Comparison and Contrast between IPv4–to-IPv6 Forward Address Mapping Algorithm with IPv6-to-IPv4 Feedback Address Mapping Algorithm in BD-SIIT IPv4/IPv6 Translation Mechanism . Under the Supervision of: Dr.Manjaiah.D.H. Chairman and Associate Professor, Dept of CS, Mangalore University, Mangalore . Research Candidate : Hanumanthappa.J. Senior Asst.Professor,DoS in CS,UoM,MGM,Mysore-06 .
Presentation Outline: 1 .Objective of the Paper. 2 .Introduction to the Problem. 3 .Proposed Methodology. 4 .Results. 5 .Conclusions. 6 .References .
1 . Objective of the Paper
This paper describes a new transition of IPv4/IPv6 methodology for BD-SIIT Translation technique using Forward and Feedback operations algorithm .
BD-SIIT reduces the:
To Reduce the Packet size compared with Tunneling Algorithms,in turn,reducing Traffic overhead .
To reduce the cost of IPv6 Network by avoiding the need to upgrade all the edge nodes that support both the IPv4 and IPv6 as found in Dual Stack mechanisms .
Use a New address mapping that depends on identifying two Public addresses(IPv4 and IPv6) instead of IPv4 mapped IPv6 address method.
Presentation Outline: 1.Objective of the Paper . 2 .Introduction to the Problem . 3.Proposed Methodology. 5.Results. 6.Conclusions. 7.References .
2.Introduction to the Problem .
As we Know that IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible Protocols.
Bi-Directional Stateless Internet Protocol/Internet control messaging Protocol Translation BD-SIIT IS CURRENTLY ONE OF THE MOST ACTIVE RESEARCH TOPIC IN Transition to IPv6 .
IPv6 transition is a process of gradually replacing IPv4 with IPv6 in the Internet .
Transition is a process by which the existing services should work in the new environment but also to continue to work with IPv4 nodes.
An IPv6 transition mechanism is a method to connect the hostsnetworks using the same or different IP protocols under some specific IPv6 transition environment .
Deploying IPv6 may seem a complex and expensive operation,however careful planning and choosing the right techniques actually make the transition to IPv6 smooth and easy.
The deployment of this new protocol brings set of new challenges to the application developers and application service providers.
The transition between today’s IPv4 Internet and the future IPv6 based one will be a long process during which protocol versions will coexist .
Therefore,new applications should be designed to work in all environments: single IPv4,single IPv6 or mixed environment connecting IPv6 with IPv4 nodes.That is, dual protocol stack is necessary.
OBJECTIVES OF IPV6 TRANSITION .
The key transition objective is to allow IPv6 and IPv4 hosts to interoperate .
A second objective is to allow IPv6 hosts and routers to be deployed in the Internet in a highly diffuse and incremental fashion,with few interdependencies .
A third objective is that the transition should be as easy as possible for end-users,system administrators, and network operators to understand and carry out .
APPLICATIONS OF IPV6 TRANSITION. 1.The IPv6 Transition is mainly used for any cast,Uni cast and Multi cast addresses. 2.The transition of IPv4/IPv6 is also used for the host which acts like a Multi homing. 3.The Transition of IPv4/IPv6 is also used for Sockets .
4.IPv6 Transition Scenario issues supports for 2G, 3G, and 4G Mobile Networks . 5.IPSec . 6 . The development and testing of network services such as DNS, multicast routing, any cast routing, broadcast routing etc. 7.New applications that will stress the network and be used to evaluate the benefits end-users that IPv6 can bring, through the expanded IP addresses, integrated auto-configuration, quality-of-service (QoS), mobility and security
8. The design,implementation and test of both i ntra-domain and inter-domain IPv6 multicast , interoperability with IPv4 multicast will be examined too.
Presentation Outline: 1.Objective of the Paper. 2.Introduction to the Problem . 3 . Proposed Methodology. 4.Results. 5.Conclusions. 6.References .
PROPOSED METHODOLOGY .
IPV6 TRANSITION ALGORITHM STEPS
Using both IPv4 and IPv6.
- Dual IP layer architecture .
- Dual stack architecture .
2.IPv6-over-IPv4 TUNNELING .
- Configured, Automatic, ISATAP,GRE etc . .
3.IPv6 HEADER TRANSLATION .
- BD-SIIT,NAT/PT etc .
During the time of migration from IPv4 to IPv6 networks,a number of transition mechanisms has been proposed by IETF to ensure smooth, stepwise, and independent changeover .
This research work presents a new IPv4/IPv6 transition method based on new technology. Compared with existing methods, the proposed method can handle all transition requirements .
(1)Automatic (2)High Performance (3)Without using specific IPv6 address such as 6 to 4 address (4)Peer-to-Peer based IPv4/IPv6 transition method. (5)An economical and Technical IPv4/IPv6 transitional model .
(6)During the transition of IPv4/IPv6 period, there will be scenarios where IPv4 and IPv6 applications must coexist and even interoperate . ( 7)The Development of the new IP version is a gradual process which requires the update of network and the applications. Although in future there will be a native IPv6 Scenarios,during the transition period the coexistence between both IPv4 and IPv6 protocols, at the network level and application level is a main issue
(8)Research of Ubiquitous and visual IPv4/IPv6 transition technologies and transition model . (9)The gradual transition from IPv4/IPv6 requires network admin to become aware of Next generation protocols and the associated security risks-before deploying IPv6 the administrators must ensure to prevent all unknown IPv6 attacks.
(10)The multi-homing transition of IPv4/IPv6 for any cast and multicast addresses . (11)Various Security issues to avoid all the threats in Dual Stacks, Tunneling, Header translation etc . (12)The Transition of IPv4/IPv6 based on sockets . (13)The transition of IPv4/IPv6 based on BDIPS(Bi-Directional intelligent Processing System) that deals with address mapping transition from IPv4 to IPv6 for any cast,multicast,unicast addresses .
Existing Methods Draw Backs:
Translation can cause problems with applications like FTP that embeds IP address in higher-layer protocols and would require the addition of application specific application layer gateways(ALG’s) in the translation element .
Using both IPv4 and IPv6.
- Dual IP layer architecture.
-Dual stack architecture .
2.IPv6-over-IPv4 TUNNELING .
- Configured,Automatic,ISATAP,GRE ,etc . .
3.IPv6 HEADER TRANSLATION .
- BD-SIIT , NAT/PT etc
Is a Type of New Transition Algorithm .
SIIT(Stateless Internet Protocol/Internet control messaging Protocol Translation(SIIT) is an IPv6 transition mechanism that allows IPv6 only hosts to talk to IPv4 only hosts .
SIIT is a Stateless IP/ICMP Translation , which means that translator is able process each conversion individually without any reference to the previously translated packets .
This mechanism contains a Stateless mapping or a bidirectional mapping(bidirectional translation algorithm) between IPv4,IPv6 packet headers as well as ICMPV6 and ICMPv4 .
Most IP header translations are relatively simple, however one research issue is , How to translate the IP address between IPv4 and IPv6 Packets .
Translating an IPv4 address into an IPv6 address is straight forward with SIIT defining it as embedding the IPv4 address in the low 32 bits of a specially defined IPv6 address termed as an IPv4 mapped IPv6 address.
Our new proposed BD-SIIT depends on the understanding of the received datagram,capturing the header ,Identifying the header,Verification of the header, Transformation of the datagram to the destination environment, and then transmitting the datagram to the destination address.
The proposed system deals with a Bi-directional operation that leads to convert the received datagram to the destination environment, depending on the address mapping ID value generated by DNS46 in order to be used in our proposed transition system between IPv4 and IPv6 protocols.
Fig.2. Architecture of BD-SIIT Transition ALGORITHM .
Fig.3. Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header .
The BD-SIIT A Novel Transition Address-mapping algorithm for the forward operation Algorithm-1:-IPv4->IPv6: Forward operation 1. When Host X belongs to X-zone initiates a request (Query message) to DNS46 in order to get the IP-address of Host Y which belongs to IPv6 zone.
2.When DNS46 receives a query message as a request then its checks its (Table-2) to identify whether Host Y has an IPv6 address which is unknown for the Host X.The DNS46 knows that the whole IPv6 zone has a public IPv4 address (like NAT method) i.e. 126.96.36.199 address in the destination address field of IPv4 header then forwards it via a network . 3.Simultaneously,the DNS46 sends another message to v4-v6 enabled router in order to update table-3 .
Table 2: IPv4 & IPv6 DNS on DNS46 Domain Name IPv4 IPv6 X 188.8.131.52 ---- Y ----- 1C::DACF W 184.108.40.206 ----- Z ----- 1A2C::AAFF
4.When the Host X receives requested address of Host Y , immediately creates the IPv4 packet , inserting 220.127.116.11 address in the destination address field of IPv4 header then forwards it via network . 5.When the IPv4 packet is arrived to v4-v6 enabled router ,then the router identifies a packet and verifies that a destination address is a public address with mapping value 2 that indeed refers ABC2::4321 IPv6 address(as shown in table-3). Then the V3-V4 enabled router which updates Table-1 then creates its new IPv6 packet which is based on IPv4 packet, and forwards it to its destination in IPv6 Zone .
6. When Host Y accepts the packet then it starts to process it successfully without getting any problem. Algorithm-2: IPv6->IPv4: Feedback operation. Note:-Consider Host X as a Client and Host Y as a Server . If the Client A sent a HTTP get command to retrieve a web page from the server Y. 1.As a response for the received command from a client X, server Y creates packet(s) then forwards them via a network to the client X using the public IPv6 zone address(ABC2::4321) as a destination address .
2.When v4-v6 enabled router receives a packet, which has been sent by Server Y, then it verifies its Table-1,Table-3, depending on the addressing mapping value like 37 in our scenario, it refers to 18.104.22.168 as a Sender address in Table-2 and 22.214.171.124 as a destination address in Table-2 instead of instead of 1C::DACF and ABC2::4321 IPv6 rely .
3.After that, the v4-v6 enabled router creates a new IPv4 packet, based on the accepted IPv6 packet then forward it is to the destination (Client X).When the Client X receives the IPv4 packet,its starts to process successfully without any problem.
Performance evaluation metrics and Simulation Parameters . In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics . 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT) N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= ∑ i=1 EEDi/Nrec where EEDi = Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is the Source packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session.
The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Σ N j =1 Thrj /N -------------(1) where Thr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) Where Thrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and Pg is the number of packets created by source host .
Conclusions . 1.A comprehensive study has been carried out on diverse transition mechanisms like BD-SIIT and design,performance evaluation using various performance metrics like RTT, EED and Throughput . 2.When we simulated the performance metrics on NS-2 simulator its shows that EED,RTT and Throughput of BD-SIIT are better than other transition mechanisms like DSTM .
References .  S.Deering and R. Hinden “Internet Protocol Version 6(IPv6) Specification”, RFC 2460, December 1998.  John.J.Amoss and Daniel Minoli,”Handbook of IPv4 to IPv6 Transition: Methodologies for institutional and Corporate Networks”.Auerbach Publications.  S.G.Glisic Advanced Wireless Communications, 4G Technology. John Wiley Chichester, 2004. Juha wiljakka, Jonne Soninnen, Managing IPv4–to–IPv6 Transition Process in Cellular Networks and introducing new Peer-to-Peer Services. Ioan R, Sherali.Z.2003,”Evaluating IPv4 to IPv6 Transition mechanism”.IEEE, West Lafayette, USA, v (1):1091–1098.  L.Toutain, H.Afifi, Dynamic Tunneling: A new method for IPv4 to IPv6 transition. Internet draft, <draft-ietf-ngtranns-dti-00.txt>  E.Nordmark, Stateless IP/ICMP translation algorithm (SIIT), RFC 2765, February 2000.Ra’Ed AlJa’afreh,  John Mellor, Mumtaz Kamala, “A Novel IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanism which support transparent connections”.Ra’Ed AlJa’afreh, John Mellor, Mumtaz Kamala and R.Kassabeh, Bi-Directional mapping system as a new IPv4/IPv6 transition mechanism. Jivika Govil,Jivesh Govil,”On the Investigation of Transactional and Interoperability Issues between IPv4 and IPv6,2007,IEEE electro/Information technology conference,(EIT 2007),17-20,May 2007,chicago,USA. K.K.Ettikan et al”Application Performance Analysis in Transition mechanism from IPv4 to IPv6”Multimedia University (MMU), Jalan Multimedia, June2001.Wide project. SHISA, 2006, http://www.mobileip.jp/ .
.Ra’Ed AlJa’afreh, John Mellor and Irfan Awan,”Evaluating BDMS and DSTM Transition Mechanisms.