While tourism is comprised of many goods and services that are produced by hospitality enterprises, these hospitality businesses also provide goods and services to non tourists (local residents and non-tourist travellers) as well. Parasuraman et al. (1985) stated that service quality is a function of prepurchase guest expectations, perceived process quality and perceived output quality. SERVQUAL is a service quality measurement model that has been extensively applied. The SERVQUAL model was developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985). Wisniewski (2001) argue that, with minor modification, SERVQUAL can be adapted to any service organization, and that information on service quality gaps can help administrators to make a judgment where performance development can be targeted. Zeithaml, Berry and Parasuraman (1993) in Mehta, Lobo and Khong (2002) propose that a “gap” known as the zone of tolerance exists between desired and adequate service, and is subjected to changes by factors affecting both desired and adequate service expectations (Parasuraman et al., 1988, 1991). Moolla et al. (2001) argues that satisfaction is related to a service encounter, whereas service quality relates to the superiority of service. This gap is as a measure of service quality rather than a measure of satisfaction on the basis of the nature of expectations included and the timing involved. The SERVQUAL model as stated by Parasuraman et al. (1985) identifies main five gaps related to managerial perceptions of service quality and tasks related to service delivery to customers. Four of these gaps (Gap 1, Gap 2, Gap 3, and Gap 4) are focused on the way in which service is delivered; while, Gap 5 is related to the guests’ expectations against perceptions (Table 1.1). The following paragraphs explain each gap in details as follows: 17
  18. 18. Gap 1 (the positioning gap): Guests’ expectations versus management perceptions. “Management does not understand how the Service should be designed and what support or secondary services the guest requires, i.e. what the right quality for the guest is”, (Moolla and du Plessis, 2001:3). This gap is the result of lack of a marketing research and poor communication (Shahin, 2004). Gap 2 (the specification gap): Management perceptions versus service specification. “Often in an attempt to reduce costs, management places internal restrictions on how a service is to be performed, restrictions which deprive the staff of the opportunity to meet the guest’s expectations”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). This gap is the result of the poor service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, inadequate task standardisation as well as an absence of goal setting (Shahin, 2004). Gap 3 (the delivery gap): Service specification versus service delivery. “Even if the quality of service is carefully specified in a company, the result in practice may be different from what was intended. Service quality is difficult to standardize since it is often dependent on personal contact between the guest and company staff”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). The reason for this gap is the result of the role of uncertainty and conflict; poor employee level and poor technology; unsuitable administrative control system; lack of control and lack of teamwork (Shahin, 2004). Gap 4 (the communication gap): Service delivery versus external communication. “It is important not to promise the guest more than the company can deliver. At the same time, it is important for the company to inform 18
  19. 19. guests about the efforts being made to elevate the quality, which would otherwise not be visible to the guest”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). This is because of poor level of communications and prop overpromise (Shahin, 2004). Another reason for this gap is when the promises do not match the guests’ expectations (Douglas and Connor, 2003). Gap 5 (the perception gap): The discrepancy between the guests’ expectations and their perceptions of the service delivered. “This is the most crucial gap. This gap is a function of other gaps: i.e. Gap 5 = f (gaps 1, 2, 3, and 4). It is this gap that Parasuraman et al. (1985) seek to measure using the SERVQUAL instrument”, (Moolla et al., 2001:3). As a result of the influences exerted from the guest side and the gaps on the part of the service provider. In this case, the guests’ expectations are influenced by (1) Personal requirements, (2) word of mouth recommendation and (3) past service experiences (Shahin, 2004). 19
  20. 20. Table 1.1: Gaps Details The Gap Number Between First Part Gap 1 Guest expectations Raison Remarks Versus Management perceptions lack of a marketing research orientation; poor communication and too many level of management Positioning Gap Gap 2 Specification Gap Gap 3 Management perceptions Service specification Service specification Service delivery Delivery Gap Gap 4 Service delivery External communication Communication Gap Gap 5 Perception Gap Guest expectations of the service delivered Guest perceptions of the service delivered poor commitment to service quality, a perception of unfeasibility, poor task standardisation and absence goal This gap is the result of the role of ambiguity and conflict; poor employee and poor technology; unsuitable supervisory control system; lack of control and lack of teamwork. Poor level of communications and overpromise. Another reason for this gap is when the promises communicated by the business to guests do not match the guests’ expectations. As a result of the influences exerted from the guest side and the gaps on the part of the service provider. In this case, the guests’ expectations are influenced by the extent of personal requirements, word of mouth advice and past service experiences. Adapted from Douglas and Connor. (2003) and Shahin. (2004). 20
  21. 21. Application of SERVQUAL: The SERVQUAL model can be used in a many situations evaluating quality of service such as:  Allowing the service manager to assess current service quality and quantify gaps that exists. (Wisniewski, 2001a).  Understanding of the broad areas where guests have particularly high or low expectations and an assessment of where there may be relatively large gaps (Wisniewski, 2001a).  Allowing focus on particular problem areas through a breakdown of a dimension into its constituent statements (Wisniewski, 2001 a).  Comparing different guest groups, where guests will have varying requirements and who do not use services in exactly the same way (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Comparing different parts of the same service on a geographical basis (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Comparing different parts of the service: Gap analysis also allows comparisons to be made across different parts of the same service on a geographical basis, so that comparison of expectations of guests within each area becomes possible; so does the classification of similar, or different, service quality gaps across areas, (Wisniewski, 2001b).  Measuring the gap between expected service levels and perceived service levels as an ultimate solution “to better measure service quality rather than performance” (Kolb, 2005: 1). In this study, gaps model will be used to determine the relationship between Russian guest (RG) requirements and hospitality services (HSs) offered in the Red Sea resorts (RSRs) through discrepancy between guests’ expectations versus management perceptions and the discrepancy between the guests’ expectations and their perception of the service in order to meet guest requirements and to achieve guest satisfaction as well. This chapter briefly reflects the study in sections from the background and overview of the study to research problem, aim, objectives, limitation, and finally thesis structure. 21
  22. 22. 1.2 The Research Importance Tourism is the largest and fastest growing industry overall the world and it is widely regarded as a growth vehicle which able to generate more income as international tourism becomes a global trend and its volume increases rapidly, tourism industry occupies an advanced rank on the international level among the important income-generating industries and will remain so in the future because of its great economic importance in the balance of payments for different countries , the increase of foreign exchange earnings as well as providing job opportunities in different fields (Theobald, 2004, *Ayman Munir, 2007, and *Ezat, 2009 ). Moreover (Table 1.2) the * the ministry of Tourism (2010d) stated a report of the tourism indicators (Tourist – Tourism nights – Income) for the year 2010 Compared with 2009 (see Figure 1.1, and 1.2). Table 1.2: The Tourism Indicators (Tourist – Tourism Nights – Income) for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Tourism Indicator 2010 2009 Deference Deference % Russian Tourist Number 2855723 2035330 820393 40.3% Total Tourist Number 14730813 12535885 2194928 17.5% 19.4 % 16.2 % Russian Nights 25037045 17917730 7119315 39.7% Tourism Nights 147385089 126533535 20851554 16.5% 17 % 14.2 % Percentage from the Total (%) Percentage from the Total (%) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) ________________________ * In Arabic 22
  23. 23. 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 Russian Tourist Number 8000000 Total Tourist Number 6000000 4000000 19.4 % 16.2 % Linear (Russian Tourist Number) 2000000 0 Tourist Number (2009) Tourist Number (2010) Figure 1.1: Tourist Number for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 160000000 140000000 120000000 100000000 80000000 Russian Nights 60000000 Total Tourism Nights 40000000 20000000 14.2 % Linear (Total Tourism Nights) 17 % 0 Tourism Nights (2009) Tourism Nights (2010) Figure 1.2: Tourist Nights for the Year (2010) Compared with (2009) Adopted from *The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 23
  24. 24. Understanding cultural differences and similarities provides destinations marketers in a host country with strategic policies upon which any planning and marketing efforts should be grounded. Moreover the tourism destinations itself is a core part of the tourism product, and each destination possessed an image that differentiates it from others. Diverse literature on travel behaviour research has supported the proposition that the destination image plays a significant role in travellers’ destination behaviour (Lee and Lee, 2009). Understanding the different segments of guests and their behavior may be especially important because some market segments are stronger destination advocates than others and some travel segments are more influenced by word of mouth than others (Pritchard et al. 1998; Penny and Judy 2008). For that the research will be focused on the Russian market. Wei-Chia (2003) stated that operations have to recognize and understand the requirements of the guests in order to survive. In terms of the importance of leisure as one of the major RG purposes today, Lee and Tideswell (2005) declared that leisure and recreation have a positive influence on the lives of the majority of people and in particular their satisfaction with life. They also added that the interests and desires of the majority of people are satisfied today through leisure and recreation activities. Moreover each culture contains smaller subculture groups of people with shared value systems based on common experiences and situation. People within a given level tend to present the similar behaviour, including buying behaviour (Kotler, 2001; Wei-Chia, 2003). This means that the hospitality providers should meet the requirements of this segment of the RG in order to achieve their satisfaction. Therefore, the researcher will be focused in this study on the RG requirements and satisfactions. To achieve the aim of this study which is matching degree of HSs offered in accordance to the RG requirements in the RSRs. 24
  25. 25. According to the forecast of the United Nation World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), Russia will hold the tenth position of the major exporting country of tourism (about 30 million guests) in year 2020. The Russian market is assuming to play a vital role in the Egyptian tourism industry. There is increase from eleven thousand visitors in the 1990 up to one and half million visitors in the 2007 to hold the first destination for the tourism in Egypt by 11% of total imported tourism to Egypt (*The ministry of Tourism, 2007). Moreover (Table 1.3) The ministry of Tourism stated a report of the primary ten markets for incoming tourism to Egypt through the year of 2007 compared with 2008. Table 1.3: Primary Ten Markets for Incoming Tourism to Egypt through the Year of (2007) Compared with (2008 ) 2007 2008 Country Number of % Country Number of NO. tourists tourists 1. Russia 1,516,561 2. 3. Germany United Kingdom 1,085,930 1,055,012 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Italy France Libya Saudi Arabia Ukraine Poland The United States Total The Primary Ten Markets Total Incoming Tourism Percentage of Russia from Total Incoming Tourism 21.9% Russia % 6,923,478 22.3% 15.7% Germany 1,202,509 15.2% United 1,201,859 Kingdom 14.2% Italy 1,073,159 6.7% Poland 598,928 6.3% France 586,861 6.0% Ukraine 506,453 5.2% Libya 481,548 4.8% Saudi Arabia 402,287 3.9% The United 319,112 States 100% 8,198,028 983,293 464,239 439,469 412,466 358,969 335,016 272,523 1,825,312 14.7 % 14.7 % 11,090,863 12,835,351 13.7% 14.2% Adapted from * The ministry of Tourism, (2009). __________________ * In Arabic 25 13.1 % 7.3 % 7.2 % 6.2 % 5.9 % 4.9 % 3.9 % 100%
  26. 26. In addition RATA, (2011) The Russian Association of Travel Agencies stated a report about the export tourism directions from (2006 to 2010) pointed out that Egypt is the second destination for the RG through the period 2006 to 2010 and shows that there is a continued growth in the export tourism from Russia to Egypt achieve 2198.3 guest in year 2010 with a percentage of 17.4% from total export tourism (Table 1.4 and Figure 1.3). Table 1.4: The Russian Association of Travel Agencies Report about the Export Tourism Directions from (2006 to 2010) NO Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 1. Turkey 1475.6 1923.4 2212.8 1966.7 2. 1255.4 1426.7 Egypt 902.8 3. China 4. Finland 5. Germany 6. Thailand 7. Italy 8. Spain 9. Greece 10. UAE 11. Czech Republic 12. Bulgaria 13. Cyprus 14. France 15. Ukraine 16. Israel 17. Tunisia 18. Montenegro 19. Austria 20. Switzerland Total Tourist Departures 1307 562.6 225.7 144.8 245.8 246.1 198.8 173.9 136.2 148.3 113.1 138.6 511.7 23.7 93.0 65.8 53.4 44.4 7752.8 1651.7 2059.3 657.1 666.9 231.3 330.3 232.2 258.8 334.1 398.1 318.6 365.4 244 349.2 207.2 228.1 178 227.0 173.1 207.5 150.5 172.4 170.7 229.2 249.1 309.8 45.3 98.7 129.7 149.0 66.5 84.6 767 102.1 57.6 83.0 9369.0 11313.7 999.2 1440.4 556.3 709.0 363.3 470.7 233.1 464.8 336.1 451.5 296.3 411.4 282.3 386.7 214.3 286.9 213.9 267.5 207.4 263.2 155.1 234.3 200.1 222.7 219.5 205.4 134.7 184.8 123.2 180.1 108.1 143.3 96.6 135.5 106.4 123.3 9555.2 12605.0 The Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourism 11.7% 13% 17% 12.6% 1615.4 2010 2367.6 Adopted from the Russian Association of Travel Agencies (RATA), (2011). 26 2198.3 17.4%
  27. 27. 14000 12000 Egypt 10000 Total tourist departures 8000 6000 4000 2000 11.7% 13% 12.6% 17% 17.4% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Figure 1.3: Percentage of Export Tourism to Egypt from Total Tourist Adopted from (RATA) the Russian Association of Travel Agencies, (2011) The top three in absolute numbers didn’t change at all – Turkey, Egypt and China. After 2011 Egypt is likely to fall back sacrificing the growing tourist inflow from Russia to the revolution. Just a few steps were keeping Egypt from taking over Turkey’s first place. Both countries put on, but Egypt added 36% (17th place in terms of growth rate), while Turkey added only 20.4% (36 th place). Here are some other interesting figures: comparing to successful 2008 Turkey showed 7% increase in 2010, Egypt – 36%. As a result Egypt almost caught up with Turkey, losing a bit more than one hundred and sixty nine thousand. Compare these figures: in 2008 the difference between the numbers of arrivals from Russia was more than seven hundred and eighty six thousand, in 2009 –three hundred and fifty one thousand. The total number of departures from Russia for various purposes was 39,323,000 – 14% more compared to 2009 (RATA, 2011). 27
  28. 28. 1.3 The Research Aim and Objectives The overall aim of this study is matching degree of HSs offered in accordance to the RG requirements in the RSRs, to develop suggested practice models in order to increase the RG satisfaction and maximizing profitability. This aim will be achieved through the following objectives: 1) Undertake a critical literature review on matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG, and studding the RG behaviour, expectations, satisfaction and loyalty, as well as Russian market overview. 2) Assess the magnitude of the RG in the Red Sea (RS) destinations through Survey study for a sample of the RSRs to find out the percentage of RG and the size of Russian market segment as well as to find out which meal plan applies the most to the RG. 3) Investigate guest preferences, expectations, and perceptions regarding HSs offered in a sample of five and four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh, and Hurghada. 4) Investigate managers’ perceptions towards the RG expectations regarding HSs in a sample of five and four star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh, and Hurghada. 5) Developing suggested practice models regarding of the RG preferences from HSs, the hospitality gaps, the RG cycle, and for the resort managers regarding the RG preferences and requirements from HSs in order to increase the RG satisfaction. 6) Develop a set of recommendations to improve internal and external guest satisfaction and maximizing the profit. 28
  29. 29. 1.4 The Research Questions To achieve the main aim and objectives of this study the research investigates set to answer these questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What are the RG behaviour and attitude? What are the affective factors in the RSRs that attract the RG? What are the RG requirements from HSs? What are the perceptions of the hospitality managers in terms of the requirements of RG from HSs? What is the matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG in the RSRs? What is the level of satisfaction of the RG toward HSs offered in the RSRs? How the resort managers meet the requirements of RG? What are the strategies to achieve the RG satisfaction and maximize the Russian market share in Egypt? 1.5 The Research Limitation The study originates matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG. Indubitably, it was difficult to assess most of the RSRs due to, costs, time involved, and the accessibility to these resorts. For these reasons, the ones which were investigated at were limited to forty samples from Sharm El Sheikh Resorts, as well as forty from the famous Hurgada Resorts. The research was inspected at the ministry of Tourism and Russian Impasse to collect historical data about the RG. 29
  30. 30. 1.6 Thesis Structure This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the Introduction which provides the basic framework of the study. Its components include: an overview of the study, the research importance, the research aim and objectives, the research questions, research limitation, and the structure of the study. The second chapter is entitled “The literature review”, which provides a theoretical framework of the study. It includes matching degree of HSs in accordance to the RG, guest perception, satisfaction and loyalty, Russian market. The third chapter is concerned with study methodology. It illustrates the instrument used to achieve the research aims, the population and sample size, as well as the methods used to analyze the collected data. The fourth chapter includes the results and discussions of questionnaire and the semi-structured interviews in order to identify the RGs’ requirements for HSs in a sample of four and five star resorts in Sharm El Sheikh and Hurgada. Moreover, it provides a descriptive analysis of the questionnaire by using weighted average, gap analysis and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. The chapter ends with developing models for resort managers in order to better meet the RGs’ requirements and requirements to increase the RG satisfaction and maximize the profit for HSs in Egypt. The fifth chapter is entitled conclusion, summary, and recommendations. It provides the recommendations of the study based on the guests’ and managers’ perspectives regarding HSs. 30
  31. 31. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Matching Degree of Hospitality Services in Accordance to the Russian Guest 2.1.1 Requirements of Russian Guest in Terms of Hospitality Services Lewis (1985) noted that quality, security and image were perceived as important factors in affecting accommodation choice. Leisure guests were more concerned with quietness, service quality and location. Moreover, Knutson (1988) suggested some consistent criteria apply across different classes of resorts, such as cleanliness, location, and a safe as well as secure environment. Simon (2004) stated that there is an increase in family travel. Now children are travelling with their parents more than ever. Visiting a resort for a family vacation is certainly appropriate. There is also travel with grandparents, parents, and children all vacationing together. Resorts need to be equipped to serve all markets. Guest Requirements Elements are:  Ambiance or resort feel.  Lodging features/amenities.  Guest service quality.  Cost of stay given value.  Property condition/physical characteristics.  Resort information accuracy.  Resort’s reputation.  Geographic location.  F&B services.  Surrounding community.  Outdoor recreation.  Indoor recreation  Having diverse activities or options for everyone. 31
  32. 32. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Entertainment activities.  Well-being-related services.  Family services.  Technology availability.  Business services. While all together provide an insight into the importance positioned on other secondary resort elements such as shopping outlets, guest service personnel, and information technology resources (Fallon and Schofield , 2003; Brey et al ., 2008 ). The RG Requirements 1. Many Russians prefer to spend their leisure time in exercise sports such as football games, which have a large audience as well as ice hockey, tennis, skiing, and golf. 2. Russians love and enjoy television (TV) channels especially the first and second Russian national channels have high watching rate. 3. There is also a national mania by cinema, where the citizens attend the cinema in large numbers. 4. The Russians also like reading as it was noted that the average Russian read books three times as much as the Americans (Michell, 1998, and *Elias, 2002). Russian cuisine is one of the most popular and widely spread in the world. Russian cuisine is healthy, delicious and taste beautiful. Russian dishes are easy to cook and they do not demand much skill and special ingredients, they do not need exotic equipment and tool and everybody who knows how to hold a cooking knife and how to peel potatoes can cook most delicious Russian dishes such as Plemeni, Borcht, and Russian salad, and from dessert ice cream (*Elias, 2002, and Russian crafts, 6006). ___________________ *In Arabic 32
  33. 33. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1.2 Hospitality Services Offered in the Resorts The hospitality industry is built in the relationship between hosts and guests, which has existed since the first human societies. The relationship is defined in terms of honour and respect. It is an honour for someone to visit you. Moreover, as a good host, you treat your guest with respect and offer him comfort, security and entertainment (Clarke and Chen, 2007). Powers (1995) defined resorts as a destinations property which invites a guest to spend a week or more and provides the wide leisure facilities a vacationer expects. Some destinations resorts offer a mix of activities suited to the sports enthusiast. Moreover, Powers and Barrows (2003) stated those resorts are resorts located in a pleasing location and have 200 to 500 guest rooms. Resorts provide a wideranging selection of recreational services, depending on the geographical location. A variety of F&B outlets are available, ranging from casual to finedining restaurants. Many resorts are located in remote locations. Moreover, Dharmaraj (2004) added that the resort provide special services to the visitors. The type of services and amenities in the resort property include recreation facilities such as a swimming pool, a golf course, tennis courts, skiing, boating, surf riding and other indoor sports. The other important amenities like coffee shops, restaurants, conference rooms, lounge, shopping arcade and entertainment. Factors that Attract Resort Guests Ninemeier and Perdue (2005) explained that guests who utilize resorts do so primarily for pleasure. They are typically attracted to a specific property for one of four reasons: 1. 2. 3. 4. Location. Reputation. Property activities. Local activities. 33
  34. 34. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Types of Resorts By seasonality:  All-year round resort.  Summer resort.  Warm winter resort.  Cold winter resort (Powers and Barrows 1999). By designation: • Spa resort. • Golf resort. • Ski resort. • Guest ranch. • Diving resort. • Fishing resort. • Marina resort. • Casino resort. • Conference resort. • Camp-site. • Eco resort. • Theme park resort. By location: • Urban resort. • Beach or seaside resort. • Lake resort. • Mountain resort. • Island resort • Desert resort. • Tropical rainforest resort (sensitive and restrictive). • Farm-related. By size: • Mega-resort. • Boutique resort. By form of ownership: • Conventional. 34
  35. 35. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE • • • • • Syndicate. Interval/timeshare. Condo resort. Vacation club. Luxury destination club (American hotel and lodging Educational institute, 2010). Difference between Resorts and Non-Resorts According to Van Hoof et al. (1996) the difference between resorts and nonresorts can be discerned in two aspects: 1. Location: resorts are normally located in the most desirable physical locations, as compares to urban hotels, islands, mountains, deserts, and lakefront sites are usually the prime locations for resort development. 2. Function: resorts offer more than just lodging and F&B services to their guests. They provide guests with luxury accommodations, numerous F&B outlets, lavish entertainment, and exciting recreational activities, such as golf, tennis, skiing, and various water sports. Resorts are a unique segment within the resort industry because of the seasonality of their business (in many cases), a dependence on location, and the availability of leisure activities beyond those normally provided by resort. There are a number of benefits to operate resorts. Guests are much more relaxed in comparison to those at transient resorts, and the resorts are located in beautiful areas. This frequently enables staff to enjoy a better quality of life than do their transient resort counterparts. Returning guests tend to treat associates like friends. This adds to the overall party-like atmosphere, which is prevalent at many of the establishment resorts. Furthermore because guests are protected in the resort, they expect to be pampered. This requires an attentive, well-trained staff and that is a challenge in some remote areas and in developing countries (Walker, 2006). The variety of features, attributes, and elements that are available at a resort play a significant role in creating a satisfactory vacation experience. And definitely, prior research has shown that the onsite activities provided have a great influence on resort consumers’ perceptions of quality and satisfaction from resort vacation experiences (Costa et al., 2004; Brey et al., 2008). 35
  36. 36. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Of most of the attractive elements, the most attention given includes elements relating to activity and recreation options available to resort visitors. Included were outdoor recreation facilities, indoor recreation facilities, entertainment, planned activities, family activities, services, having diverse activities, options for everyone, and health-related services. Another set of elements receiving consistent attention includes those relating to the quality of the lodging amenities, F&B services, and guest service. Other elements examined less frequently include the ambiance or feel of the resort, the physical characteristics and condition of the resort property, the cost of staying at the resort relative to the value received, and the availability of information about the resort. Elements examined least frequently in these past efforts include the resort’s reputation, geographic location, surrounding community, and the technological resources and business services available to resort visitors (Brey et al., 2008). Resort concept as applied to the operation of resort connotes the provision of facilities, services and amenities that serve individuals, families, and groups who are on holiday and vacation. Today, many resorts look to the convention and group travel business as an important secondary market to fill the troughs in their business cycle (Gee, 1995). While Walker (1996) stated that resorts became more astute in marketing to different types of guests. Many resorts began to attract conventions, conferences, and meeting this increases occupancy particularly during the low or shoulder seasons. Moreover Walker (2006) assured that to increase occupancies, resorts have diversified their marketing mix to include conventions, business meetings, sales meetings, incentive groups, sporting events, additional sporting and recreational facilities, spas, adventure tourism, ecotourism, and so on. Gee (1995) explained that operators agree to operate the resorts for three common factors to successful resorts: 1. Reputation of resort. 2. Attraction of the local. 3. Recreational facilities offered by the resort. These factors influence the marketing and management of resorts as well as building and facilities design, space allocation for guest rooms, recreation, sports, entertainment facilities, public attraction, shopping, health care, as well as special services that add to guest satisfaction and help build repeat business. 36
  37. 37. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1.3 Accommodation Services in Resorts The accommodation services are one of the most important elements of the hospitality industry. This is because the basic function of these establishments is to provide the overnight services to customers. Dittmer (2002) stated that Major metropolitan areas include numerous accommodation properties of widely varying types. These range from limited service to full service; from simplyfurnished small rooms to luxuriously-furnished large rooms; from the simplest to the most elaborate décor; from very cheap prices to extremely expensive; and from these targeting bus travellers to these catering to corporate managers and show business personalities. Moreover Powers and Barrows (2006) classified it into four main categories according to: 1. Price.  Limited service hotels.  Full-service hotels. 2. Function.  Luxury hotels.  Commercial hotels. 3. Location.  Airport hotels.  Downtown hotels.  Suburban hotels.  Highway hotels. 4. Market segment.  Resort hotels.  Casino hotels.  Health spas.  Executive conference centres. 37
  38. 38. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Chon and Maier (2010) agreed with Dix and Baird (1992) in that the accommodation plans can be classified into four main categories as follows: 1. Room only. (European Plan) 2. Room and breakfast. (Continental Plan) 3. Half board (HB). (Modified American Plan) Include room, breakfast, and one other meal either lunch or dinner, usually dinner. 4. Full board (FB). (American Plan) Include room, breakfast, lunch, and dinner, although some hotels may also include afternoon tea in the rate. 5. All-Inclusive (AI) Include all meals, and also use of sports and social facilities of the resort. This is very attractive package for resorts, and much easier accounting. Swarbrooke and Horner (1999) mentioned that First Choice holidays have conducted limited market research on guest returning from A holidays. Overall idea of these visitors seems to be very smart. 2.1.4 Food and Beverages Services in Resorts Food is important not only for its nutritional value, but other value dimensions. Food is considered as an expression of friendship, symbolic of family traditions, related to prestige status and religious observance (Vlisides et al., 2000; Wei-Chia, 2003). Moreover, Mark (2004) declared that consumer lifestyles have changed significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in both modifications in the type of food and drinks products. Demands set by three major guest trends: 1. Convenience. 2. Health. 3. Pleasure. Price and convenience are the major factors in the decision to eat out. Other important factors were the hygiene and cleanliness of the restaurant, fast and friendly service, and the ambience of the facility. Restaurant design may effect a restaurant's environment. The dining area should be comfortable. Also the decoration of the restaurant should suit the restaurant theme. 38
  39. 39. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Other studies have shown that the most frequent factors affecting consumers' satisfaction are speed of service, hour of operation, food eye appeal, and restaurant reputation. Additional factors like recommendation from friends, the availability of nutrition information, appropriate selection of regional ethnic dishes, and employee courtesy are also important (Castelo and Salay, 2001; Piyavan, 2004). MacLaurin and MacLaurin (2000) stated that the menu should be simple to understand while fitting with the theme of the restaurant. In addition, a well done menu must be attractive to guests as well as should offer a number of foods. 2.1.5 Recreational Services in Resorts The term hospitality can be expanded to cover all products and services offered to the guest away from home including travel, lodging, eating, entertainment and recreation (Knowles, 1998). Recreation is considered to be activity voluntarily undertaken, primarily for pleasure and satisfaction during leisure time (John, 1983). Horner and Swarbrooke (2005) defined recreation as activities and experiences usually carried on within leisure and usually chosen voluntarily for satisfaction, pleasure, or creative enrichment. Recreation is an essential part of human life and finds many different forms which are shaped naturally by individual interests but also by the surrounding social construction. Recreational activities can be active or passive, outdoors or indoors, healthy or harmful, and useful for society or detrimental (Bovy, and Lawson, 1998). Recreation is an activity of leisure. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun". Rechner (2010) mentioned that Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time. The "need to do something for recreation" seems to be an essential element of human biology and psychology. Recreational activities are often done for enjoyment, amusement, or pleasure and are considered to be "fun". The term recreation implies participation to be healthy refreshing mind and body. Recreational and entertainment services are other huge components of the hospitality industry segments (Powers and Barrows, 2006).It should be noted that leisure industry is encompassing a wide range of activities including cinema and travel (Mark, 2004). 39
  40. 40. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Outdoor recreation has been broadly defined to include:            Just being outdoors. Creative activities. Health or relaxation. Utility journeys. Informal games and play. High adrenalin, non-competitive activities. Commercially run activities. Study of the natural environment. Educational activities and programmes. Conservation volunteering. Sustainable journeys to outdoor recreation (Alan, 2006). 2.1.6 Hospitality Services Delivered in the RSRs Cook et al. (2006) stated that guests prefer to purchase tour package rather than buy from individual tourism suppliers. The reasons are many but benefits include: 1. Convenience: Guest does not need to spend a lot of time deciding what to do and which supplier to deal with. 2. One-stop shopping: AI tours can be nearly cash free and allow the guest to know how much the trip will cost. The buying process is much easier. 3. Cost saving: Tour packages are less expensive than the cost if the guest were to by all of its advantages separately. 4. Worry-free: Guests on a resort or guide tour are able to concentrate on the experience, leaving details in the hands of tour team. Egyptian RSRs The classic RS destination is characterized with sunshine and warm waters all year round (Egypt travel association 2011). Moreover Top Hotels (2011) stated that Egypt has long been a center of attraction for travellers from all over the world. Especially this country is popular among Russians. Egyptian resorts are attractive from all points of view: lower prices for housing, food, 40
  41. 41. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE souvenirs, picturesque the RS with a huge number and variety of fish and coral, the highest level of service and interesting excursions to the ancient monuments of the centuries-old civilization. Here rest is found for every taste and purse. In Egypt, there are many resort areas in Sharm El Sheikh, Hurghada, Dahab, El Gouna, Safaga, Soma Bay, Marsa Alam, and Taba. In Sharm El Sheikh and Hurghada rests the bulk of tourists, the other resorts are a little less loaded. Sharm El Sheikh The city of Sharm El Sheikh is always referred to as the "Land of Peace" as many political, scientific and tourist conferences and meetings were held over its land. With its unique location in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt, it is considered the strategic passageway, the meeting point between Asia and Africa, and the cradle of great civilizations, with its features of environment that combine together history, tourism, industry and agriculture, it has become a main attraction for tourists, travelers and businessmen (Egypt State Information Services (SIS), 2011). Sharm El Sheikh is the closest destination to Europe where tourists can soak up sun, dive amazing corals reefs, and enjoy the sea any time tourists need a break from routine. The climate is lovely and dry all year long with temperatures ranging between 20° and 25° C in the winter months, whereas in summer the temperatures go up a little reaching highs of 30 to 35° C. Sharm El Sheikh boasts the widest array of fun, exciting and even clear water and extreme sports: besides diving, snorkelling, sailing, wind and kite-surfing, even sky diving or parachuting from a helicopter. Moreover, tourists can enjoy trips and safaris into the nearby Sinai desert and discover the amazing St Catherine Monastery, or the majestic Sinai Mountains. Also head to Sharm for a wellness and pampering holiday; the town is home to Egypt’s most famous and professional Spas in Egypt (Top Hotels, 2011). Moreover (Table 2.1, and Figure 2.1) the ministry of Tourism reported the Breakdown of the hotels and tourist villages’ capacity by main governorates areas 2009 (*The ministry of Tourism 2010c). ________________ * In Arabic 41
  42. 42. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.1: Breakdown of Hotels and Tourist Villages Capacity by Governorates Areas (2009) Governorate/ Area Units Rooms Beds No. % No. % No. % RS 305 26.0 70191 35.6 140382 35.6 South Sinai 343 29.3 69376 35.1 138752 35.1 North Sinai Greater Cairo Luxor and Aswan Alexandria Sector Suez Canal Cities Lower Egypt Upper Egypt 11 174 78 97 65 50 48 0.9 14.9 6.7 8.3 5.6 4.3 4.1 767 29513 8271 8869 6382 1950 2068 0.4 15.0 4.2 4.5 3.2 1.0 1.0 1534 59026 16542 17738 12764 3900 4136 0.4 15.0 4.2 4.5 3.2 1.0 1.0 1171 100 197387 100 394774 100 Total Adapted from *The ministry of Tourism (2010c) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 35.1 % 50% 40% 35.1 % Total South Sinai 29.3 % Red Sea 30% 20% 10% 26 % 35.6 % 35.6 % Rooms Beds 0% Units Figure 2 .1: Capacity of the RS and South Sinai average from the Total of the Hotels and Tourist Villages’ Capacity (2009) Adapted from* The ministry of Tourism (2010c) ________________ *In Arabic 42
  43. 43. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Hurghada Hurghada is a city in the Red Sea Governorate of Egypt. It is a main tourist center and second largest city (after Suez Canal) in Egypt located on the Red Seacoast. Hurghada city was founded in the early 20th century, and since the 1980s has been continually enlarged by Egyptian and foreign investors to become the leading seashore resort on the Red Sea. Holiday villages and hotels provide aquatic sport facilities for sailboarders, yachtsmen, scuba divers and snorkelers (Wikipedia 2013). The city is served by the Hurghada International Airport with scheduled passenger traffic to and from Cairo and direct connections with several cities in Europe. The airport has undergone massive renovations to accommodate rising traffic. Hurghada is known for its water sports activities, nightlife and warm weather. Daily temperature hovers round 30 degrees Celsius most of the year. Numerous Europeans spend their Christmas and New Year holidays in the city, primarily Russians, Germans and Italians (Weather 2 travel. 2013). 43
  44. 44. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2 Guest Behaviour, Expectations, Satisfaction and Loyalty 2.2.1 Guest Behaviour Culture is the most basic determinant of a person’s wants and behaviour. It compromises the basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours that a person learns continuously in a society. People within a given level tend to present the similar behaviour, including buying so that marketers are interested in socioeconomic level to meet and satisfy target guest’s requirements and wants. Understanding the guest behavior is not simple. The guest behavior is a complex interaction among various factors (Kotler, 2001; Wei-Chia, 2003). Quality of service is not only related to guest satisfaction, but also to guest behavioural goal, such as the intention to stay in the same lodging and willingness to recommend the lodging (Ekinci, 2004) . The emotional attachment is important in understanding tourist behavior, including repeat visitation as an outcome, the latter helps, for example, increase tourist numbers to a destination through referrals and positive word-of-mouth (Lee, 2001; Penny and Judy, 2008). The basic beliefs about guest behaviour summarized into five premises: 1. Guest behaviour is purposeful and goal oriented. 2. The guest has free choice. 3. Guest behaviour is a process. 4. Guest behaviour can be influenced. 5. There is a need for guest study (Kotler et al., 1999; Wei - Chia, 2003). Gengqing (2005) agreed with Baloglu and McCleary (1999) in that Tourists’ behavior is expected to be partly conditioned by the image that they have of destinations. Image will influence tourists in the process of choosing a destination, the subsequent evaluation of the trip and in their future intentions. Media is the most powerful tool of communication. It helps promoting the right things on right time. It gives a real exposure to the mass audience about what is right or wrong. Even though media is linked with spreading fake news like a fire, but on the safe side, it helps a lot to inform us about the realities as well. Media has a constructive role to play for the society. Today 44
  45. 45. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE News Channels and even some Newspapers is mouthpiece of some social issues, which helps us to estimate the realities of lives. Media has played an important role in order to focus on the social issues in almost every era. It is the fact that in most of the eras, media were not being given free and fair chances to explore the issues of society more openly than it is being given now; but we can't deny this fact that the issues were always raised in order to provide justice to the people (Answers. 2013). Moreover, psychologically the media effect on a large patch of human behavior, especially in a society dominated by media dramatically. Level of perceptible caught on the worlds of fun and advertisements, and their impact short-term and long-term values, attitudes and behavior. The media exercise communications influence social, tourism, educational and strategic information technology and telecommunications and on politics, sports, ideology and religion, war and peace and on foreign relations, terrorism and the mental and physical happiness. Psychology analyzes how the recent cover of a great tragic moments or turn give a definition of culture, such as the first landing on the moon or the last moments of the fall of the head of state(Stewart, 2012). 2.2.2 Guest Requirements The successful marketer will try to understand the target market’s requirements, wants, and demands. Requirements are described as basic human requirements such as food, air, water, clothing, and shelter. People also have strong requirements for recreation, and entertainment. These requirements become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need. Clearly, wants are shaped by one’s society. Demands are wants for specific products backed by an ability to pay (Philip, 2002). Wei-Chia (2003) stated that it is important to understand the relevance of human requirements to buyer behaviour. When a need is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity, it becomes a motive. Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the guest to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need. The requirements of the modern consumer set by three major consumer trends are convenience, health and satisfaction (Mark, 2004). It is generally accepted 45
  46. 46. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE that tourism consumer choice is primarily purpose or activity driven (Brey et al., 2008). Recent decades have seen the development of a convenience oriented society, driven by changes in family structure, more working mothers, longer working hours. Though it has been a well-documented trend for many years now, there is little evidence that convenience will become less important for guests in the near future (Mark, 2004). 2.2.3 Guest Expectations Guest expectations as guest’s pre-trial beliefs about the product or service (McKinney et al, 2002). Furthermore, Lin (2006) defined it as the beliefs that consumers use to make predictions about what is likely to happen during a service encounter. Expectations are defined by Lin (2006:28) as “the beliefs that consumers use to make predictions about what is likely to happen during a service encounter”. Moreover, the Business Dictionary (2007) defined it as perceived-value that guests seek from the purchase of a product or service. Meanwhile, guest requirements are problems that guest intend to solve with the purchase of a product or service. On the other hand, guest requirements are particular characteristics and specifications of a product or service as determined by a guest. Understanding the guests’ expectations and meeting their requirements can increase a company’s competitive advantage (Fodness and Murray, 1999) achieving the guests’ expectations is considered as one of the most important factor to business success (Millet, 2007). Simon (2004) stated that there are more and more guests who really want to get a feel for the country or area they are visiting; there’s a much greater respect and interest. This is largely the result of literature, TV, and the internet. People are better read and have a good feel for what they want to do. They are well informed and have higher expectations. Liang (2008) agreed with Tse and Wilton (1988) in that consumer satisfaction is the consumer’s response to the evaluation of the perceived discrepancy between prior expectations and the actual performance of the product as perceived after its consumption. 46
  47. 47. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Expectations are considered to have a direct influence on satisfaction levels, without any assessment of or comparison to actual performance. Expectations are aligned with the performance levels, and satisfaction is assessed based on these expectations (Oliver 1981, and 1993). Consumers will assimilate satisfaction levels to expectations levels, resulting in satisfaction being high/low when expectations are high/low (Oliver, 1997). Parasuraman (1993) pointed that service expectations are: 1. Predicted expectations (what guests believe is likely to happen). 2. Desired expectations (what guests hope to receive). 3. Adequate expectations (what guests will accept). Miller (1977) identified four types of expectations: 1. Ideal expectations (what can be). 2. Expected expectations (what will be). 3. Minimum tolerable expectations (what must be). 4. Deserved expectations (what should be). Moreover, Social media has made a huge impact on essentially every major industry across the world, and the business of travel and hospitality has reaped the rewards perhaps as well as any other commercial venture. Travel and tourism depends heavily on the use of word-of-mouth to spread opinions and recommendations, and social platforms such as Twitter and Face book allow customers to easily share tips and suggestions, which can be enormously valuable when positive. Some 92 percent of consumers said that they trusted earned media, which includes recommendations from friends and family members, more than any other form of advertising. This info graphic from four pillars takes a closer look at the impact of social media on the travel and hospitality industry (Shea, 2012). 47
  48. 48. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.4 Guest Perceptions The perception can be conceptualized as a feeling developed from an evaluation of the use experience (Cadotte et al, 1987). Moreover, While Kotler (2001) defined Perception as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. So that it is important to remember that perceptions are the way an individual see the world (Kotler et al., 1999). Yanqun and Haiyan (2009) agreed with Bou-Llusar et al. (2001) in that quality perception exerts a significant direct influence on guests’ repurchases target. Liang, Yan-Mei (2008) agreed with Wong (2000) that worked out that perception is an overall emotional sensation affected by the experience effect. Moreover, Giese and Cote (2000) pointed out three common perspectives for guest perception: 1. It is an emotional or cognitive response of an individual consumer. 2. The response occurs at a particular time base; it might be repurchasing, before consumption, during consumption, or evolving. 3. The response pertains to a particular focus, such as expectations, consumption experience, product attributes and benefits, salesperson and store or information provided by others. 48
  49. 49. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.5 Guest Satisfaction Guest satisfaction is a measure of how products or services supplied by a firm meet guest requirements. Satisfaction in a given situation is the sum of one's feelings or attitudes toward a variety of factors affecting that situation (Bailey and Pearson, 1983; Liang, Yan-Mei, 2008). Johnson and Clark (2005) agreed with Cooper and Lawson (2004) in that satisfaction is the outcome of the guest’s evaluation of a service, which is sometimes referred to as perceived service quality, and can be represented on a continue from delight to extreme dissatisfaction. Field (1999) pointed out that a common five – step process for developing a guest satisfaction program is: 1. Identify the attributes of your product or service that are most important to guests. 2. Measure guest satisfaction levels on these important attributes. 3. Link satisfactions levels to key guest behavior (complaints, use levels, member retention). 4. Identify and implement concrete actions that will improve guest satisfaction and correspondingly, guest behavior. 5. Track results. Satisfaction is largely a function of past experiences and current expectations (Oliver, 1997; Penny and Judy, 2008). The interaction between the actors (staff) and the audience (guests) is based on their mutually understood definition of the situation, service providers do not simply act and tourists do not only watch. Rather, through their interaction, hosts and guests perform together through negotiation, narrative completion, and embodiment (Chronis 2005; Natan, et al., 2009). Guest satisfaction is a strong judge of business success in terms of market share, return on investment, and cost reduction (Spreng et al., 1996). Schroeder (2004) told that guest satisfaction is a relative concept that varies from one guest to another. Also, a guest may be satisfied with today's products but not satisfied in the future. It isn’t enough to just satisfy your guest. Being satisfied is no longer satisfying. Companies always lose some satisfied guests. These guests switch to competitors who can satisfy them more. Resort requirements to deliver more satisfaction than its competitors (Philip, 2003). 49
  50. 50. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Resorts need to observe and increase the level of guest satisfaction. The higher the guest satisfaction is the higher the retention. Here are four facts: 1. Attracting new guest can cost 5 to 10 times more than the costs involved in satisfying and retaining current guests. 2. The average company loses between 10 and 30 percent of its guests each year. 3. A 5 percent reduction in the guest satisfaction rate can increase profits by 25 to 85 percent, depending on the industry. 4. The guest profit rate lean to increase over the life of the retained guest (Philip, 2003). Carden et al. (2004) reported that guest satisfaction is a function of consumer expectations with regard to the purchase of a product or service, and the perception of the degree to which those expectations are met after the purchase. The same author defined that guest satisfaction as a post purchase attitude formed through a mental comparison of the quality that a guest expected to receive from an exchange and the level of quality the guest perceives actually receiving from the exchange. 2.2.6 Guest Loyalty Loyalty is a desire to return. That’s important to remember because that is just what are resorts trying to create: a desire to return (Simon, 2004). Yanqun and Haiyan (2009) stated that satisfaction is found to be the most important construct directly leading to guest loyalty which covers dimensions such as guest repurchase intentions, word of mouth, and price increase tolerance. Price loyalty is greater than brand loyalty (Philip, 2003). Pullman and Gross (2004) recognize that loyal guests are the key to success in the hospitality setting. A small increase in loyal guests can result in a substantial increase in profitability (Bowen and Shoemaker, 1998).Maintaining a guest is more profitable than winning a new one because: 1. The cost of serving loyal guests is less. 2. Fewer loyal guests are price sensitive. 3. Loyal guests spend more with the resort (Noon et al., 2003). 50
  51. 51. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE As the main goal of any resort is to establish and maintain long-term guest loyalty guest loyalty can be achieved through a number of means: 1. Convenience. 2. Location. 3. Quality. 4. Price. (Wright and Sparks, 1999). Dick and Basu (1994) list four different types of loyalty: 1. True loyalty: guests present favourable correspondence between relative attitude and repeat patronage. 2. Superior loyalty: guests present low relative attitude accompanied by high repeat patronage. 3. Latent loyalty: guests present high relative attitude, with low repeat patronage. 4. Low or no loyalty: guests present weak or low levels of both relative attitudes combined with low repeat patronage. Moreover Sopanen (1996) took this framework to reveal six different types of loyalty: 1. Monopoly loyalty, where there are no available choices. 2. Inertia loyalty, where guests do not actively seek substitutes. 3. Convenience loyalty, where loyalty is solely defined by location. 4. Price loyalty: where guests are influenced by the lowest price. 5. Incentivised loyalty, where loyalty relates to the benefits gained from reward cards and programmes. 6. Emotional loyalty, where guests are influenced by factors such as brand. 51
  52. 52. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2.7 Discrepancy between The guests’ expectations and Perceptions The good service comes from building relationships with guests (Simon, 2004). Moreover, Clarke and Chen (2007) stated that these services share a common starting point in the relationship between the provider and the guest. These relations are structured in many ways, such as the expectations of the organization and the culture and customs of guests so that resorts should not have to embark on a massive research project to determine what our guests expect. Resorts know what guests want if resort team ask and listen for the guest requirements and expectations, and have a relationship with the guest. Johnson and Clark (2005) illustrated that while the expectations-perception approach to understanding service quality is extremely useful in focusing on the outcome of guest satisfaction and helps identity on mismatches between operational and guest views of quality, it does have some downsides.  Service could be perceived to be 'good' when it is 'bad'.  Service could be perceived to be 'bad' when it is 'good'.  Service that was 'good' last time may only be 'OK' this time.  Satisfied guests may switch. Moreover, Kasper et al., (2006) pointed that for each service dimension and for the total service, a quality judgment can be computed according to the following formula: Perception - Expectations = Perceived value ` Guest satisfaction is a result of what guests think will happen (expectations), interacting with what guest think did happen (perceptions). If the product’s performance falls short of the guests’ expectations, the buyer is dissatisfied. If performance matches expectations, the buyer is satisfied. If performance exceeds expectations, the buyer is delight (Kotler et al., 1999; Wei-Chia, 2003). Reid and Bojanic (2006) simply stated, when guests are satisfied, they are much more likely to purchase from the service provider again. Over time, if they remain satisfied, they become loyal guests. The service gap is 52
  53. 53. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE the final gap that exists when there is a difference between guests' expectations of a service and their perceptions of the actual service once it consumed. This gap dealt with the difference between the guest internal perception and expectations of the service (Douglas and Connor, 2003). Smart resorts aim to delight guest by delivering service and value more than they promise. In the long term, the destination image must correspond reasonably closely to the actual characteristics of the place: otherwise guests will not be satisfied (Brian, 2009). Satisfaction levels arise by comparing actual experience with previous experiences and expectations (Oliver, 1980; Penny and Judy, 2008). When people are satisfied with their travel experience, they visit the same destinations again (Spinelli and Canavos, 2000). 2.2.8 Relations between Guest Satisfaction and Loyalty Improving guest service should be a top priority of all managers working in the hospitality and tourism industry (Reid and Bojanic, 2006). Walker (2006) assumed that we not only need to keep guests happy during their stay, but also to keep them returning-with their friends. It costs several times more to attract new guests than to retain existing ones. Tomomi (2008) agreed with Takahashi (1999) in that the level of satisfaction with department stores motivates shoppers to visit them again. The marketer’s goal is to build a mutually profitable long term relationship with its guests, not just sell a product (Philip, 2003). Today, marketers are seeking information on how to build guest loyalty. The increased profit from loyalty comes from reduced marketing costs, increased sales and reduced operational costs (John and Shiang, 2001). With today’s financial pressures, loyal and satisfied guests are essential to the success of business. Operations have to recognize and understand the requirements of guests in order to survive (Almanza et al., 1994; Wei-Chia, 2003). As products become more difficult to differentiate, a successful brand strategy will deliver a strong and trusted perception of a product that increases its guest base and ensures the loyalty of existing guests (Mark, 2004). 53
  54. 54. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3 An Overview of Russian Market 2.3.1. Market Segmentation Walker (2006) defined that market segment is a smaller, identifiable group that can be defined using any set of, such as sort found in geographic, demographic, or psychographic. Van Hoof, et al. (1996) indicated that marketers go through a process called market segmentation and separate people into distinct group based on their individual characteristics and buying habits. Wade (2006) agreed with Negl (2002) in that the target market is the type of guest the resort is attempting to reach and attract to frequent the establishment. Journey characteristics and demographic segmentation are important to understand resort visitor differences. While Brey et al. (2008) agreed with Masterson and Verhoven (2001) in that differences based on demographic characteristics, limited consideration has been given with regard to the importance of resort attributes. Trip characteristic factors have also received little attention in the context of resort attribute preferences. Given that these factors can directly affect the experience or become a determinant in the decision to purchase consideration of these variables on importance ratings is needed. The marketing mix Powers and Barrows (2006) agreed with Reid and Bojanic (2006) in that the marketing mix is conventionally thought of as encompassing the four Ps: product, price, place, and promotion. Ronald and Nykiel (2005) added that there are many different perspectives on marketing and marketing strategy especially in ever-changing environment. In the 1990s as we transitioned to a predominantly service-oriented economy and marketing environment, marketing strategies shifted to focus on the four Cs, as delineated by waterborne:  Consumer wants and requirements.  Cost to satisfy (wants and requirements).  Convenience to buy.  Communication (creating a dialogue). 54
  55. 55. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.2. Russian Market Characteristics Propensity to take holidays abroad in Russia is still very low, as only about 15% of the population can afford it. Understandably, given the climate ‘Sun and Sand’ in the two main centres of wealth and purchasing power in Russia, beach holidays have been a central feature in the growth in Russian outbound tourism over the last decade. Visas can be a problem since Russians tend to book at the last minute (Macy, 2009). Therefore, the fastest-growing destinations have been those that require no visa, or where visas are available on arrival, such as Egypt which has become a year-round destination. The success of Egypt as destinations has also been due to the very aggressive marketing by its respective national tourism organisations and the budgets allocated to marketing and promotions nowadays 90% of Russian arrivals there are leisure travellers, 60% of whom stay in four- and five star/ deluxe accommodation. The average length of stay for Russians holidaying in Egypt is around ten days. About 50% arrive by charter flight and 50% by scheduled carriers (Mintel Group, 2009). Russian people like to use the internet they became the seventh country with the highest number of the internet users all over the world, with 61,472,011 users in March 2012 with a percentage 2.7 % from the total internet users over the world as illustrated in Table 2.2 the top 20 countries with the highest number of internet users and Figure 2.2 shows the ten internet users first quarter 2012 with highest number of users (Internet World Stats, 2012). 55
  56. 56. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.2: Top 20 Countries with the Highest Number of Internet Users Country or Region Internet Users Year 2000 Internet Users Latest Data 1 China 22,500,000 513,100,000 22.5 % 2 United States 95,354,000 245,203,319 10.8 % 3 India 5,000,000 121,000,000 5.3 % 4 Japan 47,080,000 101,228,736 4.4 % 5 Brazil 5,000,000 81,798,000 3.6 % 6 Germany 24,000,000 67,364,898 3.0 % Russia 3,100,000 7 61,472,011 World Users percentage (%) 2.7 % 8 Indonesia 2,000,000 55,000,000 2.4 % 9 United Kingdom 15,400,000 52,731,209 2.3 % 10 France 8,500,000 50,290,226 2.2 % 11 Nigeria 200,000 45,039,711 2.0 % 12 Mexico 2,712,400 42,000,000 1.8 % 13 Korea 19,040,000 40,329,660 1.8 % 14 Iran 250,000 36,500,000 1.6 % 15 Turkey 2,000,000 36,455,000 1.6 % 16 Italy 13,200,000 35,800,000 1.6 % 17 Philippines 2,000,000 33,600,000 1.5 % 18 Vietnam 200,000 30,858,742 1.4 % 19 Spain 5,387,800 30,654,678 1.3 % 20 Pakistan 133,900 29,128,970 1.3 % TOP 20 Countries 273,058,100 1,709,555,160 75% Rest of the World 87,927,392 570,154,469 25% Total World - Users 360,985,492 2,279,709,629 Source: Internet World Stats, (2012). 56 100 %
  57. 57. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Milions 600 513 500 400 300 245 200 121 101 100 82 67 62 55 53 50 0 China United States India Japan Brazil Germany Russia Indonesia United France Kingdom Figure 2.2: Top 10 Internet Users First Quarter 2012 with Highest Number of Users in Millions Source: Internet World Stats, (2012). 57
  58. 58. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.3. Russian Tourism Demand in Egypt Russian tourism demand in Egypt is high according to the Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) the Russian tourist arrival to Egypt and tourism night during the period 2002-2009 is illustrated in Table 2.3 and Figure 2.3, and Figure 2.4 showed a growth year by year which is good indicator for the Russian tourism to Egypt. Table 2.3: Russian Federation Tourist Arrival to Egypt and Tourism Night during the Period (2002-2009) Year Tourist numbers Tourism Nights 382536 497465 2002 2003 2200227 4054784 694887 2004 777665 2005 998149 2006 1516561 2007 1825312 2008 2035330 2009 Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 6785324 7317765 9764368 14324860 13382836 17917730 Tourism Nights 20000000 18000000 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 8000000 6000000 4000000 2000000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.3: Russian Federation Tourism Nights to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Adapted from; Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 58
  59. 59. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Tourist numbers 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.4: Russian Federation Tourist Arrive to Egypt during the Period (2002-2009) Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) is pointed that the tourism nights for all the Regions during the period from 2006 to 2009 (Table 2.4) found that the Russian federation tourism nights to Egypt in average 12.1 % of all the region during the period from (2006 to 2009). Moreover (see Figure 2.5) illustrate Tourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009). Table 2.4:Tourism Nights for All the Regions during the Period from (2006 to 2009) All Regions 2006 2007 2008 2009 Middle East 21670371 21907966 21391309 20833755 Africa 3869249 5088137 5112829 5357057 North America 3985817 4917659 5303908 5201244 Latin America 339037 592477 684479 612297 Central and Eastern Europe 17469792 25866320 29223565 30655723 Western Europe 18825106 23499938 30591251 28480451 Northern Europe 11314200 12718713 17427199 18306200 Southern Europe 8107227 11288270 13628665 11889019 Asia and the Pacific 3652240 5318652 5185628 4825445 Others 71014 267632 685097 372344 Total 89304053 111465764 129233930 126533535 Russian Federation 9764368 14324860 13382836 17917730 Russian Federation Percentage of Total 10.9% 12.9% 10.4% 14.2% Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 59
  60. 60. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Russian Federation Compared to All the Regions 140000000 120000000 100000000 Russian Federation 80000000 All the Regions 60000000 40000000 20000000 10.9% 12.9% 10.4% 14.2% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.5: Tourism Nights from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2006 to 2009). Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 60
  61. 61. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Egyptian Tourism Federation (ETF), (2011) reported that the Tourist arrival from all the Regions during the period from 2006 to 2009 is illustrated that Russian Federation tourists Percentage of all the regions in 2009 is 16.2% which is good percentage, also there is a good growth from 2006 to 2009 (see Table 2.5, and 2.6). Table 2.5: Tourist Numbers from All the Regions during (2006 to 2009) All Regions 2006 Russian Federation Percentage of Total 2009 1686953 387221 366678 63185 3024555 2285089 1339235 1287629 632070 18248 11090863 1675960 400979 420463 65636 3954385 2669649 1607857 1389847 611090 39485 12835351 1571212 455262 421593 67192 3691645 2603795 1801029 1319737 566420 38000 12535885 998149 Russian Federation 2008 1706423 301866 299079 41451 1998853 1967820 1264969 1028090 469805 4421 9082777 Middle East Africa North America Latin America Central & Eastern Europe Western Europe Northern Europe Southern Europe Asia & The Pacific Others Total 2007 1516561 1825312 2035330 11% 13.7% 14.2% 16.2% Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) Russian Federation Compared to All the Regions 14000000 12000000 10000000 Russian Federation 8000000 All the Regions 6000000 4000000 2000000 11% 13.7% 14.2% 16.2% 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 Figure 2.6: Tourist Numbers from Russia Compared to All the Regions during (2002 to 2009). Adapted from: Egyptian Tourism Federation, (2011) 61
  62. 62. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) report the tourism indicators (the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourists 2010) illustrated that the Russian market is the first market of the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourists (2010) with a percentage of 19.4% of the Total Number of Tourists visit Egypt (Table 2.6, and Figure 2.7). Moreover (Table 2.7 and Figure 2.8) is illustrated that the Russian market is the first market of the primary ten markets in accordance to number of tourism nights (2010) with a percentage of 17 % of the total number of tourism nights to Egypt. Table 2.6: The Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Number of Tourists (2010) Ranking Country Number of Tourists Percentage of Total the Primary Ten Markets 1. 6255562 2. United Kingdom 3. Germany 4. Italy 5. France 6. Poland 7. Libya 8. Ukraine 9. Saudi Arabia 10. United States Total number of tourists to the Primary Ten Markets Total Number of Tourists in 2010 Percentage of the Top Ten of the Total Number of Tourists 6..2% 0055.02 0262.20 0000220 5..222 5.25.2 050022 006022 250.02 220562 .555206 Russia 05.6% 02..% 00..% 2.2% 2.6% 0.5% 0.2% 2..% 2.2% 000% 00520202 65% Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists 19.4% Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) 62
  63. 63. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 16000000 14000000 12000000 10000000 8000000 Number of Tourists 2010 6000000 Number of Russian Tourists 4000000 2000000 0 Noumber of Russian Tourists Total Number of Tourists Figure 2.7: Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourists (2010) Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) Table 2.7 :The Primary Ten Markets in Accordance to Tourism Nights (2010) Ranking Country Number of Tourist Nights 1. % 65025005 Russia 2. Germany 3. United Kingdom 4. Italy 5. Libya 6. France 7. Saudi Arabia 8. Poland 9. United States 10. Holland Total Number of Tourism Nights of the Primary Ten Markets Total Number of Tourism Nights in 2010 Percentage of the Top Ten of the Total Number of Tourism Nights Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights 62.2 % 00.60252 002.5.00 ..560.6 2050526 5652020 5622000 0502206 002.222 20500.0 .555206 05.2 % 05.2 % 00.2 % 2.5 % 5.2 % 5.2 % 0.2 % 0.5 % 2.5 % 100 % 147385089 63.7 % 17 % Note (%): Percentage of total number of tourists of the primary ten markets Source: The ministry of Tourism, (2010d) 63
  64. 64. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Total Number of Tourism Nights 17% Total Tourism Nights Russian Tourism Nights Figure 2.8: Percentage of the Russian Market of the Total Number of Tourism Nights (2010). Source: The ministry of Tourism (2010d) 2.3.4. The Relations between Egypt and Russia Bilateral diplomatic relations were established between the Soviet Union and Egypt in 1943; Later Russia has always been characterized by specificity, promotion and diversity of cooperation fields. During past decades, the Egyptian-Russian relations were prosperous, and started to flourish again since mid-nineties reaching the level of strategic partnership by virtue of the agreement signed between Egypt and Russia in June 2009 (The ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2011a). Moreover, President received Dr. Mohamed Morsi in 11.05.2012 and Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and the meeting discussed bilateral relations and review the events and the latest political developments on the regional and international arena (Egypt State Information Services, 2012). Relations between the two countries, serious changes, Russia and Egypt have become today's partners, both bilateral and international. Bilateral Presidential mutual visits are considered of the most important factors leading to their constant promotion. The two countries are linked with strategic dialogue mechanism held annually at the Foreign Ministers level alternatively between the two capitals since 2004. The two sides are keen on convening the Joint Committee on economic, trade and technical cooperation regularly. The 64
  65. 65. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE committee held 8 rounds under the chairmanship of the Ministers of trade and Industry in both countries, the latest was held in Cairo, March 2010. Moreover, Ministery of Tourism is delegate with the Russian Federal Agency for Tourism within the framework of activating the joint program of cooperation between Egypt and Russia in the field of tourism in the period 2011 / 2012. Has been initiated and the Minister of Tourism, the meeting emphasized the importance of the Russian market for Egyptian tourism as a primary market exporting tourists to Egypt, pointing out that the number of Russian tourists who came to Egypt during the period January / April 2011 reached 370.983 tourists, which is a positive indicator for the continuation of the Russian to Egypt, stressing the keenness of the Egyptian side to increase Russian tourism to Egypt and expand the base of contact with the Russian side as well as diversify the tourism product to satisfy all tastes of Russian tourists (The ministry of Tourism, 2010a). 2.3.5 Russian Guests' Characteristics and Requirements 2.3.5.1 The Geography of Russia Russia which is officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the United States by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometers, Russia is the largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably located in relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of the country lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture; Mount El'brus is Europe's tallest peak. Russia is situated in the Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean (The United States (U.S.) Department of State, 2011). 65
  66. 66. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Moreover, Russia is the largest country of the world. With its area amounting to 17 million sq. km, it covers 11.5% of the territory of the world. The territory of Russia extends for 10 thousand kilometres, from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Japan Sea in the east. It comprises 11 time zones. The capital of Russia is Moscow. Another very important administrative, business and cultural centre is Saint Petersburg, often referred to as the second, or the northern capital of Russia. There are over a thousand towns and cities in Russia (Russia Tourism, 2009a). Russia map Figure 2.9: Map of Russia Source: City guide, (2011). 66
  67. 67. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.3.5.2 General Information about Russia Table 2.8: General Information about Russia Geography Northern Asia (the area west of the Urals is considered part Location of Europe), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean. Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 100 00 E. Total: 17,098,242 sq km (square kilometres). Area: Country comparison to the world: 1. Land: 16,377,742 sq km. Water: 720,500 sq km. Ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental Climate in much of European Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north; winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast. 1. Far Eastern Federal District. Russian Regions 2. Siberian Federal District. 3. Urals Federal District. 4. Northwest Federal District. 5. Central Federal District. 6. Volga Federal District. 7. Southern Federal District. 8. North Caucasian Federal District. People 138,739,892 (July 2011 est.). Population 0-14 years: 15.2% Age structure (Male 10,818,203/female 10,256,611). 15-64 years: 71.8% (Male 47,480,851/female 52,113,279). 65 years and over: 13% (Male 5,456,639/female 12,614,309) (2011 est.). Total: 38.7 years. Median age Male: 35.5 years. Female: 41.9 years (2011 est.). -0.47% (2011 est.). Population growth rate 11.05 births/1,000 population (2011 est.). Birth rate Country comparison to the world: 173. 16.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.). Death rate Country comparison to the world: 5. Total population: 66.29 years. Life expectancy at birth Country comparison to the world: 161. Male: 59.8 years. Female: 73.17 years (2011 est.). Noun: Russian(s). Nationality Adjective: Russian. Continued 67
  68. 68. CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Table 2.8: Continued Ethnic groups Religions Languages Literacy Country name Government type Capital Flag description Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% (2002 census). Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.). Note: estimates are of practicing worshipers; Russia has large populations of non-practicing believers and nonbelievers, a legacy of over seven decades of Soviet rule. Russian (official), many minority languages Age 15 and over can read and write. Total population: 99.4%. Male: 99.7. Female: 99.2% (2002 census). School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education). Total: 14 years. Male: 14 years. Female: 15 years (2008). Government Conventional long form: Russian Federation. Conventional short form: Russia. Local long form: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya. Local short form: Rossiya. Former: Russian Empire, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Federation Name: Moscow. Geographic coordinates: 55 45 N, 37 35 E. Time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time). Daylight saving time: +1hr; note - Russia has announced that it will remain on daylight saving time permanently, which began on 27 March 2011. Note: Russia is divided into 9 time zones. Three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red Note: the colors may have been based on those of the Dutch flag; despite many popular interpretations, there is no official meaning assigned to the colors of the Russian flag; this flag inspired other Slav countries to adopt horizontal tricolours of the same colors but in different arrangements, and so red, blue, and white became the Pan-Slav colors. Continued 68

×