Etitm 2011 bd-siit-nat_pt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Etitm 2011 bd-siit-nat_pt

on

  • 420 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
420
Views on SlideShare
420
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • ICCANA-2011,NMAMIT,Nitte,South Canara.

Etitm 2011 bd-siit-nat_pt Etitm 2011 bd-siit-nat_pt Presentation Transcript

  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Presentation Outline .
    • Objective of the paper.
    • Introduction to the problem.
    • Proposed Methodology.
    • Results.
    • Conclusions.
    • References .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Objective of the paper .
    • This research work presents a new IPv4/IPv6 transition method based on the Comparison and Contrast between Stateless BD-SIIT and Stateful NAT-PT Translators in Transition of IPv4 to IPv6 new technology .
    • BD-SIIT and NAT-PT Translators are Powerful Translators in IPv4 to IPv6 Transition .
    • BD-SIIT Performance is really good as compared to NAT-PT Translator .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Presentation Outline . 1.Objective of the Paper . 2 .Introduction to the Problem . 3.Proposed Methodology. 5.Results. 6.Conclusions. 7.References . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Introduction to the Problem .
    • The concept of IPv4/IPv6 transitioning is one of the hot vigorous topic in Computer Networks.
    • The transition between IPv4 and IPv6 internet will be a very long process as they are completely incompatible two protocols .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Definition of IP .
    • An IP address is an Identifier that is applied to each device connected to an IP network .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 IPv6 Address Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • IPv6:Distinctive Features .
    • Larger address space.
    • Expanded routing and addressing capabilities.
    • Improved support for extensions and options.
    • Flow labeling(QoS) capability.
    • Server-less Auto-configuration(Plug and Play). Reconfiguration and Neighbor discovery(ND).
    • Authentication and privacy capabilities.
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • Simple transition from IPv4.
    • Built in Strong IP-layer Encryption,Decryption and Authentication .
    • Real time applications like Video & Audio.
    • More efficient and Robust mobility mechanisms.
    • Improved support for options and extensions.
    • Streamed Header format simplification .
    4/13/2011 Continued………………… Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 IPv6 Header Format Traffic Class Flow Label Vers Payload Length Next Header Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address 0 4 12 16 24 31 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Transition to IPv6: Design Goal .
    • No “flag” day.
    • Incremental upgrade and deployment.
    • Minimum upgrade dependencies.
    • Interoperability of IPv4 and IPv6 nodes.
    • Let sites transition at their own pace.
    • Basic migration tools
      • Dual stack and tunneling.
      • Translation.
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Transition Scenario .
    • IPv6 has been designed with a long transition period in mind
      • No “D-Day” for deployment
      • Coexistence of IPv4 and IPv6
    • IPv6 has many transition mechanisms
      • Tunneling (static, automatic, brokers)
      • DSTM
      • 6to4
      • ISATAP
      • Toredo
      • Dual-stack
      • NAT-PT.
    Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Transition Mechanisms : Dual Stack .
    • New nodes support both IPv4 and IPv6.
    • Upgrading from IPv4 to v4/v6 does not break anything.
    • Same transport layer and application above both.
    • Provides complete interoperability with IPv4 nodes .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Figure-2:Dual Stack . Block Diagram of IPv6 Dual Stack. 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • Tunnel IPv6 packets across IPv4 topology.
    • Configured tunnels:
      • Explicitly configured tunnel endpoints.
      • Router to router, host to router.
    • Automatic tunnels:
      • Automatic address resolution using embedded IPv4 address (like IPv4-compatible address).
      • Host to host, router to host.
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Figure-3:Automatic Tunneling . Figure-4: Configured Tunneling . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Translators in IPv6 .
    • Network Level Translators .
    • SIIT(Stateless IP/ICMP Translator).
    • NAT-PT(Network Address Translator-Protocol Translation).
    • BIS(Bump in the Stack)/MBIS(multiple extensions to BIS).
    • Transport Level Translators .
    • Transport relay Translators(TRT ).
    • Application Level Translators .
    • SOCKS 64.
    • BIA(Bump in the Stack).
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Operation of BD-SIIT
    • V4-V6 DNS(DNS46) server determines two public IPv4 and IPv6 addresses which are statistically or dynamically exist for IPv4/IPv6 communication system.
    • V4-V6 Enabled Gateway which performs address mapping between IPv4 and IPv6 addresses as well as IPv4 and IPv6 header conversion .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Figure-5: BD-SIIT Translation Process. Overall Architecture of BD-SIIT . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Why BD-SIIT Transition Mechanism
    • To reduce the packet size compared with Tunneling Algorithms, in turn, reducing traffic overhead.
    • Reduce the cost of IPv6 Network by avoiding the need to upgrade all the edge nodes that support both the IPv4 and IPv6 as found in Dual Stack mechanisms.
    • Use a new address mapping that depends on identifying two Public addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) instead of IPv4 mapped IPv6 address method .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Stages in BD-SIIT Translation .
    • Stage 1: IPv6 Packet Transmission.
    • Stage 2: IPv6-to-IPv4 mapping calculation and address mapping.
    • Stage 3: IPv6-to-IPv4 Header Translation.
    • Stage 4: IPv4 packet Transmission .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Figure-7: BD-SIIT Data packet Transmission Process. Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Figure-6: Translation of IPv6 to IPv4 Header. Translation of IPv4 to IPv6 Header . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Presentation Outline 1.Objective of the Paper. 2.Introduction to the Problem . 3 . Proposed Methodology. 4.Results. 5.Conclusions. 6.References 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Proposed Methodology BD-SIIT Algorithms. 1.IPv4 to IPv6 Header Translation or Vice versa Algorithms. 2.IPv4 to IPv6 Protocol Translation Algorithms . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. Table-1:Address Mapping IPv6/IPv4 . Sl.No IPv6 Address IPv4 Address Address mapping value 1 ABC2::4321 195.18.231.17 1 2 ABC2::4321 195.18.231.17 2 3 ABC2::4321 223.15.1.3 37
  • Table-2:DNS46 corresponding to IPv4 and IPv6 . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address DNS Address mapping value 1 212.17.1.5 ---- B 4 2` 223.15.1.3. 1C::DACF Y 37
  • Table-3: Address mapping IPv4/IPv6 . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mapping value 1 195.18.231.17 ABC2::4321 1 2 210.154.76.91 ABC2::4321 2 3 223.15.1.3. ABC2::4321 37
  • Table-4: V4-V6 enabled Gateway. 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. IPv4 IPv6 P_IPv4 P_IPv6 TTL M_ value-1 M value- 2 223.15.1.3 1C::DACF IPv4-1 IPv6-1 60s G1 F1
  • Table-5: IPv4 mapped IPv6 Address. 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. Sl.No IPv4 Address IPv6 Address Address mapping value 1 195.18.231.17 ABC2::4321 1 2 210.154.76.91 ABC2::4321 2 3 223.15.1.3. ABC2::4321 37
  • 4/13/2011 Proposed Methodology. . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 The IPv6 to IPv4 header conversion. Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 BD-SIIT Protocol Translation . 1: Forward address mapping Flowchart . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Forward operation BD-SIIT with UDP . BD-SIIT Forward Flowchart . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • BD-SIIT Translation . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 IPv6->IPv4: Feedback operation(BD-SIIT with TCP) Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Drawbacks of BD-SIIT(Bi Directional Stateless IP/ICMP Translator ) .
    • SIIT does not translate
    • - Hop-by-hop options.
    • -Routing headers.
    • -Destination options.
    • -End-to-End AH header .
    • ESP encryption transport mode is supported.
    • In Some cases IPv4 and IPv6 Translation may result in IPv6 Fragmentation .
    Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • NAT-PT stands for Network Address Translation-Protocol Translation .
    • NAT refers to the Translation of IPv4 addresses IPv6 Addresses and vice versa .
    • PT Stands for Translation of IPv4 packet into a semantically equivalent IPv6 packet and vice versa .
    • NAT-PT allows the native IPv6 hosts and applications to communicate with native IPv4 hosts and applications and vice-versa .
    4/13/2011 NAT-PT Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • NAT-PT device reside at the Boundary between IPv6 and IPv4 Network .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • - It uses BD-SIIT for Protocol Translation .
    • State full Operation .
    • Once an association between addresses is established it is Kept for a given time.
    • Session traffic must traverse the same NAT-PT .
    • Address Translation is sometimes required at Application Level.
    • For application that transport addresses :DNS,FTP.
    • -Required DNS-ALG,FTP,……………-ALG .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Components of NAT-PT 4/13/2011 NAT-PT Engine . Header Translation Address Allocation Address Translation lookup Tables Routing Message Translation Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • NAT-PT Steps
    • Setting up and Configuring IPv4 and IPv6 Networks.
    • Setting up IPv4-only and IPv6-only DNS servers.
    • Setting up and configuring Border-Routers(NAT-PT Server) .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • NAT-PT Packet Flow . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Working Methodology of NAT-PT . Fig.3.Communication between IPv4/IPv6 and IPv6/IPv6. 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
    • Node IPv6-A is situated on the IPv6 network with an IPv6 address of FEDC:BA98::7654:3210 .
    • Node IPv6-A is situated on the IPv6 network with an IPv6 address of FEDC:BA98::7654:3211 .
    • Node IPv4-C is located on the IPv4 network with address of 132.146.243.30 .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 04/20/11 Types of NAT-PT .
    • Traditional NAT-PT : Communication initiated by IPv6 Host.
    • Basic NAT-PT.
    • NAPT-PT: Port Translation.
    • Bidirectional NAT-PT :allows IPv4 initiated communication .
    Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Limitations of NAT-PT . 1.NAT-PT is the lack of end-to-end security . 2.NAT-PT performs address translation , applications that carry the IP addresses in the higher layers will not work . 3.NAT-PT does not supports the communication between IPv4 networks and IPv6 networks with in a same network . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Comparison and Contrast between BD-SIIT and NAT-PT . 4/13/2011 BD-SIIT Network model . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Performance evaluation Metrics In this Paper we have calculated three performance evaluation metrics. 1.End to End delay 2.Throughput 3.Round trip time(RTT) N rec 1.Mean End to End delay= ∑ i=1 EEDi/Nrec where EEDi = Tdi- Tsi where EEDi is the end to end delay of ith packet. Tsi is the Source packet i created and Tdi is the Destination packet which is created at Destination. Nrec is the total number of packets received at Dest host and Mean EED is the mean value of each communication session 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • The mean throughput for a sequence of packets of specific size is calculated by using equations 1 and 2. MeanThr = Σ N j =1 Thrj /N -------------(1) where Thr=Packetsreceived(Pr)/Packets generated(Pg)*100%.--------------(2) Where Thrj is the value of the throughput when the packet j is received at intermediate device like DSTM gateway,BD-SIIT Gateway,v4/v6 Router and N is the number of received packets at intermediate device,Pr is the no of packets received at intermediate device and Pg is the number of packets created by source host . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 NS-2 Simulation parameters . Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore. Simulation Parameters Value 1.Buffer Size 500 Packets 2. Propogation Delay 10ms 3.payload size 200 Bytes 4.Very traffic Load 6~240 Nodes. 5.Queue Management Scheme Drop tail.
  • RESULTS 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Summary
    • The transition to IPv6 is possible today .
    • BD-SIIT enables stateless,applicationtransparent translation between IPv4/IPv6 .
    • NAT-P T enables stateful,application transparent translation between IPv4/IPv6 .
    • Demand IPv6 support for all new network hardware and software .
    • .
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • Continued…….
    • NAT-PT replaces NAT .
    • NAT-PT share most of the benefits/Constraints of NAT .
    • Easy IPv6 / IPv4 co-existence mechanism .
    • Enable applications to cross the protocol barrier.
    • BD-SIIT is better than NAT-PT.
    4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Questions? “ The difference between theory and practice is even larger in practice than in theory [...]” Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • References [ 1].S.Deering and R. Hinden “Internet Protocol Version 6(IPv6) Specification”, RFC 2460,December 1998 . [2].S.Tanenbaum,“Computer Networks”,Third Edition, Prentice Hall Inc.,1996, pp. 686,413- 436,437-449 . [3].Behrouz A.Forouzan,Third Edition,“TCP/IP Protocol Suite” . [4].Kurose.J. & Ross.K.(2005) Computer Networking:A top-down approach featuring the Internet.3 rd ed,(Addison Wesley). [5].Gilligan.&Nodmar.E.(1996)Transition Mechanisms for IPv6 Hosts and Routers.RFC 1933,APRIL 1996 . [6].E.Nordmark,”Stateless IP/ICMP Translator (SIIT)”.RFC 2765,Feb2000 . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • [7].C.Huitema ,R.Austein,S.Satapati,R.Van der Pol,“Evaluation of IPv6 transition mechanisms for unmanaged networks “,RFC 3904,September 2004 . [8].Okazaki,A Desai,“NAT-PT Security Considerations”(June2003),at http://www.ietf.org/internetdrafts/draft-okazaki-v6ops-natpt- Security-00.txt . [ 9].Carpenter, B. and K.Moore,"Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds",RFC 3056,February 2001 . [10].Thomson,S. and T.Narten,"IPv6 Stateless Address Auto configuration",RFC 2462,December 1998 . [11].J.Bound .Assignment of IPv4 Global Addresses to IPv6 Hosts(AIIH) . [12].An overview of the introduction of IPv6 in the Internet”, W.Biemolt et al .Trabajo en curso . [13].RFC 2765.”Stateless IP/ICMP Translation algorithm(SIIT) “,E.Nordmark.Febrero 2000 . [ 14].RFC2766.“Network Address Translation–Protocol Translation(NAT-PT)”,Tsirtsis,P.Srisuresh,February 2000 . 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Thank you for listening
      • Presented by Hanumanthappa.J.
      • BE.,M.Tech.,(Ph.D).,
      • [email_address]
    Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.
  • 4/13/2011 Emerging Trends in Information Technology and Management,Valachil,Mangalore.