The Barriadas of Lima, Peru: Slums of Hope or Despair? Problem or Solution? Professor Bill Chambers Pro Vice-Chancellor  E...
Lecture Structure <ul><li>Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Housing in Lima </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of L...
Source:  www.politicalresources.net
Peru Three Zones Costa Atacama Desert (driest in the world) Sierra Andes (2 nd  highest mountains in world) Selva Amazon (...
Costa: The Atacama Desert
Sierra: The Andes
Selva: The Amazon Basin
<ul><li>2. Migration </li></ul>
 
Peru: Population by Region
Primacy of Lima: ‘the head of a giant on the body of a  dwarf’ 29
Reasons for Primacy <ul><li>capital city (work, culture, civilisation) </li></ul><ul><li>largest port (Callao) </li></ul><...
Growth of Lima <ul><li>>50% migration </li></ul><ul><li>50% Andes </li></ul><ul><li>central-southern Andes </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>3. Housing in Lima </li></ul>
Callejon
 
Barriadas <ul><li>A residential community  </li></ul><ul><li>formed by low income families in which the  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>4. Growth of Lima </li></ul>
Source: J. Matos Mar   1977 Las Barriadas  de Lima 1957
Source: J. Matos Mar   1977 Las Barriadas  de Lima 1967
Source: J. Matos Mar   1977 Las Barriadas  de Lima 1977
San Cristobal Centro cerro
Rio Rimac floodplain : Carmen de la Legua and San Martin de Porres 1965
Comas 16-3-1945 Andes foothills
Comas 1965
Southern Atacama desert: Tupac Amaru
6. The Invasion <ul><li>After several years residence </li></ul><ul><li>Pay to join invasion committee </li></ul><ul><li>P...
<ul><li>7. Progressive Development </li></ul>
Progressive Development  <ul><li>The gradual development over time of housing, community, utilities and employment. </li><...
Progressive Development of Homes <ul><li>chosa (matting hut) </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral wall  </li></ul><ul><li>internal...
chosas
Chosa, peripheral wall from casa noble
Wood Water cylinder cement bag
Roofing: tiles, iron,  electricity tubes
Roofing concreting
Finished  casa noble : windows, doors, concrete roof
Casa noble  Carmen de la Legua 1965
Carmen de la Legua 1965
Carmen de la Legua 1982
Carmen de la Legua 2003 By 1974 its transformation into an urban barrio was almost complete – paved roads, uniform lotes, ...
Moving from Carmen de la Legua to Comas Carmen de la Legua 1965 view of my house
Carmen de la Legua 1982 view of my house
Carmen de la Legua 2003 view of home
Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1965
Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1982
Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 2003
Maria: Restaurante El Once 1965 and Salon de Belleza 1983 Comas
 
<ul><li>6. Employment </li></ul>
Ambulante  selling tobacco, chewing gum, sweets
Open air office
domestica
Mobile furniture store
 
 
 
<ul><li>7. Government Policies </li></ul>
Government Policies <ul><li>Do nothing  </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicate  </li></ul><ul><li>Contain </li></ul><ul><li>Site and ...
<ul><li>Barriadas </li></ul><ul><li>Hope or Despair? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or Solution? </li></ul>
References <ul><li>http://www.comasweb.com </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers, B. 2005 The barriadas of Lima: Slums of Hope or Des...
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Lima's Barriadas - Slums of Hope or Despair?

  1. 1. The Barriadas of Lima, Peru: Slums of Hope or Despair? Problem or Solution? Professor Bill Chambers Pro Vice-Chancellor External Relations & Widening Participation Hampshire GA March 2009
  2. 2. Lecture Structure <ul><li>Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Housing in Lima </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of Lima </li></ul><ul><li>Progressive Development </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Hope or Despair? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Source: www.politicalresources.net
  4. 4. Peru Three Zones Costa Atacama Desert (driest in the world) Sierra Andes (2 nd highest mountains in world) Selva Amazon (largest tropical rainforest in world)
  5. 5. Costa: The Atacama Desert
  6. 6. Sierra: The Andes
  7. 7. Selva: The Amazon Basin
  8. 8. <ul><li>2. Migration </li></ul>
  9. 10. Peru: Population by Region
  10. 11. Primacy of Lima: ‘the head of a giant on the body of a dwarf’ 29
  11. 12. Reasons for Primacy <ul><li>capital city (work, culture, civilisation) </li></ul><ul><li>largest port (Callao) </li></ul><ul><li>traditional home of Vice-Roy in Colonial </li></ul>
  12. 13. Growth of Lima <ul><li>>50% migration </li></ul><ul><li>50% Andes </li></ul><ul><li>central-southern Andes </li></ul><ul><li>mainly young </li></ul><ul><li>rural poverty </li></ul><ul><li>land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>infant mortality </li></ul><ul><li>guerrillas </li></ul><ul><li>cocaine </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>3. Housing in Lima </li></ul>
  14. 15. Callejon
  15. 17. Barriadas <ul><li>A residential community </li></ul><ul><li>formed by low income families in which the </li></ul><ul><li>houses are constructed in large measure by the residents themselves and </li></ul><ul><li>which are generally but not exclusively formed illegally. </li></ul><ul><li>(Collins 1975) </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>4. Growth of Lima </li></ul>
  17. 19. Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1957
  18. 20. Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1967
  19. 21. Source: J. Matos Mar 1977 Las Barriadas de Lima 1977
  20. 22. San Cristobal Centro cerro
  21. 23. Rio Rimac floodplain : Carmen de la Legua and San Martin de Porres 1965
  22. 24. Comas 16-3-1945 Andes foothills
  23. 25. Comas 1965
  24. 26. Southern Atacama desert: Tupac Amaru
  25. 27. 6. The Invasion <ul><li>After several years residence </li></ul><ul><li>Pay to join invasion committee </li></ul><ul><li>Planned by architects </li></ul><ul><li>On Holy Days, National Holidays, Public Holidays, weekends, government crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to patriotism or religiosity of nation or landlords </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>7. Progressive Development </li></ul>
  27. 29. Progressive Development <ul><li>The gradual development over time of housing, community, utilities and employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on finance, health, motivation, priorities and government policy </li></ul>
  28. 30. Progressive Development of Homes <ul><li>chosa (matting hut) </li></ul><ul><li>peripheral wall </li></ul><ul><li>internal walls </li></ul><ul><li>concrete roof </li></ul><ul><li>second floor </li></ul><ul><li>more </li></ul>
  29. 31. chosas
  30. 32. Chosa, peripheral wall from casa noble
  31. 33. Wood Water cylinder cement bag
  32. 34. Roofing: tiles, iron, electricity tubes
  33. 35. Roofing concreting
  34. 36. Finished casa noble : windows, doors, concrete roof
  35. 37. Casa noble Carmen de la Legua 1965
  36. 38. Carmen de la Legua 1965
  37. 39. Carmen de la Legua 1982
  38. 40. Carmen de la Legua 2003 By 1974 its transformation into an urban barrio was almost complete – paved roads, uniform lotes, water and electrical services, urban style houses constructed with permanent materials, and a central plaza around which stood municipal buildings, a movie theatre, and a church all were established.’ (Lobo 1982 p 42)
  39. 41. Moving from Carmen de la Legua to Comas Carmen de la Legua 1965 view of my house
  40. 42. Carmen de la Legua 1982 view of my house
  41. 43. Carmen de la Legua 2003 view of home
  42. 44. Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1965
  43. 45. Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 1982
  44. 46. Comas Avenida Tupac Amaru 2003
  45. 47. Maria: Restaurante El Once 1965 and Salon de Belleza 1983 Comas
  46. 49. <ul><li>6. Employment </li></ul>
  47. 50. Ambulante selling tobacco, chewing gum, sweets
  48. 51. Open air office
  49. 52. domestica
  50. 53. Mobile furniture store
  51. 57. <ul><li>7. Government Policies </li></ul>
  52. 58. Government Policies <ul><li>Do nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Eradicate </li></ul><ul><li>Contain </li></ul><ul><li>Site and Service, Improve & Incorporate </li></ul><ul><li>Unease </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum modern standard </li></ul><ul><li>Too little, too expensive, too late </li></ul>
  53. 59. <ul><li>Barriadas </li></ul><ul><li>Hope or Despair? </li></ul><ul><li>Problem or Solution? </li></ul>
  54. 60. References <ul><li>http://www.comasweb.com </li></ul><ul><li>Chambers, B. 2005 The barriadas of Lima: Slums of Hope or Despair? Problems or Solutions? Geography 90, 2002-224 </li></ul><ul><li>Dietz, H. 1998 Urban Poverty, Political Participation and the State: Lima 1970-1990. University of Pittsburgh Press </li></ul><ul><li>Gilbert, A. 1994 The Latin American City . Latin America Bureau. </li></ul><ul><li>Lloyd, P. 1980 The ‘Young Towns’ of Lima. Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Lobo, S. 1982 A House of My Own. University of Arizona Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Morrish, M. 1984 Squatter Settlement in the Third World. Geography 16-19. Longman. </li></ul>
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